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The history of Dodge County is one which contains many features identical with the 
history of Wisconsin, the preservation of which is essential to the truthful record of the State's 
life. The publishers of this volume have fully appreciated that fact and have so arranged the 
order of compilation as to give each prominent characteristic due place. 

There is no eifort herein to reach literary excellence, but rather a decided attempt to capt- 
ure vagrant items of interest, and weave them together upon the thread of system. Many 
men will say that their own acts are not sufficiently expatiated upon, or commensurate credit 
given certain friends of theirs ; but the publishers have not aimed merely to please individuals. 
The work engaged in by them was of a higher nature. They have concentrated records for 
benefit of posterity, rather than for the selfish gratification of the vanity of certain pai'ties. 

In this volume, we believe we have given the present generation an invaluable reflex of the 
times and deeds of pioneer days, and to those pioneer men and women a monument far moi'e 
lasting than cold marble. In order to be accurate, we have sent proofs of every page herein 
published to competent citizens of Dodge County, which they have corrected and approved. 

The compilers desire to express their sense of obligation to the Press, the Pulpit and the 
Pioneers, for the cordial co-operation, and also to venture the hope that the product of their 
labors may not prove unacceptable. 

It would be impossible to name all the individuals who have aided us in the preparation of 
this work, but it would be an injustice to not particularly thank Hiram Barber, Esq., of Hor- 
icon; Ldther A. Cole, Esq., of Watertown; Hon. E. C. Lewis and Richard Mertz, Esq., 
of Juneau; Hon. H. W. Lander, Hon. D. C. Gowdey, Hon. B. F. Sherman, Thomas 
Hughes, Esq., S. P. K. Lewis, Esq., and J. E. Hosmer, Esq., of Beaver Dam ; Hon. Ben- 
JAMtiN I<!eeguson,'!Ct;,W.'.Brower, Esq., and J. L. Brower, Esq., of Fox Lake; Hon. W. C. 
Whitford, State ' Superintendent of Public Instruction, and particularly to the officers of the 
'!-'".• 'StIsilieHfetoridal' Society;; bf Madison, for access to and copies of their valuable collection of 
'h'istbi-ical books, newspaper clippings, correspondence, manuscripts, etc., etc. 



Cflver, Page, Hotne & Co., PbinterSj Chicago. 



Antiquities 19 

Indiiui Tribes 21 

Pre -Terri tori ill Annals 29 

Wiscouj^in Territory 41 

Wisconsin :isaState 52 

First Aiiniiniatratinn 62 

SeconJ Administration 57 

Third Adininistnition 59 

Fourth Adniinistiution 62 

Fifth Admiiiistrrttion 64 

Sixth Administnitiun GO 

Seventh Administration 67 

War of Secession Cttmmenced 69 

Eighth Administration 7G 

Ninth Administration 85 

Statistics of Volunteers 90 

Tenth Administration 92 

Eleventh Administration 93 

Twelfth Administration 94 

Thirtei.-nthA-lminiritration 97 

Fourtei-nth Administration 99 

Fifteenth Administration 104 

Sixteenth Administration 109 

Topograjthy and Geology 110 

The Archa;an Age 112 

Paleozoic 'lime — Silurian Age 115 

Devonian Afic 119 

Glacial Period 120 

Climiitology 121 

Trees, Shrubs and Vines 128 

Fauna 134 

Fish and Fish Culture 134 

Large Animals — Time of their Disap- 
pearance 138 

Peculiarities of the Bird Fauna 139 

Educational 140 

Original School Code 140 

Apitation for Free Schools 141 

School System under Slate Govern- 
ment 141 

School Fund Income 142 

State University 143 

Agricultural College 144 

Normal Schools 144 

Teachers' Institutes 146 

Graded Schools 146 


Educational : 

Township Svstem 146 

Free Ilijih Schools 147 

School unices 147 

State Teachers* Certificates 147 

Teachers' Associations 148 

Libraries 148 

State Supt^rintendents 148 

College Sketches 149 

Female Colleges I"i0 

Academies and Seminaries 151 

Commercial Schools 151 

Agriculture 151 

Mineral Resources 162 

Ijead and Zinc 162 

Iron 165 

Copper 168 

G'dd and Silver 168 

Brick Clays 168 

Cement Itock 170 

Limestone— Class Sand 171 

Peat — Building Stones 172 

Railroads 173 

Olficngo, Milwaidcee & St. Paul 173 

ChicugoA Northwestern 176 

Wisconsin Central 178 

Western Union 1"9 

West Wisconsin 180 

Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western 180 

Green Bay & Minnesota 181 

Wisconsin Valley 181 

Sheboygan & Fond du Lac 181 

Mineral Point 182 

Madison & Portage 182 

North Wisconsin 183 

Prairie du Chien A SIcGregor 18:J 

Chippewa FjiIIs & Western 183 

Narrow Gauge 183 

Conclusion 184 

Lumber i 185 

Banking 191 

Comme-rce and Jlanufactures 198 

Furs 190 

Lead and Ziuc — Iron 200 

Lumber 201 

Grain 202 


Commerce and Manufactures : 

Diiiry Products 2a3 

P.irkand Beef. 2n3 

Hops 204 

Tobacco — Cranberries 205 

Liquors 205 

Miscellaneous 206 

Water Powers .....206 

Manufactures 208 

Conclusion 208 

The PublicDomain 'JlO 

Health 230 

Geographical Position 2'iO 

Physical Features 230 

Geology 231 

Drainage 232 

Climatology 232 

RaiTi Character 233 

Isotherms 234 

Barometrical 234 

Winds 235 

Climatological Changes from Settling 

in the State 235 

Influence of Nationalities 217 

Occupations— Food — Education, etc 238 

History of Disease 238 

Ratio of Sickness, Ft. Howard and Win- 
nebago 239 

Education of the Blind 241 

Institute of Deaf and Dumb 241 

Industrial School for Boys 242 

State Prison 242 

State Hospital for the Insane 242 

Northern Hospital for the lusane 243 

City of Milwaukee 243 

Health Resorts 244 

Change of Diseases 246 

Pulmonary Diseases 248 

Statistics 249 

Population, 1875, of Townships, Alplia- 

betically Arranged by Counties 219 

Population by Counties 258 

Nativity by Counties 259 

Valuation of Property 260 

Acreage of Principal Crops 261, 262 



Actions 283 

Arrest 2S:j 

Attachment 284 

Adoption of Children 276 

Assignment of Mortgage 274 

Assessment and C-ollectiua of Taxes 267 

Assessment of Taxes 26S 

Bills of Exchange or Promissory Notes 272 

Borrowed Money 267 

Capital Punishment 278 

Collection of Taxes 270 

Commercial Terms 285 

Common Schools 266 

Damages for Trespass 279 


Elections and General Elections 2G^{ 

Estrays 279 

Exemptions 284 

Feucea 280 

Forms of Conveyances 273 


Landlord and Tenant 281 

Limitation of Actions 285 

Marks and Brands 281 

Married Women 283 

Stay Law 284 

Forms of Mortgages 274 Surveyors and Surveys 282 

Garnishment 284 Support of Poor 282 

Highways and Bridges 270 Suggestions to Pfrsons Purcliasing Books 

Hours of Labor 273 by Subscription 285 

Interest 277 Title of Real Property by Descent 275 

Intoxicating Liquors 271 Weights and Bleasares 278 

Judgments 284 , Wills 276 

Jurisdiction of Courts 277 Wolf Scalps 278 

Jurors 278 I 


Wlscouflin Sta'e Constitution 287 

U. S. Constitution 297 


Vote of Wisconsin for Governor and Presi- 
dent 306-307 

Population of the Slate.. 






CHAPTER I.— Introductory, Topography, 
Geological Formations, Glacial, SpringB 
and W(?Hs, Water Power, Iron l)epo3- 
it8,PbysicalGeogrftphy,Earth Slounds, 
Indian Occupancy, The Black Hawk 
War, United States Surveys and Land 
Sales 309 

CHAPTKR H.— Early Settlement, Organi- 
zation, Names of County Officiah, An 
Interesting Letter from James A. 
Warren, Territorial Government, Con- 
Btitutional Conventions, State Govern- 
ment. Congressional 321 

CHAPTER III.— Political Geography, 
Horicon Dam Controversy, County 
Poor Farm, Honorable Mention, Illus- 
trious Dead, Relics of the Eighteenth 
Century, First Land Entry, Etc., A 
Fourtii of July Celebration, Some Sta- 
tistics, The Great Indian Scare 341 

CHAPTER IV.— The County-Seat Contro- 
versy, Burning of tbe Records, The 
New Court House, The Abstract Office, 
A Case of EmbezzlementjDodge County 
Agricultural Soci*^ty, Health of the 
County, Ancient Relics, Dodge in the 
War 359 

CHAPTER V. —Journalism in Dodge 
County; Railroads, The Fond du Lac, 
Amboy 4 Peoria ; Dodge County Bible 
Society, The Schools; Towns, Portland, 
Elba, Calamus, Westford, Fox Lake, 
Shields, Lowell, Beaver Dam, Trenton, 
Emmet, Clyman, Oak Grove, Burnett, 
Cbesler, Lebanon, Hustisford, Hub- 
bard, WilIiani8town,Le Roy, Ashippun, 
Bubicou, Herman, Theresa, Lomira... 384 


CHAPTER VI.— Beaver Dam— The Gar- 
den City, Its History from the Pens and 
Tongues of Early Settlers, Growth, 
Manufactures, The Aborigines, Burst- 
ing of the Dam, Conflagrations, The 
Post Office, Hotels, Steamboats, Govern- 
ment, Schools, Churches, The Vita 
Spring, Banks, Perry's Car Coupler, 
Public Halls, The Race Course. The 
Fire Department, Societies, Tbe New- 
City Hall, Cemeteries 414 

CHAPTER VII.— Fox LARE—The Parent 
Settlement, Permanent Improvement, 
Organization and Village Roster. Early 
Settlers, Tbe Post Office, Hotels, The 
Railroad, Banks, Schoola, Churches, 
Societies, the Old Settlers' Club, Tbe 
Lake, Growth 465 

CHAPTER VIII.— HoRi'ON— An Ancient 
Indinn Village, First Settlemeotby the 
Whites, Graphic Pen Pictures by a Lady 
Resident, Permanent Growth. Manu- 
factories, the Railroads, The Churches, 
Secret and Other Societies, The Post 
Office, Hotels, Conflagrations, Disaaters 
on Horicon Lake, Government 477 

CHAPTER IX.— Waupun— First Settle- 
ment, Meaning of the word Waupun, 
First Events, Growth of Waupun, Vil- 
lage and City Officers, 18.57-1879, A 
Reminiscence, Churches, Waupun a 
Quarter of a Century Ago, Secret So- 
cieties, Wanpun Pioneers, Blanufac- 
tories. Banks, Old Settlers' Club, Wau- 
pun Library Association, Wisconsin 
State Prison, Waupun a Dozen Years 
Ago, Waupun Fire Company No. 1, 


Dodge County Mutual Ineurance Com- 
pany, A Contrast, Waupun Schools, 
The Post Office, Waupun Agricultural 
and Mechanical Association, Ceme- 
teries, Public Halls, Hotels, Fun in the 
Olden Time 492 

tlement, Timothy Johnson's Narrative, 
The First Location in Dodge County, 
Luther A. Cole's Reminiscence, Growth 
of Watertown, Pioneers, Schools, Re- 
ligions, Manufactories, Hotels, Banks, 
Fire Department, Post Office, Societies, 
Government, Newspapers 530 

CHAPTER XL — Villages — Juneau, the 
County Seat; Town and Village Gov- 
ernment, The Post Office, the Public 
Schoola, The Churches, Societies, 
Hotels, Manufactories; Hustisford, 
Early Settlement, Schools, Churches, 
Manufactories, Professional Men, 
Hotels, Merchants, Miscellaneous; 
Oak Grove. Giving it a Name, Post 
Office, Growth, Schools, Religions, 
Temperance 538 

CHAPTER XII.— Villages — Randolph, 
The First Deed, Government, First 
Things, Post Office, Manul'actorios, 
Hotels, Newspapers, Schools, Exports, 
Churches, Societies ; Mayville, In- 
ducements to Settlers, Post Office, 
Schools, Churches, Hotels, Societies, 
Mercantile, Village Government ; 
Woodland, Reeseville, Iron Ridge, 
Burnett Junction, Rubicon, Portland, 
Neosho, Lowell, Danville, Minnesota 
Junction 554 


Page. | Page. 

AUard, G. G T. 667 Eastman, Samuel 469 

Barber, Hiram 307 I Ferguson, Benjamin 487 

Billiughurbt, Charles , 325 l Hawks, Eli 5i;3 

Beers, George H .\ 361 Judd, Stoddard 343 

Burtch, A 451 Lewis, E. C 379 

Chandler, G. W 595 Lanier, U. W 541 

Davis, John W 433 | McFetridge, E.C 577 


Perry, J. W 631 

Rose, 8. L 414 

Rowell, J. S 613 

Sloan, A. Scott 397 

Swan,G.E 649 

Van Brunt, D. C 505 

WiUiams, J. J 559 



Ashippun 760 

Beaver Dam 673 

Burnett 748 

Chester 638 

Calamus 6J'3 

Clyman 719 

Elba 745 

Emmet, including Watertown 665 

Fox Lake 698 


Hubbard 655 

Herman 676 

Hustisford 723 

Le Roy.: 677 

Lomira 672 

Lebanon 764 

Lowell 733 

Oak Grove 602 


Portland 743 

Rubicon 766 

Shields 729 

Trenton ...^ 710 

Theresa 681 

Waupun City 618 

Westford 687 

Williamstown 643 



•,«EE]>r LAKE CO 


^%'AlrKESUA CO. 




The first explorers of the valleys of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi and its tributaries, 
seem not to have noticed, to any considerable extent, the existence within these vast areas of 
monuments of an extinct race. Gradually, however, as the tide of emigration broke through the 
barriers of the AUeghanies and spread in a widely extended flow over what are now the States of 
the Northwest, these prehistoric vestiges attracted more and more the attention of the curious 
and the learned, until, at the present time, almost every person is presumed to have some general 
knowledge, not only of their existence, but of some of their striking peculiarities. Unfortunately, 
these signs of a long since departed people are fast disappearing by the never ceasing operations 
of the elements, and the constant encroachments of civilization. The earliest notices of the 
animal and vegetable kingdom of this region are to be found in its rocks ; but Wisconsin's earli- 
est records of men can only be traced in here and there a crumbling earth-work, in the fragment 
of a skeleton, or in a few stone and copper implements — dim and shadowy relics of their 

The ancient dwellers in these valleys, whose history is lost in the lapse of ages, are desig- 
nated, usually, as the Mound-Builders ; not that building mounds was probably their distinctive 
employment, but that such artificial elevations of the earth are, to a great extent, the only evi- 
dences remaining of their actual occupation of the country. As to the origin of these people, 
all knowledge must, possibly, continue to rest upon conjecture alone. Nor were the habitations 
of this race confined to the territory of which Wisconsin now forms a part. At one time, they 
must have been located in many ulterior regions. The earth-works, tumuli, or "mounds," as they 
are generally designated, are usually symmetrically raised and often inclosed in mathematical 
figures, such as the square, the octagon, and the circle, with long lines of circumvallation. 
Besides these earth-works, there are pits dug in the solid rock ; rubbish heaps formed in the 
prosecution of mining operations; and a variety of implements and utensils, wrought in copper 
or stone, or moulded in clay. Whence came the inhabitants who left these evidences to succeed- 
ing generations .' In other words, who were the Mound-Builders .' Did they migrate from the 
Old World, or is their origin to be sought for elsewhere.' And as to their manners and customs 
and civilization — what of these things.? Was the race finally swept from the New World to give 
place to Red men, or was it the one from which the latter descended .' These momentous ques- 
tions are left for the ethnologist, the archaeologist, and the antiquarian of the future to answer — 
if'they can. 


Inclosures and mounds of the prehistoric people, it is generally believed, constituted but 
parts of one system; the former being, in the main, intended for purposes of defense or religion; 
the latter, for sacrifice, for temple sites, for burial places, or for observatories. In selecting sites 
for many of these earth-works, the Mound-Builders appear to have been influenced by motives 
which prompt civilized men to choose localities for their great marts; hence, Cincinnati, St. 
Louis, Chicago, Milwaukee and other cities of the West are founded on ruins of pre-existing 
structures. River terraces and river bottoms seem to have been the favorite places for these 
earth-works. In such localities, the natural advantages of the country could be made available 
with much less trouble than in portions of the country lying at a distance from water-courses. 
In Wisconsin, therefore, as in other parts, the same general idea of selecting points contiguous 
to the principal natural thoroughfares is found to have prevailed with the Mound-Builders ; for 
their works are seen in the basin of the Fox river of the Illinois, in that of Rock river and its 
branches, in the valley of Fox river of Green bay, in that of the Wisconsin, as well as near 
the waters of the Mississippi. 

While a few circumvallations and immense mounds, such as are common to certain other 
portions of the United States, are discoverable in Wisconsin, yet by far the largest number of 
earthworks have one peculiarity not observable, except in a few instances, outside the State. 
This characteristic is a very striking one The fact is revealed that they are imitative in form — 
resembling beasts, reptiles, birds, fish, man. All these, for convenience, are usually classed 
under the general name of "animal mounds," although some are in the similitude of trees, some 
of war clubs, others of tobacco pipes. Generally, these figures are in groups, though sometimes 
they are seen alone. For what purpose these earth-works were heaped up — they rise above the 
surface two, four, and sometimes six feet — or what particular uses they were intended to subserve, 
is unknown. It is, however, safe to affirm that they had some significance. A number resemble 
the bear; a few, the buffalo; others, the raccoon. Lizards, turtles, and even tadpoles, are out- 
lined in the forms of some. The war eagle, and the war club has each its representative. All 
this, of course, could not have been a mere happening — the work of chance. The sizes of these 
mounds are as various as their forms. One near Cassville, in Grant county, very complete in 
its representation of an animal, supposed to be of the elephant species, was found, upon measure- 
ment, to have a total length of one hundred and thirty-five feet. Another in Sauk county, quite 
perfect in its resemblance to the form of a man, was of equal length — a veritable colossus ; 
prone, it is true, and soon to disappear, if it has not already been destroyed, by ravages of a 
superior civilization. 

In portions of Wisconsin, as well as in a few places outside the State, are found earth-works 
of another kind, but quite as remarkable as the "animal mounds," which, from their supposed 
use, have been styled "garden beds." They are ridges, or beds, about six inches in height and 
four feet in width, ranged, with much apparent method, in parallel rows, sometimes rectangular 
in shape, sometimes of various but regular and symmetrical curves, and occupying fields of from 
ten to a hundred acres. 

The Mound-Builders have left many relics, besides their earthworks, to attest their presence 
in Wisconsin in ages past. Scattered widely are found stone and copper axes, spear-heads, and 
arrow-heads, also various other implements — evidently their handiwork. As these articles are 
frequently discovered many feet beneath the surface, it argues a high antiquity for the artificers. 
Whether they had the skill to mould their copper implements is doubtful. Such as plainly show 
the work of hammering, indicate an art beyond that possessed by the Red men who peopled 
America upon its first discovery by Europeans. In a few instances, fragments of human skulls 
have been found so well preserved as to enable a comparison to be drawn between the crania of 


this ancient race and those of modern ones ; the results, however, of these comparisons throw 
iittle, if any, light upon "the dark backward and abysm" of mound-building times. 

The evidences of an extinct people of superior intelligence is very strikingly exhibited in 
the ancient copper mines of the Lake Superior region. Here are to be found excavations in the 
solid rock; heaps of rubble and dirt ; copper utensils fashioned into knives, chisels, and spear 
and arrow-heads; stone hammers; wooden bowls and shovels; props and levers for raising and 
supporting the mass copper; and ladders for ascending and descending the pits. These mines 
were probably worked by people not only inhabiting what is now the State of Wisconsin, but 
territory farther to the southward. The copper was here obtained, it is believed, which has been 
found in many places, even as far away as the northern shore cf the Gulf of Mexico, wrought 
into various implements and utensils. But there are no traces in Wisconsin of a " copper age " 
succeeding a " stone age," discernadle in any prehistoric relics. They all refer alike to one 
age — the indefinite past ; to one people — the Mound-Builders. 


When, as early, it is believed, as 1634, civilized man first set foot upon the territory now 
included within the boundaries of Wisconsin, he discovered, to his surprise, that upon this wide 
area met and mingled clans of two distinct and wide-spread families — the Algonquins and 
Sioux. The tribes of the former, moving westward, checked the advance of the latter in tlieir 
excursions eastward. As yet there had been no representatives of the Huron-Iroquois seen west 
of Lake Michigan — the members of this great family, at that date dwelling in safety in the 
extensive regions northward and southward of the Erie and Ontario lakes. Already had the 
French secured a foot-hold in the extensive valley of the St. Lawrence ; and, naturally enough, 
the chain of the Great Lakes led their explorers to the mouth of Green bay, and up that water- 
course and its principal tributary. Fox river, to the Wisconsin, an affluent of the Mississippi 
On the right, in ascending this bay, was seen, for the first time, a nation of Indians, lighter in 
complexion than neighboring tribes, and remarkably well formed, now well known as the 

This nation is of Algonquin stock, but their dialect differed so much from the surrounding 
tribes of the same family, it having strange guttural sounds and accents, as well as peculiar inflec- 
tions of verbs and other parts of speech, that, for a long time, they were supposed to have a 
distinct language. Their traditions point to an emigration from the East at some remote 
period. When first visited by the French missionaries, these Indians subsisted largely upon wild 
rice, from which they took their name. The harvest time of this grain was in the month of 
September. It grew spontaneously in little streams with slimy bottoms, and in marshy places. 
The harvesters went in their canoes across these watery fields, shaking the ears right and left as 
they advanced, the grain falling easily, if ripe, into the bark receptacle beneath. To clear it 
from chaff and strip it of a pellicle inclosing it, they put it to dry on a wooden lattice above a 
small fire, which was kept up for several days. When the rice was well dried, it was placed 
in a skin of the form of a bag, which was then forced into a hole, made on purpose, in the 
ground. They then tread it out so long and so well, that the grain being freed from the chaff, 
was easily winnowed. After this, it was pounded to meal, or left unpounded, and boiled in 
water seasoned with grease. It thus became a very palatable diet. It must not be inferred that 
this was the only food of the Menomonees; they were adepts in fishing, and hunted with skill 
the game which abounded in the forests. 

For many years after their discovery, the Menomonees had their homes and hunting 


grounds upon, or adjacent to, the Menomonee river. Finally, after the lapse of a century and a 
quarter, down to 1760, when the French yielded to the English all claims to the country, the 
territory of the Menomonees had shifted somewhat to the westward and southward, and their 
principal village was found at the head of Green bay, while a smaller one was still in existence 
at the mouth of their favorite stream. So slight, however, had been this change, that the country 
of no other of the surrounding tribes had been encroached upon by the movement. 

In 1634, the Menomonees probably took part in a treaty with a representative of the French, 
who had thus early ventured so far into the wilds of the lake regions. More than a score of 
years elapsed before the tribe was again visited by white men, — that is to say, there are no 
authentic accounts of earlier visitations. In 1660, Father Rene Menard had penetrated the Lake 
Superior country as far, at least, as Kewenaw, in what is now the northern part of Michigan, 
whence some of his French companions probably passed down the Menomonee river to the 
waters of Green bay the following year ; but no record of the Indians, through whose territory 
they passed, was made by these voyagers. Ten years more — 1670 — brought to the Menomonees 
(who doubtless had already been visited by French fur-traders) Father Claudius Allouez, to win 
them to Christianity. He had previously founded a mission upon the bay of Chegoimegon, now 
Chaquamegon, or Ashland bay, an arm of Lake Superior, within the present State of Wisconsin, 
in charge of which, at that date, was Father James Marquette. Proceeding from the " Sault" on 
the third of November, Allouez, early in December, 1669, reached the mouth of Green bay, where, 
on the third, in an Indian village of Sacs, Pottawattamies, Foxes and Winnebagoes, containing about 
six hundred souls, he celebrated the holy mass for the first time upon this new field of his labors, 
— eight Frenchmen, traders with the Indians, whom the missionary found there upon his arrival, 
taking part in the devotions. His first Christian work with the Menomonees was performed in 
May of the next year. Allouez found this tribe a feeble one, almost exterminated by war. He 
spent but little time with them, embarking, on the twentieth of that month, after a visit to some 
Pottawattamies and Winnebagoes, " with a Frenchman and a savage to go to Sainte Mary of the 
Sault." His place was filled by Father Louis Andre, who, not long after, erected a cabin upon 
the Menomonee river, which, with one at a village where his predecessor had already raised the 
standard of the cross, was soon burned by the savages; but the missionary, living almost con- 
stantly in his canoe, continued for some time to labor with the Menomonees and surrounding 
tribes The efforts of Andre were rewarded with some conversions among the former ; for Mar- 
quette, who visited them in 1673, found many good Christians among them. 

The record of ninety years of French domination in Wisconsin — beginning in June, 1671, 
and ending in October, 1761 — brings to light but little of interest so far as the Menomonees are 
concerned. Gradually they extended their intercourse with the white fur traders. Gradually 
and with few interruptions (one in 1728, and one in 1747 of a serious character) they were 
drawn under the banner of France, joining with that government in its wars with the Iroquois; 
in its contests, in 1712, 1729, 1730, and 1751, with the Foxes; and. subsequently, in its conflicts 
with the English. 

The French post, at what is now Green Bay, Brown county, Wisconsin, was, along with the 
residue of the western forts, surrendered to the British in 1760, although actual possession of the 
former was not taken until the Fall of the next year. The land on which the fort stood was 
claimed by the Menomonees. Here, at that date, was their upper and principal village, the 
tower one being at the mouth of the Menomonee river. These Indians soon became reconciled 
to the English occupation of their territory, notwithstanding the machinations of French traders 
who endeavored to prejudice them against the new comers. The Menomonees, at this time, 
were very much reduced, having, but a short time previous, lost three hundred of their warriors 


by the small pox, and most of their chiefs in the late war in which they had been engaged by the 
then French commander there, against the English. They were glad to substitute English for 
French traders ; as they could purchase supplies of them at one half the price they had previously 
paid. It was not long before the sincerity of the Menomonees was put to the test. Pontiac's 
War of 1763 broke out, and the post of Mackinaw was captured. The garrison, however, at Green 
bay was not only not attacked by the savages, but, escorted by the Menomonees and other tribes, 
crossed Lake Michigan in safety to the village of L'Arbre Croche ; thence making their way to 
Montreal. The Menomonees continued tlieir friendship to the English, joining with them 
against the Colonies during the Revolution, and fighting on the same side during the war of 

When, in July, 181 6, an American force arrived at Green bay to take possession of the 
country, the Menomonees were found in their village near by, very peaceably inclined. The 
commander of the troops asked permission of their chief to build a fort. " My Brother!" was 
the response, " how can we oppose your locating a council-fire among us .' You are too strong 
for us. Even if we wanted to oppose you we have scarcely got powder and ball to make the 
attempt. One favor we ask is, that our French brothers shall not be disturbed. You can choose 
any place you please for your fort, and we shall not object." No trouble had been anticipated 
from the Menomonees, and the expectations of the government of the United States in that 
regard were fully realized. What added much to the friendship now springing up between the 
Menomonees and the Americans was the fact that the next year — 1817 — the annual contribution, 
which for many years had been made by the British, consisting of a shirt, leggins, breech-clout, 
and blanket for each member or the tribe, and for each family a copper kettle, knives, axes, ^uns 
and ammunition, was withheld by them. 

It was found by the Americans, upon their occupation of the Menomonee territory, that 
some of the women of that tribe were married to traders and boatmen who had settled at t'.e 
head of the bay, there being no white women in that region. Many of these were Canadians of 
French extraction; hence the anxiety that they should be well treated, which was expressed by 
the Menomonees upon the arrival of the American force. At this period there was a consider- 
able trade carried on with these Indians at Prairie du Chien, as many of them frequently win- 
tered on the Mississippi. The first regular treaty with this tribe was " made and concluded" on 
the thirtieth day of March, 1817, "by and between William Clark, Ninian Edwards, and 
Auguste Chouteau, commissioners on the part and behalf of the United States of America, of the 
one part," and the chiefs and warriors, deputed by the Menomonees, of the other part. By the 
terms of this compact all injuries were to be forgiven and forgotten ; perpetual peace established; 
lands, heretofore ceded to other governments, confirmed to the United States ; all prisoners to be 
delivered up ; and the tribe placed under the protection of the United States, "and of no other 
nation, power, or sovereign, whatsoever." The Menomonees were now fully and fairly, and for 
the first time, entitled to be known as " American Indians," in contradistinction to the term 
which had been so long used as descriptive of their former allegiance — " British Indians." 

The territory of the Menomonees, when the tribe was taken fully under the win^- of the Gen- 
eral Government, had become greatly extended. It was bounded on the north by the dividini' 
ridge between the waters flowing into Lake Superior and those flowing south into Green bay and 
the Mississippi; on the east, by Lake Michigan ; on the south, by the Milwaukee river, and on 
the west by the Mississippi and Black rivers. This was their territory; though they were prac- 
tically restricted to the occupation of the western shore of Lake Michigan, lying between the 
mouth of Green bay on the north and the Milwaukee river on the south, and to a somewhat 
indefinite area west. Their general claim, as late as 1825, was north to the Chippewa country: 


east to Green bay and L.ake Michigan; south to the Milwaukee river, and west to Black river. 
And what is most surprising is that the feeble tribe of 1761 had now, in less than three quarters 
of a century, become a powerful nation, numbering between three and four thousand. 

The Menomonee territory, as late as 1831, still preserved its large proportions. Its eastern 
division was bounded by the Milwaukee river, the shore of Lake Michigan, Green bay. Fox 
river, and Winnebago lake; its western division, by the Wisconsin and Chippewa rivers on the 
west ; Fox river on the south ; Green bay on the east, and the high lar\ds whence flow the streams 
into Lake Superior, on the north. This year, however, it was shorn of a valuable and large part 
by the tribe ceding to the United States all the eastern division, estimated at two and one half 
million acres. The following year, the Menomonees aided the General Government in the Black 
Hawk war. 

That the Menomonees might, as much as possible, be weaned from their wandering habits, 
their permanent home was designated to be a large tract lying north of Fox river and east of 
Wolf river. Their territory farther west, was reserved for their hunting grounds until such time 
as the General Government should desire to purchase it. In 1836, another portion, amounting to 
four million acres, lying between Green bay on the east and Wolf river on the west, was dis- 
posed of to the United States, besides a strip three miles in width from near the portage north, 
on each side of the Wisconsin river and forty-eight miles long — still leaving them in peace- 
able possession of a country about one hundred and twenty miles long, and about eighty 

Finally, in 1S4S, the Menomonees sold all their lands in Wisconsin to the General Govern- 
ment, preparatory to their movement to a reservation beyond the Mississippi of six hundred 
thousand acres ; but the latter tract was afterward re-ceded to the United States; for, notwith- 
standing there were treaty stipulations for the removal of the tribe to that tract, there were 
obstacles in the way of their speedy migration, resulting, finally, in their being permitted to remain 
in Wisconsin. Lands, to the amount of twelve townships, were granted them for their permanent 
homes, on the upper Wolf river, in what is now Shawano and Oconto counties — a portion, but 
a very small one, of what was once their extensive possessions. To this reservation they removed 
in October, 1852. Thus are the Menomonees, the only one of the original tribes of Wisconsin 
who, as a whole, have a local habitation within its limits. This tribe refused to join the Sioux in 
their outbreak in 1861, and several of their warriors served as volunteers in the United States 
army during the late civil war. 

It is now over two centuries since the civilized world began to gain knowledge of the exist- 
ence, in the far West, of a tribe of Indians known as the Winnebagoes — that is, men of the sea; 
pointing, possibly, to their early migration from the shores of the Mexican gulf, or the Pacific. 
The territory now included within the limits of \V'isconsin, and so much of the State of Michigan 
as lies north of Green bay, Lake Michigan, the Straits of Mackinaw and Lake Huron were, in 
early times, inhabited by several tribes of the Algonquin race, forming a barrier to the Dakotas, 
or Sioux, who had advanced eastward to the Mississippi. But the Winnebagoes, although one of 
the tribes belonging to the family of the latter, had passed the great river, at some unknown 
period, and settled upon the head waters of Green bay. Here, this "sea-tribe," as early, it is 
believed, as 1634, was visited by an agent of France and a treaty concluded with them. The tribe 
afterward called themselves Hochungara, or Ochunkoraw, but were styled by the Sioux, Hotanke, 
or Sturgeon. Nothing more is heard of the Ouenibigoutz, or Winnebegouk (as the Winnebagoes 
were early called by the Jesuit missionaries, and the Algonquin tribes, meaning men from the 
fetid or salt water, translated by the French, Puants) for the next thirty-five years, although 
there is no doubt that the tribe had been visited meanwhile by adventurous Frenchmen, when on 
the second of December, 1669, some of that nation were noted at a Sac (Sauk or Saukis) village 
on Green bay, by Father Allouez. 


As early at least as 1670, the French were actively engaged among the VVinnebagoes trading. 
" We found affairs," says one of the Jesuit missionaries, who arrived among them in September of 
that year, " we found aff;iirs there in a pretty bad posture, and the minds of the savages much 
soured against the French, who were there trading ; ill-treating tliem in deeds and words, pillag- 
ing and carrying away their merchandise in spite of them, and conducting themselves toward 
them with insupportable insolences and indignities. The cause of this disorder," adds the mis- 
sionary, " is that they had received some bad treatment from the French, to whom they had this 
year come to trade, and particularly from the soldiers, from whom they pretended to have received 
many wrongs and injuries." It is thus made certain that the arms of France were carried into 
the territory of the Winnebagoes over two hundred years ago. 

The Fox river of Green bay was found at that date a difficult stream to navigate. Two 
Jesuits who ascended the river in 1670, had "three or four leagues of rapids to contend with," 
when they had advanced " one day's journey " from the head of the bay, " more difficult than those 
which are common in other rivers, in this, that the flints, over which" they had to walk with 
naked feet to drag their canoes, were so " sharp and so cutting, that one has all the trouble in the 
world to hold one's self steady against the great rushing of the waters." At the falls they found 
an idol that the savages honored ; " never failing, in passing, to make him some sacrifice of 
tobacco, or arrows, or paintings, or other things, to thank him that, by his assistance, they had, in 
ascending, avoided the dangers of the waterfalls which are in this stream ; or else, if they had to 
ascend, to pray him to aid them in this perilous navigation." The devout missionaries caused 
the idol " to be lifted up by the strength of arm, and cast into the depths of the river, to appear 
no more " to the idolatrous savages. 

The mission of St. Francis Xavier, founded in December, 1669, by AUouez, was a roving one 
among the tribes inhabiting the shores of Green bay and the interior country watered by the Fox 
river and its tributaries, for about two years, when its first mission-house was erected at what is 
now Depere, Brown county. This chapel was soon after destroyed by fire, but was rebuilt 
in 1676. 

The Winnebagoes, by this time, had not only received considerable spiritual instruction from 
the Jesuit fathers, but had obtained quite an insight into the mysteries of trading and trafficking 
with white men; for, fojlowing the footsteps of the missionaries, and sometimes preceding them, 
were the ubiquitous French fur traders. It is impossible to determine precisely what territory 
was occupied by the Winnebagoes at this early date, farther than that they lived near the head 
of Green bay. 

A direct trade with the French upon the St. Lawrence was not carried on by the Winne- 
bagoes to any great extent until the beginning of the eighteenth century. As early as 1679, 
an advance party of La Salle had collected a large store of furs at the mouth of Green bay, 
doubtless in a traffic with, this tribe and others contiguous to them ; generally, however, the 
surrounding nations sold their peltries to the Ottawas, who disposed of them, in turn, to the 
French. The commencement of the eighteenth century found the Winnebagoes firmly in 
alliance with France, and in peace with the dreaded Iroquios. In 17 18, the nation numbered 
six hundred. They were afterward found to have moved up Fox river, locating upon Winne- 
bago lake, which stream and lake were their ancient seat, and from which they had been driven 
either by fear or the prowess of more powerful tribes of the West or Southwest. Their inter- 
course with the French was gradually extended and generally peaceful, though not always so, 
joining with them, as did the Menomonees, in their wars with the Iroquois, and subsequently in 
their conflicts with the English, which finally ended in 1760. 

When the British, in October, 1761, took possession of the French post, at the head of 


Green bay, the Winnebagoes were found to number one hundred and fifty warriors only ; their 
nearest village being at the lower end of Winnebago lake. They had in all not less than three 
towns. Their country, at this period, included not only that lake, but all the streams flowing 
into it, especially Fox river; afterward extended to the Wisconsin and Rock rivers. They 
readily changed their course of trade — asking now of the commandant at the fort for English 
traders to be sent among them. In the Indian outbreak under Pontiac in 1763, they joined 
with the Menomonees and other tribes to befriend the British garrison at the head of the bay, 
assisting in conducting them to a place of safety. They continued their friendship to the English 
during the Revolution, by joining with them against the colonies, and were active in the Indian 
war of 1790-4, taking part in the attack on Fort Recovery, upon the Maumee, in the present 
State of Ohio, in 1793. They fought also on the side of the British in the war of 1812-15, 
aiding, in 1814, to reduce Prairie du Chien. They were then estimated -at 4,500. When, in 
1816, the government of the United States sent troops to take possession of the Green bay 
country, by establishing a garrison there, some trouble was anticipated from these Indians, who, 
at that date, had the reputation of being a bold and warlike tribe. A deputation from the nation 
came down Fox river and r.emonstrated with the American commandant at what was thought 
to be an intrusion. They were desirous of knowing why a fort was to be established so near 
them. The reply was that, although the troops were armed for war if necessary, their purpose 
was peace. Their response was an old one : " If your object is peace, you have too many men ; 
if war, you have too few." However, the display of a nutnber of cannon which had not yet been 
mounted, satisfied the Winnebagoes that the Americans were masters of the situation, and the 
deputation gave the garrison no farther trouble. On the 3d of June, 1816, at St. Louis, the tribe 
made a treaty of peace and friendship with the General Government; but they continued to levy 
tribute on all white people who passed up Fox river. English annuities also kept up a bad 
feeling. At this time, a portion of the tribe was living upon the Wisconsin river, away from the 
rest of the nation, which was still seated upon the waters flowing into Green bay. In 1820, 
they had five villages on Winnebago lake and fourteen on Rock river. In 1825, the claim of 
the Winnebagoes was an extensive one, so far as territory was concerned. Its southeast 
boundary stretched away from the source of Rock river to within forty miles of its mouth, in 
Illinois, where tliey had a village. On the west it extended to the heads of the small streams 
flowing into the Mississippi. To the northward, it reached Black river and the upper Wis- 
consin, in other words, to the Chippewa territory, but did not extend across Fox river, although 
they contended for the whole of Winnebago lake. In 1829, a large part of their territory in 
southwest Wisconsin, lying between Sugar riveT and the Mississippi, and extending to the Wis- 
consin river, was sold to the General Government; and, three years later all the residue lying 
south and east of the Wisconsin and the Fox river of Green bay ; the Winnebago prophet having 
before t'lat date supported the Sacs in their hostility. Finally, in the brief language of the treaty 
between this tribe (which had become unsettled and wasteful) and the United States, of the first 
of November, 1837, "The Winnebago Nation of Indians " ceded to the General Government 
" all their lands east of the Mississippi." Not an acre was reserved. And the Indians agreed 
that, within eight months from that date, they would move west of " the great river." This 
arrangement, however, was not carried out fully. In 1842, there were only 756 at Turkey river, 
Iowa, their new home, with as many in Wisconsin, and smaller bands e' ewhere. All had become 
lawless, and roving. Some removed in 1848; while a party to the number of over eight hun- 
dred left the State as late as 1873. The present home of the tribe is in Nebraska, where they 
have a reservation north of and adjacent to the Omahas, containing over one hundred thousand 
acres. However, since their first removal beyond the Mississippi, they have several times 


changed their place of abode. Their number, all told, is less than twenty-five hundred. 

When the territory, now constituting the northern portion of Wisconsin, becai..o very 
generally known to the civilized inhabitants of the eastern part of the United States, it was 
found to be occupied by Indians called the Their hunting-grounds extended south 
from Lake Superior to the heads of the Menomouee, the Wisconsin and Chippewa rivers; also 
farther eastward and westward. At an early day they were engaged in a war with the Sioux — 
a war indeed, which was long continued. The Chippewas, however, persistently maintained 
their position — still occupying the same region when the General (Government extended its 
jurisdiction over the whole country south of the Great Lakes and west to the Mississippi. 

By treaties with the Chippewas at different periods, down to the year 1827, the General Gov- 
ernment had recognized them as the owners of about one quarter of which is now the entire 
State. The same policy was pursued toward this tribe as with neighboring ones, in the purchase 
of their lands by the United States. Gradually they parted with their extensive possessions, until, 
in 1842, the last acre within what is now W^isconsin was disposed of It was the intention of the 
General Government to remove the several bands of the Chippewas who had thus ceded their 
lands to a tract reserved for them beyond the Mississippi; but this determination was afterward 
changed so as to allow them to remain upon certain reservations within the limits of their old- 
time hunting grounds. These reservations they continue to occupy. They are located in Bay- 
field, Ashland, Chippewa and Lincoln counties. The clans are known, respectively, as the Red 
Cliff band, the Bad River band, the Lac Courte Oreille band, and the Lac de Flambeau band. 

Of all the tribes inhabiting what is now Wisconsin when its territory was first visited by 
white men, the S,\cs (Sauks or Saukies) and Foxes (Outagamies) are, in history, the most noted. 
They are of the Algonquin family, and are first mentioned in 1665, by Father Allouez, but as 
separate tribes. Afterward, however, because of the identity of their language, and their asso- 
ciations, they were and still are considered as one nation. In December, 1669, Allouez found 
upon the shores of Green bay a village of Sacs, occupied also by members of other tribes; and 
early in 1670 he visited a village of the same Indians located upon the Fox river of Green bay, 
at a distance of four leagues from its mouth. Here a device of these Indians for catching fish 
arrested the attention of the missionary. "From one side of the river to the other," he writes, 
"they made a barricade, planting great stakes, two fathoms from the water, in such a manner 
that there is, as it were, a bridge above for the fishes, who by the aid of a little bow-net, easily 
take sturgeons and all other kinds of fish which this pier stops, although the water does not 
cease to flow between the stakes." When the Jesuit father first obtained, five years previous, a 
knowledge of this tribe, they were represented as savage above all others, great in numbers, and 
without any permanent dwelling place. The Foxes were of two stocks : one calling themselves 
Outagamies or Foxes, whence our English name; the other, MusqMakink, or men of red clay, 
the name now used by the tribe. They lived in early times with their kindred the Sacs east of 
Detroit, and as some say near the St. Lawrence. They were driven west, and settled at Saginaw, 
a name derived from the Sacs. Thence they were forced by the Iroquois to Green bay ; but 
were compelled to leave that place and settle on Fox river. 

.\llouez, on the twenty-fourth of April, 1670, arrived at a village of the Foxes, situated on 
Wolf river, a northern tributary of the Fox. "The nation," he declares, "is renowned for 
being numerous ; they have more than four hundred men bearing arms ; the number of women 
and children is greater, on account of polygamy which exists among them — each man having 
commonly four wives, some of them six, and others as high as ten." The missionary found that 
the Foxes had retreated to those parts to escape the persecutions of the Iroquois. Allouez 
established among these Indians his mission of St. Mark, rejoicing in the fact that in less thatv 


two years he had baptized "sixty children and some adults." The Foxes, at the summons of De 
la Barre, in 1684, sent warriors against the Five Nations. They also took part in Denonville's 
more serious campaign ; but soon after became hostile to the French. As early as 169.3, they 
had plundered several on their way to trade with the Sioux, alleging that they were carrying arms 
and ammunition to their ancient enemies — frequently causing them to make portages to the 
southward in crossing from Lake Michigan to the Mississippi. Afterward they became recon- 
ciled to the French; but the reconciliation was of short duration. In 1712, Fort Detroit, then 
defended by only a handful of men, was attacked by them in conjunction with the Mascou- 
tens and Kickapoos. However, in the end, by calling in friendly Indians, the garrison not only 
protected themselves but were enabled to act on the offensive, destroying the greater part of the 
besieging force. 

The nation continued their ill will to the French. The consequence was that their territory 
in 1 7 16 had been invaded and they were reduced to sue for peace. But their friendship was not 
of long continuance. In 17 18, the Foxes numbered five hundred men and "abounded in women 
and children." They are spoken of at that date as being very industrious, raising large quantities 
of Indian corn. In 1728, another expedition was sent against them by the French. Meanwhile 
the Menomonees had also become hostile; so, too, the Sacs, who were now the allies of the 
Foxes. The result of the enterprise was, an attack upon and the defeat of a number of' 
Menomonees; the burning of the wigwams of the Winnebagos (after passing the deserted village 
.of the Sacs upon the Fox river), that tribe, also, at this date being hostile ; and the destruction 
of the fields of the Foxes. They were again attacked in their own country by the French, in 
1730, and defeated. In 1734, both the Sacs and Foxes came in conflict with the same foe; but 
this time the French were not as successful as on previous expeditions. In 1736, the Sacs and 
Foxes were "connected with the government of Canada; " but it is certain they were far from 
being friendly to the French. 

The conflict between France and Great Britain commencing in 1754, found the Sacs and 
Foxes allied with the former power, against the English, although not long previous to this time 
they were the bitter enemies of the French. At the close of that contest so disastrous to the 
interests of France in North America, these tribes readily gave in their adhesion to the con- 
querors, asking that English traders might be sent them. The two nations, then about equally 
divided, numbered, in 1761, about seven hundred warriors. Neither of the tribes took part in 
Pontiac's war, but they befriended the English. The Sacs had migrated farther to the west- 
ward ; but the Foxes — at least a portion of them^still remained upon the waters of the river of 
Green bay, which perpetuates their name. A few years later, however, and the former were 
occupants of the upper Wisconsin ; also, to a considerable distance below the portage, where 
their chief town was located. Further down the same stream was the upper village of the 
Foxes, while their lower one was situated near its mouth at the site of the present city of Prairie 
du Chien. At this date, 1766, the northern portion of what is now Wisconsin, including all that 
part watered by the streams flowing north into Lake Superior, was the home of the Chippewas. 
The country around nearly the whole of Green bay was the hunting ground of the Menomonees. 
The territory of Winnebago lake and Fox river was the seat of the Winnebagoes. The region 
of the Wisconsin river was the dwelling place of the Sacs and Foxes. 

During the war of the Revolution, the Sacs and Foxes continued the firm friends of the 
English. At the commencement of the nineteenth century, only a small part of their territory 
was included in what is now Wisconsin, and that was in the extreme southwest. In 1804, they 
ceded this to the United States ; so that they no longer were owners of any lands within this 
State. From that date, therefore, these allied tribes can not be considered as belonging to the 


Indian nations of Wisconsin. A striking episode in their subsequent liistory — the Black Hawk 
\\'ar — comes in, notwithstanding, as a part, incidentally, of the annals of the State. 

Deserving a place in a notice of the Indian tribes of Wisconsin is the nation known as the 
POTTAWATTAMiEs. As early as 1639, they were the neighbors of the Winnebagoes upon Green 
bay. They were still upon its southern shore, in two villages, in 1670; and ten years subsequent 
to that date they occupied, at least in one village the same region. At the expiration of the 
first quarter of the eighteenth century, a part only of the nation were in that vicinity — -upon the 
islands at the mouth of the bay. These islands were then known as the Pottawattamie islands, 
and considered as the ancient abode of these Indians. Already had a large portion of this tribe 
emigrated southward, one band resting on the St. Joseph of-Lake Michigan, the other near Detroit. 
One peculiarity of this tribe — at least of such as resided in what is now Wisconsin — was their 
intimate association with neighboring bands. When, in 1669, a village of the Pottawattarnies, 
located upon the southeast shore of Green bay, was visited by Allouez, he found with them Sacs 
and Foxes and Winnebagoes. So, also, when, many years subsequent to that date, a band of 
these Indians were located at Milwaukee, with tliem were Ottawas and Chippewas. These 
"united tribes" claimed all the lands of their respective tribes and of other nations, giving the 
United States, when possession was taken of the western country by the General Government, 
no little trouble. Finally, by a treaty, held at Chicago in 1833, their claims, such as they were, 
to lands along the western shore of Lake Michigan, within the present State of Wisconsin, 
extending westward to Rock river, were purchased by the United States, with permission to 
retain possession three years longer of their ceded lands, after which time this " united nation 
of Chippewas, Ottawas and Pottawattamies " began to disappear, and soon were no longer seen in 
southeastern Wisconsin or in other portions of the State. 

Besides the five tribes — Menomonees, Winnebagoes, Chippewas, Sacs and Foxes, and 
Pottawattamies — many others, whole or in part, have, since the territory now constituting the 
State was first visited by white men, been occupants of its territory. Of these, some are only 
known as having once lived in what is now Wisconsin; others — such as the Hurons, Illinois, 
Kickapoos, Mascoutens, Miamis, Noquets, Ottawas and Sioux, are recognized as Indians once 
dwelling in this region ; yet so transitory has been their occupation, or so little is known of their 
history, that they scarcely can be claimed as belonging to the State. 

Commencing in 1822, and continuing at intervals through some of the following years, was 
the migration to Wisconsin from the State of New York of the remains or portions of four tribes : 
the Oneidas, Stockbridges, Munsees and Brothertowns. The Oneidas finally located west of 
Green Bay, where they still reside. Their reservation contains over 60,000 acres, and lies 
wholly within the present counties of Brown and Outagamie. The Stockbridges and Munsees, 
who first located above Green Bay, on the east side of Fox river, afterward moved to the east 
side of Winnebago lake. They now occupy a reservation joining the southwest township of the 
Menomenee reservation, in Shawano county, and are fast becoming citizens. The Brothertowns 
first located on the east side of Fox river, but subsequently moved to the east side of Winnebago 
lake, where, in 1839, they broke up their tribal relations and became citizens of Wisconsin 


When, in 1634, the first white man set foot upon any portion of the territory now consti- 
tuting the State of Wisconsin, the whole country was, of course, a wilderness. Its inhabitants, 
the aboriginal Red men, were thinly but widely scattered over all the country. Jean Nicolet, 
a Frenchman, who had been in Canada since 1618, and had spent several years among the 


Indians, was the first of civilized men to unlock the mystery of its situation and people. French 
authorities upon the St. Lawrence sent him as an ambassador to the Winnebagoes, of whom he 
had heard strange stories. On his outward voyage he visited the Hurons — allies of the French 
— a tribe seated upon the eastern side of the lake which bears their name, and Nicolet was 
empowered to negotiate a peace with them. " When he approached the ^\'innebago town, he sent 
some of his Indian attendants to announce his coming, put on a robe of damask, and advanced 
to meet the expectant crowd with a pistol in each hand. The squaws and children fled, scream- 
ing that it was a manito, or spirit, armed with thunder and lightning ; but the <rhiefs and warriors 
regaled him with so bountiful a hospitality, that a hundred and twenty beavers were devoured at 
a single feast." Such was the advent of the daring Frenchman into what is now the State of 

" Upon the borders of Green bay," wrote the Jesuit, Paul le Jeune, in 1640, " are the Meno- 
monees; still farther on, the Winnebagoes, a sedentary people, and very numerous. Some 
Frenchmen," he continues, " call them the ' Nation of the Stinkards,' because the Algonquin 
word Winipeg signifies ' stinking water.' Now they thus call the water of the sea ; therefore, 
these people call themselves ' Winnebagoes,' because they came from the shores of a sea of which 
we have no knowledge ; consequently we must not call them the ' Nation of Stinkards,' but the 
' Nation of the Sea.' " From these Men of the Sea, Nicolet passed westward, ascended Fox 
river of Green Bay, until nigh the portage to the Wisconsin, down which stream he could have 
floated easily to the Mississippi, the "great water" of his guides, which he mistook for the 
sea. This adventurous Frenchman, when so near re-discovering the river which has given 
immortality to De Soto, turned his face to the eastward ; retraced his steps to Green bay, and 
finally returned in safety to Quebec. This was the first exploration of what is now Wisconsin — 
only fourteen years after the landing of the Pilgrims upon the wild shores of New England. 

Wisconsin, for twenty-four years after its discovery, was left to its savage inhabitants. At 
length, in 1658, two daring fur traders penetrated to Lake Superior, and wintered there. They 
probably set foot upon what is now Wisconsin soil, as they made several trips among the sur- 
rounding tribes. They saw, among other things, at six days' journey beyond the lake, toward 
the southwest, Indians that the Iroquois had driven from their homes upon the eastern shores of 
Lake Huron. These Frenchmen heard of the ferocious Sioux, and of a great river — not the sea, 
as Nicolet had supposed — on which they dwelt. This was the Mississippi ; and to these traders 
is the world indebted for a knowledge of its existence ; as De Soto's discovery was never used, 
and soon became well-nigh, if not entirely, forgotten. From these upper countries, in the Sum- 
mer of 1660, the two returned to Quebec, with three hundred Indians in sixty canoes, laden with 
peltry. This was, indeed, the dawn — though exceedingly faint — of what is now the commerce of 
the great Northwest. Nineteen years after flashed a more brilliant light; for, in 1679, the 
"Griffin," laden with furs, left one of the islands at the mouth of Green bay, on its return — 
spreading her sails for Niagara, but never more to be heard of. 

Following in the footsteps of the fur traders came the Jesuit missionaries to Lake Superior ; 
one of them. Father Menard, as early as 1660, reaching its southern shore as far to the westward, 
probably, as Kewenaw, in the present State of Michigan. There is no positive evidence, however, 
that he or his French companions, visited any portion of what is now Wisconsin; although the next 
year, 1661, some of his associates probably passed down the Menomonee river to Green bay. 
Following Menard came Father Claude AUouez, arriving on the first day of October, 1665, at 
" Chagowamigong," or " Chegoimegon," now Chequamegon, or Ashland Bay, " at the bottom of 
which," wrote the missionary, " is situated the great villages of the savages, who there plant their 
fields of Indian corn, and lead a stationary life." Near by he erected a small chapel of bark — the 


first structure erected by civilized man in Wisconsin. At La Pointe, in the present Ashland 
county, he established the mission of the Holy Ghost. 

The next Catholic mission in what is now Wisconsin was that of St. Francis Xavier, founded 
also by Allouez. Upon the second of December, 1669, he first attended to his priestly devotions 
upon the waters of Green bay. This mission, for the first two years of its existence, was a 
migratory one. The surrounding tribes were all visited, including the Pottawattamies, Menom- 
onees, Winnebagoes, and Sacs and Foxes. However, in 167 1, one hundred and five years before 
the Declaration of Independence, there was erected, at what is now Depere, Brown county, a 
chapel for the mission of St. Francis Xavier. Thus early did the Jesuit Fathers, in their plain 
garbs and unarmed, carry the cross to many of the benighted heathen occupying the country 
circumscribed by Lakes Michigan, Huron and Superior, and the "great river" — the Mississippi. 

French domination in Wisconsin dates from the year 167 i, the very year in which it seems 
the indomitable LaSalle, upon his first expedition, passed the mouth of Green bay, but did not 
enter it. France then took formal possession of the whole of the country of the upper lakes. 
By this time, the commerce with the western tribes had so attached them to her interests that 
she determined to extend her power to the utmost limits — vague and indeterminate as they 
were — of Canada. An agent — Daumont de St. Lusson — was dispatched to the distant- tribes, 
proposing a congress of Indian nations at the Falls of Ste. Mary, between Lake Huron and Lake 
Superior. The invitation was extended far and near. The principal chiefs of Wisconsin tribes, 
gathered by Nicolas Perrot in Green bay, were present at the meeting. Then and there, with 
due ceremony, it was announced that the great Northwest was placed under the protection of 
the French government. And why not.' She had discovered it — had to a certain extent 
explored it — had to a limited extent established commerce with it — and her missionaries had 
proclaimed the faith to the wondering savages. But none of her agents — none of the fur- 
traders — none of the missionaries — had yet reached the Mississippi, the "great river," concerning 
which so many marvels had been heard, although it is claimed that, in 1669, it had been seen 
by the intrepid La Salle. But the time for its discovery, or properly re-discovery, was at hand, if, 
indeed, it can be called, with propriety, a re-discovery, since its existence to the westward was 
already known to every white man particularly interested in matters appertaining to the North- 
west. Now, however, for the first time, its upper half was to be, to a certain extent, explored. 
For the first time, a white man was to behold its vast tribute, above the Illinois river, rolling 
onward toward the Mexican gulf. Who was that man .'' His name was Louis Joliet ; with him 
was Father James Marquette. 

Born at Quebec, in 1645, educated by the Jesuits, and first resolving to be a priest, then 
turning fur-trader, Joliet had, finally, been sent with an associate to explore the copper mines of 
Lake Su])erior. He was a man of close and intelligent observation, and possessed considerable 
mathematical acquirements. At this time, 1673, he was a merchant, courageous, hardy, enter- 
prising. He was appointed by French authorities at Quebec to " discover " the Mississippi. He 
passed up the lakes to Mackinaw, and found at Point St. Ignace, on the north side of the strait. 
Father James Marquette, who readily agreed to accompany him. Their outfit was very simple: 
two birch-bark canoes and a supply of smoked meat and Indian corn. They had a company of 
five men with them, beginning their voyage on the seventeenth of May, 1673. Passing the straits, 
they coasted the northern shores of Lake Michigan, moved up Green bay and Fox river to the 
portage. They crossed to the Wisconsin, down which they paddled their frail canoes, until, on 
the seventeenth of June, they entered — " discovered " — the Mississippi. So the northern, the 
eastern and the western boundary of what is now Wisconsin had been reached at this date ; 
therefore, it may be said that its territory had been explored sufficiently for the forming of a 


pretty correct idea of its general features as well as of its savage inhabitants. After dropping 
down the Mississippi many miles, Joliet and Marquette returned to Green bay, where the latter 
remained to recruit his exhausted strength, while Joliet descended to Quebec, to report his 
"discoveries" to his superiors. 

Then followed the expedition of LaSalle to the west, from the St. Lawrence, when, in 1679, 
he and Father Louis Hennepin coasted along the western shore of Lake Michigan, frequently 
landing ; then, the return of Henri de Tonty, one of LaSalle's party down the same coast to Green 
bay, in 1680, from the Illinois; the return, also, the same year, of Hennepin, from up the Mis- 
sissippi, whither he had made his way from the Illinois, across what is now Wisconsin, by the 
Wisconsin and Fox rivers to Green bay, in company with DuLhut, or DuLuth, who, on his way 
down the " great river " from Lake Superior, had met the friar ; and then, the voyage, in 1683, from 
Lake Michigan to the Mississippi river, by the same route, of LeSueur, and his subsequent 
establishment at La Pointe, in what is now Ashland county, Wisconsin, followed several years 
after by a trip up the Mississippi. The act of Daumont de St. Lusson, at the Sault Sainte Mary, 
in 1671, in taking possession of the country beyond Lake Michigan, not being regarded as suffi- 
ciently definite, Nicolas Perrot, in 1689, at Green bay, again took possession of that territory, as 
well as of the valleys of the Fox and Wisconsin rivers, and extending the dominion of New 
France over the country on the Upper Mississippi, and "to other places more remote." The 
voyage of St. Cosme, in 1699, when he and his companions freijuently landed on the west coast 
of Lake Michigan, upon what is now territory of Wisconsin, completed the explorations in the 
west for the seventeenth century. 

Following in the footsteps of early explorations, of self sacrificing attem[)ts of the Jesuits to 
carry the cross to the wild tribes of the West, of the first visits of the lawless coureurs ik bois, 
was the military occupation — if such it can be called — of what is now Wisconsin by the French. 
The ninety years of domination by France in this region were years of only nominal possession. 
The record of this occupation is made up of facts concerning the Indian policy of the French 
rulers; their contests with the Sacs and Foxes; their treaties, at various times, with different 
tribes; their interest in, and protection of, the fur trade, and kindred subjects. The Indian 
tribes were, at most, only the allies of France. Posts — mere stockades without cannon, more for 
protection to fur-traders than for any other purpose — were erected upon the Mississippi at two 
points at least, upon what is now territory of Wisconsin. On the west side of Fox river of 
Green bay, "half a league from its mouth," was a French post, as early as 1721, where resided, 
besides the commandant and an uncouth squad of soldiers, a Jesuit missionary; and near by 
were collected Indians of different tribes. Of course, the omnipresent fur-trader helped to 
augment the sum-total of its occupants. This post was, not long after, destroyed, but another 
was established there. \Vhen, however, France yielded her inchoate rights in the West to Great 
Britain — when, in 1761, the latter took possession of the country — there was not a French post 
within what is now Wisconsin. The " fort " near the head of Green bay, had been vacated for 
some years; it was found "rotten, the stockade ready to fall, and the houses without cover;" 
emblematic of the decay — the fast-crumbling and perishing state — of French supremacy, at that 
date, in America. Wisconsin, when England's control began, was little better than a howling 
wilderness. There was not within the broad limits of what is now the State, a single bona fiile 
settler, at the time the French Government yielded up its possession to the English ; that is to 
say, there were none according to the present acceptation of the term "settler." 

The military occupation of Wisconsin by the British, after the Seven Years' War, was a brief 
one. La Bay — as the post at what is now the city of Fort Howard, Brown county, was called — 
was, on the twelfth of October, 1761, taken possession of by English troops, under Captain 
Belfour, of the Eightieth regiment. Two days after, that officer departed, leaving Lieutenant 


James Gorrell, in command, with one sergeant, one corporal and fifteen privates. There also 
remained at the post a French interpreter and two English traders. The name of the fortifica- 
tion was changed to Fort Edward Augustus. This post was abandoned by the commandant on 
the twenty-first of June, 1763, on account of the breaking out of Pontiac's War and the capture 
of the fort at Mackinaw by the savages. Tlie cause of this war was this : The Indian tribes 
saw the danger which the downfall of the French interests in Canada was sure to bring to them. 
They banded togetlier under Pontiac to avert their ruin. The struggle was short but fierce — 
full of " scenes of tragic interest, with marvels of suffering and vicissitude, of heroism and endur- 
ance ; " but the white man conquered. The moving incidents in this bloody drama were enacted 
to the eastward of what is now Wisconsin, coming no nearer than Mackinaw, which, as just 
mentioned, the savages captured; but it resulted in the evacuation of its territory by British 
troops, who never after took possesfion of it, though they continued until 1796 a nominal 
military rule over it, after Mackinaw was again occupied by them. 

.Vn early French Canadian trading station at the head of Green bay assumed finally the 
form of a permanent settlement — the first one in Wisconsin. To claim, however that any 
French Canadian is entitled to the honor of being the first permanent white settler is assuming 
for him more than the facts seem to warrant. The title of " The Father and Flounder of Wis- 
consin" belongs to no man. 

After Pontiac's War, one of the noted events in this region was the journey of Jonathan 
Carver, who, in 1766, passed up Fox river to the portage, and descended the Wisconsin to the 
Mississippi. He noticed the tumbling-down post at what is now Green Bay, Brown county. 
He saw a few families living in the fort, and some French settlers, who cultivated the land 
opposite, and appeared to live very comfortably. That was the whole e.vtent of improvements 
in what is now Wisconsin. The organization of the Northwest Fur Company ; the passage of 
an act by the British Parliament by which the whole Northwest was included in the Province of 
Quebec ; the joining of the Indians in this region with the British, against the Americans, in the 
War of the Revolution; the exploration of the lead region of the Upper Mississippi by Julian 
Dubuque; the passage of the ordinance of 1787; the first settlement of the territory northwest 
of the River Ohio; and the Indian war which followed, are all incidents, during British occu- 
pation, of more or less interest for the student of Wisconsin history. He will find that, by the 
treaty of 1783 and of 1795, with Great Britain, all the inhabitants residing in this region were to 
be protected by the United States in the full and peaceable possession of their property, with the 
right to remain in, or to withdraw from it, with their effects, within one year. All who did not 
leave were to be deemed American citizens, allowed to enjoy all the privileges of citizenship, and 
to be under the protection of the General Government. He will also find that less than two 
years was the whole time of actual military occupation of what is now Wisconsin by British 
soldiers, and that English domination, which should have ended at the close of the Revolu- 
tion, was arbitrarily continued until the Summer of 1796, when the western posts, none of which 
were upon territory circumscribed by Lakes Michigan and Superior and the Mississippi river, 
were delivered into the keeping of the United States. Thus the supremacy of Great Britain over 
the Northwest was, after an actual continuance of thirty-five years, at an end. 

Although the General Government did not get possession of the region northwest of the Ohio, 
throughout its full extent, for thirteen years subsequent to its acquirement by the treaty of peace 
of 17S3 with Great Britain, nevertheless, steps were taken, very- soon, to obtain concessions from 
such of the colonies as had declared an ownership in any portion of it. None of the claimants, 
seemingly, had better rights than Virginia, who, by virtue of conquests, largely her own, of the 
Illinois settlements and posts, extended her jurisdiction over that country, erecting into a county 


60 much of the region northwest of the Ohio, as had been settled by Virginians or might after- 
ward be settled by them. But as, previous to her yielding all rights to territory beyond that 
river, she had not carried her arms into the region north of the Illinois or made settlements upon 
what is now the soil of Wisconsin, nor included any portion of it within the bounds of an organ- 
ized county, it follows that her dominion was not actually e.xtended over any part of the area 
included within the present boundaries of this State; nor did she then claim jurisdiction north 
of the Illinois river, but on the other hand expressly disclaimed it. 

Virginia and all the other claimants finally ceded to the United States their rights, such as 
they were, beyond the Ohio, except two reservations of limited extent ; and the General Govern- 
ment became the undisputed owner of the "Great West," without any internal claims to posses- 
sion save those of the Indians. Meanwhile, the United States took measures to extend its juris- 
diction over the whole country by the passage of the famous ordinance of 1787, which established 
a government over "the territory of the United States, northwest of the River Ohio." But this 
organic law was, of course, nugatory over that portion of the region occupied by the British, 
until their yielding possession in 1796, when, for the first time, Anglo-American rule commenced, 
though nominally, in what is now Wisconsin. By the ordinance just mentioned, "the United 
States, in congress assembled," declared that the territory northwest of the Ohio should, for the 
purposes of temporary government, be one district , subject, however, to be divided into districts, 
as future circumstances might, in the opinion of Congress, make it expedient. It was ordained 
that a governor, secretary and three judges should be appointed for the Territory; a general 
assembly was also provided for; and it was declared that religion, morality, and knowledge, 
being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of 
education should forever be encouraged. It was also ordained that there should be neither 
slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said Territory, " otherwise than in the punishment of 
crimes whereof the party shall have been duly convicted." Thus was established the first Magna 
Charta for the five great States since that time formed out of " the territory northwest of the 
River Ohio," and the first rules and regulations for their government. 

Under this act of Congress, Arthur St. Clair was appointed governor of the Northwestern 
Territory, as it was called, and Samuel H. Parsons, James M. Varnum, and John Armstrong, 
judges, — the latter not accepting the office, John Cleves Symmes was appointed in his place. 
Winthrop Sargeant was appointed secretary. At different periods, counties were erected to 
include various portions of the Territory. By the governor's proclamation of the 15th of 
August, 1796, one was formed to include the whole of the present area of Northern Ohio, vifest of 
Cleveland ; also, all of what is now the State of Indiana, north of a line drawn from Fort Wayne 
" west-northerly to the southern part of Lake Michigan ; " the whole of the present State of 
Michigan, except its extreme northwest corner on Lake Superior ; a small corner in the north- 
east, part of what is now Illinois, including Chicago ; and so much of the present State of Wis- 
consin as is watered by the streams flowing into Lake Michigan, which of course included an 
extensive portion, taking in many of its eastern and interior counties as now constituted. This 
vast county was named Wayne. So the few settlers then at the head of Green bay had their 
local habitations, constructively at least, in " Wayne county. Northwestern Territory." It was 
just at that date that Great Britain vacated the western posts, and the United States took quiet 
possession of them. But the western portion of what is now Wisconsin, including all its territory 
watered by streams flowing northward into Lake Superior, and westward and southwestward into 
the Mississippi, was as yet without any county organization ; as the county of St. Clair, including 
the Illinois country to the southward, reached no farther north than the mouth of Little Macki- 
naw creek, where it empties into the River Illinois, in what is now the State of Illinois. The 


"law of Paris," which was in force under French domination in Canada, and which Ijy the 
Britisli Parliament in 1774, had been continued in force under English supremacy, was still " the 
law of the land " west of Lake Michigan, practically at least. 

From and after the fourth day of July, 1800, all that part of the territory of the United 
States northwest of the Ohio river, which lay to the westward of a line beginning upon that 
stream opposite to the mouth of Kentucky river and running thence to what is now Fort 
Recovery in Mercer county, Ohio ; thence north until it intersected the territorial line between 
the United States and Canada, was, for the purposes of temporary government, constituted a 
separate territory called Indiana. It included not only the whole of the present State of Illinois 
and nearly all of what is now Indiana, but more than half of the State of Michigan as now 
defined, also a considerable part of the present Minnesota, and the whole of what is now Wis- 

The seat of government was established at "Saint Vincennes on the Wabash," now the city 
of Vincennes, Indiana. To this extensive area was added "from and after" the admission of 
Ohio into the Union, all the territory west of that State, and east of the eastern boundary line of 
the Territory of Indiana as originally established ; so that now all " the territory of the United 
States, northwest of the River Ohio," was, excepting the State of Ohio, included in Indiana Ter- 
ritory. On the thirtieth day of June, 1805, so much of Indiana Territory as lay to the north of 
a Hue drawn east from the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan to Lake Erie, and east 
of a line drawn from the same bend through the middle of the first mentioned lake to its north- 
ern extremity, and thence due north to the northern boundary of the United States, was, for the 
purpose of temporary government, constituted a separate Territory called Michigan. Of course 
no part of the present State of Wisconsin was included therein ; but the whole remained in the 
Territory of Indiana until the second day of March, 1809, when all that part of the last men- 
tioned Territory which lay west of the Wabash river, and a direct line drawn from that stream 
and " Post Vincennes," due north to the territorial line between the United States and Canada, 
was, by an act approved on the third of February previous, constituted a separate Territory, called 
Illinois. Meanwhile jurisdiction had been extended by the authorities of Indiana Territory 
over the country lying west of Lake Michigan, to the extent, at least, of appointing a justice of 
the peace for each of the settlements of Green Bay and Prairie du Chien. All of what is now 
Wisconsin was transferred to the Territory of Illinois, upon the organization of the latter, except 
a small portion lying east of the meridian line drawn through Vincennes, which remained a part 
of Indiana Territory. This fraction included nearly the whole area between Green bay and 
Lake Michigan. 

When, in 1816, Indiana became a State, "the territory of the United States northwest of the 
River Ohio," contained, besides Ohio and Indiana, the Territories of Illinois and Michigan, only ; 
so the narrow strip, formerly a part of Indiana Territory, lying east of a line drawn due north 
from Vincennes, and west of the western boundary line of Michigan Territory, belonged to nei- 
ther, and was left without any organization. However, upon the admission of Illinois into the 
Union, in 1818, all "the territory of the United States, northwest of the River Ohio," lying west 
of Michigan Territory and north of the States of Indiana and Illinois, was attached to and made 
a part of Michigan Territory ; by which act the whole of the present State of Wisconsin came 
under the jurisdiction of the latter. During the existence of the Territory of Illinois, a kind of 
jurisdiction was had over the two settlements in what is now Wisconsin — rather more ideal than 
real, however. 

In 1834, Congress greatly increased the limits of the Territory of Michigan, by adding to it, 
for judicial purposes, a large extent of country west of the Mississipi)i — reaching south as far as 


the present boundary line between the present States of Iowa and Missouri ; north, to the terri- 
torial line between the United States and Canada ; and west, to the Missouri and White Earth 
rivers. It so continued down to the fourth of July, 1836. 

A retrospective glance at the history of this region for forty years previous to the last men- 
tioned year, including the time which elapsed after the surrender of the western posts, in 1796, 
by the British, discloses many facts of interest and importance. 

The Anglo-Americans, not long after the region of country west of Lake Michigan became 
a part of Indiana Territory, began now and then to cast an eye, either through the opening of 
the Great Lakes or the Mississippi, upon its rolling rivers, its outspread prairies, and its dense 
forests, and to covet the goodly land ; but the settlers at Green Bay and Prairie du Chien were 
mostly French Canadians at this date, although a few were Americans. The General Govern- 
ment, however, began to take measures preparatory to its occupation, by purchasing, in 1804, a 
tract in what is now the southwest portion of the State, of the Indians, and by holding the various 
tribes to a strict account for any murders committed by them on American citizens passing 
through their territories or trading with them. Comparative peace reigned in the incipient settle- 
ments at the head of Green bay and at the mouth of the Wisconsin, which was changed by the 
breaking out of the war of 181 2, with Great Britain. 

The English early succeeded in securing the Wisconsin Indian tribes as their allies in this 
war ; and the taking of Mackinaw by the British in July, 1812, virtually put the latter in posses- 
sion of what is now the eastern portion of the State. Early in 1814, the government authorities 
of the United States caused to be fitted out at St. Louis a large boat, having on board all the 
men that could be mustered and spared from the lower country, and sent up the Mississippi to 
protect the upper region and the few settlers therein. The troops landed at Prairie du Chien, 
and immediately proceeded to fortify. Not long after, Colonel McKay, of the British army, 
crossing the country by course of the Fo.x and Wisconsin rivers, with over five hundred British 
and Indians, received the surrender of the whole force. The officers and men were paroled and 
sent down the river. This was the only battle fought upon Wisconsin soil during the last war 
with England. The post at Prairie du Chien was left in command of a captain with two compa- 
nies from Mackinaw. He remained there until after the peace of 1815, when the place was 
evacuated by the British. 

When it became generally known to the Indian tribes in what is now Wisconsin, that the 
contest between the United States and Great Britain was at an end, they generally expressed 
themselves as ready and willing to make treaties with the General Government — eager, in fact, 
to establish friendly relations with the power they had so recently been hostile to. This was, 
therefore, a favorable moment for taking actual possession of the country between the Missis- 
sippi and Lake Michigan ; and United States troops were soon ordered to occupy the two prom- 
inent points between Green Bay and Prairie du Chien. At the former place was erected Fort 
Howard ; at the latter Fort Crawford. At Green Bay, half a hundred (or less) French Cana- 
dians cultivated the soil; at Prairie du Chien, there were not more than thirty houses, mostly 
occupied by traders, while on the prairie outside the village, a number of farms were cultivated. 
Such was Wisconsin when, at the close of the last war with Great Britain, it began in earnest to 
be occupied by Americans. The latter were few in number, but in 1818, they began to feel, now 
that the country was attached to Michigan Territory and the laws of the United States were 
extended over them, that they were not altogether beyond the protection of a government of their 
own, notwithstanding they were surrounded by savage tribes. Their happiness was increased 
upon the erection, by proclamation of Lewis Cass, governor of the Territory of Michigan, of 
three Territorial counties: Michilimackinac, Brown and Crawford. Their establishment dates 


the twenty-sixth of October, 1818. The county of Michilimackinac not only included all of the 
present State of Wisconsin lying north of a line drawn due west from near the head of the Little 
Noquet bay, but territory east and west of it, so as to reach from Lake Huron to the Missis- 
sippi river. Its county seat was established "at the Borough of Michilimackinac." The whole 
area in Michigan Territory south of tlie county of Michilimackinac and west of Lake Michigan 
formed the two counties of Brown and Crawford: the former to include the area east of a line 
drawn due north and south through the middle of the portage between the Fox river of Green 
bay and the Wisconsin ; the latter to include the whole region west of that line. Prairie du 
Chien was designated as the county seat of Crawford; Green Bay, of Brown county. On the 
22(1 of December, 1826, a county named Chippewa was formed from the northern portions of 
.Ndchilimackinac, including the southern shores of Lake Superior throughout its entire length, 
and extending from the straits leading from that lake into Lake Huron, west to the western 
boundary line of Michigan Territory, with the county seat " at such point in the vicinity of the 
Sault de Ste. Marie, as a majority of the county commissioners to be appointed shall designate." 
Embraced within this county, — its southern boundary being the parallel 46° 31' north latitude, — 
was all the territory of the present State of Wisconsin now bordering on Lake Superior. 

Immediately upon the erection of Brown and Crawford counties, they were organized, and 
their offices filled by appointment of the governor. County courts were established, consisting 
of one chief and two associate justices, either of whom formed a quorum. They were required 
to hold one term of court annually in their respective counties. These county courts had origi- 
nal and exclusive jurisdiction in all civil cases, both in law and equity, where the matter in dis- 
pute exceeded the jurisdiction of a justice of the peace, and did not exceed the value of one 
thousand dollars. They had, however, no jurisdiction in ejectment. They had exclusive cog- 
nizance of all offenses the punishment whereof was not capital, and the same power to issue 
remedial and other process, writs of error and mandamus excepted, that the supreme court had 
at Detroit. Appeals from justices of the peace were made to the county courts. 

The establishing of Indian agencies by the General Government ; the holding of treaties 
with some of the Indian tribes; the adjustment of land claims at Green Bay and Prairie du 
Chien ; the appointment of postmasters at these two points, were all indications of a proper 
interest being taken by the United States in the affairs of the country. But a drawback to this 
region, was the fact that, in all civil cases of over a thousand dollars, and in criminal cases that 
were capital, as well as in actions of ejectment, and in the allowance of writs of error, and man- 
damus, recourse must be had to the supreme court at Detroit ; the latter place being the seat of 
government of Michigan Territory. However, in January, 1823, an act of congress provided 
for a district court, and for the appointment of a judge, for the counties of Brown, Crawford, 
and Michilimackinac. This court had concurrent jurisdiction, civil and criminal, with the 
supreme court of the Territory, in most cases, subject, however, to have its decisions taken to the 
latter tribunal by a writ of error. The law provided for holding one term of court in each year, 
in each of the counties named in the act ; so, at last, there was to be an administration of justice 
at home, and the people were to be relieved from all military arbitrations, which frequently had 
been imposed upon them. James Duane Doty was appointed judge of this court at its organiza- 
tion. A May term of the court was held in Prairie du ChTen ; a June term in Green Bay; a 
July term in " the Borough of Michilimackinac," in each year. In 1824, Henry S. Baird, of 
Brown county, was appointed district attorney. Doty held the office of judge until May, 1832, 
when he was succeeded by David Irvin. This court continued until 1836, when it was abrogated 
by the organization of the Territory of Wisconsin. 

For a long time it had been known that there were lead mines in what is now the south- 


western portion of the State; but it was not until the year 1825, and the two following years, that 
very general attention was attracted to them, which eventuated in the settlement of different 
places in that region, by Americans, who came to dig for lead ore. This rapid increase of 
settlers awakened the jealousy of the Winnebago Indians, at what they deemed an unauthorized 
intrusion upon their lands, which, with other causes operating unfavorably upon their minds, 
aroused them in June, 1S27, to open acts of hostility. Murders became frequent.' Finallv, the 
militia of Prairie du Chien were called out. On the twenty-ninth of August, Brigadier-General 
Henry Atkinson, of the United States army, with a strong force of regulars, ascended the Wis- 
consin river to put an end to any further spread of Winnebago disturbances. He was joined on 
the first of September, by one hundred and thirty Galena volunteers, mounted, and under com- 
mand of General Henry Dodge. The Winnebagoes were awed into submission. Thus ended 
the " Winnebago War." It was followed by the erection at the portage of Fort Winnebago, bv 
the United States. 

After the restoration of tranquillity, the United States proceeded by treaty with the Indians, 
to secure the right to occupy the lead regions. This was in 1828. The next year, the General 
Government purchased of the Winnebagoes, Southwestern Wisconsin, which put an end to all 
trouble on account of mining operations. On the ninth of October, 1829, a county was formed, 
by the legislative council of the Territory of Michigan, comprising all that part of Crawford 
county lying south of the Wisconsin river. This new county was called Iowa. The county 
seat was temporarily established at Mineral Point. Following this was a treaty in 1831, with the 
Menomonees, for all their lands east of Green bay, Winnebago lake, and the Fo.x and Milwaukee 

There was now a crisis at hand. The most prominent event to be recorded in the pre-Ter- 
ritorial annals of Wisconsin is known as the Black Hawk War. This conflict of arms between 
the Sacs and Foxes and the United States arose from a controversy in regard to lands. By a 
treaty made at Fort Harmar, just across the River Muskingum from Marietta, Ohio, in January, 
1789, the Pottawattamie and Sac tribes of Itidians, among others, were received into the friend- 
ship of the General Government, and a league of peace and unity established between the con- 
tracting parties On the third of November, 1804, a treaty at St. Louis stipulated that the 
united Sac and Fox tribes should be received into the friendship of the United States, and also 
be placed under their protection. These tribes also agreed to consider themselves under the pro- 
tection of the Cxeneral Government and of no other power whatsoever. At this treaty lands were 
ceded which were circumscribed by a boundary beginning at a point on the Missouri river 
opposite the mouth of the Gasconade, and running thence in a direct course so as to strike the 
River Jefferson at the distance of thirty miles from its mouth, and down that stream to the Missis- 
sippi. It then ran up the latter river to the mouth of the Wisconsin, and up that stream to a 
point thirty-six miles in a direct line from its mouth ; thence by a straight course to a point 
where the Fox river of the Illinois leaves the small lake then called Sakaegan, and from that 
point down the Fox to the Illinois, and down the latter to the Mississippi. The consideration for 
this cession was the payment of goods to the value of two thousand two hundred and thirty-four 
dollars and fifty cents, and a yearly annuity of one thousand dollars — six hundred to be paid to 
the Sacs and four hundred to the Foxes — to be liquidated in goods valued at first cost. After- 
ward, Fort Madison was erected just above the Des Moines rapids in the Mississippi, on the ter- 
ritory ceded at the last mentioned treaty. Then followed the war with Great Britain, and the 
Sacs and Foxes agreed to take no part therein. However, a portion afterward joined the 
English against the Americans along with other Western tribes. At the restoration of peace the 
Sacs and Foxes held treaties with the United States. There was a renewal of the treaty of 1804. 


Such in brief is a general outline of affairs, so far as those two tribes were concerned, down to the 
close of the last war with England. From this time, to the year 1830, several additional treaties 
were made with the Sacs and Foxes by the General Government : one in 1822, by which they relin- 
quislied their right to have the United States establish a trading house or factory at a convenient 
point at which the Indians could trade and save themselves from the imposition of traders, for 
which they were paid the sum of one thousand dollars in merchandise. Again, in 1S24, they 
sold to the General Government all their lands in Missouri, north of Missouri river, for which 
they received one thousand dollars the same year, and an annuity of one thousand dollars for ten 
years. In 1830, they ceded to the United States a strip of land twenty miles wide from the Mis- 
sissippi to the Des Moines, on the north side, of their territory. The time had now come for the 
two tribes to leave the. eastern shore of the Mississippi and retire across the " great water." 
Keokuk, the Watchful Fox, erected his wigwam on the west side of the river, and was followed 
by a large part of the two tribes. But a band headed by Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiah, or the 
Black Sparrow Hawk, commonly called Black Hawk, refused to leave their village near Rock 
Island. They contended that they had not sold their town to the United States ; and, upon 
their return early in 1831, from a hunt across the Mississippi, finding their village and fields in 
possession of the whites, they determined to repossess their homes at all hazards. This was 
looked upon, or called, an encroachment by the settlers; so the governor of Illinois took the 
responsibility of declaring the State invaded, and asked the United States to drive the refractory 
Indians beyond the Mississippi. The result was, the Indian village was destroyed by Illinois 
volunteers. This and the threatened advance across the river by the United States commander, 
brought Black Hawk and his followers to terms. They sued for peace — agreeing to remain 
forever on the west side of the Mississippi. But this truce was of short duration. 

Early in the Spring of 1832, Black Hawk having assembled his forces on the Mississippi, in 
the vicinity of the locality where Fort Madison had stood, crossed that stream and ascended 
Rock river. This was the signal for war. The governor of Illinois made a call for volunteers; 
and, in a brief space of time, eighteen hundred had assembled at Beardstown, Cass county. 
They marched for the mouth of Rock river, where a council of war was held by their officers 
and Brigadier-General Henry Atkinson, of the regular forces. The Indians were sent word by 
General Atkinson that they must return and recross the Mississippi, or they would be driven 
back by force. " If you wish to fight us, come on," was the laconic but defiant reply of the Sac 
chief. When the attempt was made to compel these Indians to go back across the "great river," 
a collision occurred between the Illinois militia and Black Hawk's braves, resulting in the dis- 
comfiture of the former with the loss of eleven men. Soon afterward the volunteers were dis- 
charged, and the first campaign of Black Hawk's War was at an end. This was in May, 1832. 

In June following, a new force had been raised and put under the command of General 
.\tkin1son, who commenced his march up Rock river. Before this, there had been a general 
"forting" in the lead region, including the whole country in Southwest Wisconsin, notwithstand- 
ing which, a number of settlers had been killed by the savages, mostly in Illinois. Squads of 
volunteers, in two or three instances, had encountered the Indians ; and in one with entire suc- 
cess — -upon the Pecatonica, in what is now Lafayette county, Wisconsin — every savage (and 
tliere were seventeen of them) being killed. The loss of the volunteers was three killed and 
wounded. Atkinson's march up Rock river was attended with some skirmishing; when, being 
informed that Black Hawk and his force were at Lake Koshkonong, in the southwest corner of 
what is now Jefferson county, Wisconsin, he immediately moved thither with a jjortion of his 
army, where the wliole force was ordered to concentrate. But the Sac chief with his people had 
flown. Colonels Henry Dodge and James D. Henry, with the forces under them, discovered the 


trail of the savages, leading in the direction of the Wisconsin river. It was evident that the 
retreating force was large, and that it had but recently passed. The pursuing troops hastened 
their march. On the twenty-first of July, 1S32, they arrived at the hills which skirt the left bank 
of that stream, in what is now Roxbury town (township), Dane county. Here was Black 
Hawk's whole force, including women and children, the aged and infirm, hastening by every 
effort to escape across the river. But that this might now be effected, it became necessary for 
that chief to make a firm stand, to cover the retreat. The Indians were in the bottom lands 
when the pursuing whites made their appearance upon the heights in their rear. Colonel Dodge 
occupied the front and sustained the first attack of the Indians. He was soon joined by Henry 
with his force, when they obtained a complete victory. The action commenced about five 
o'clock in the afternoon and ended at sunset. The enemy, numbering not less than five hundred, 
sustained a loss of about sixty killed and a large number wounded. The loss of the Americans 
was one killed and eight wounded. This conflict has since been known as the battle of Wis- 
consin Heights. 

During the night following the battle, Black Hawk made his escape with his remaining force 
and people down the Wisconsin river. The women and children made their way down stream 
in canoes, while the warriors marched on foot along the shore. The Indians were pursued in 
their flight, and were finally brought to a stand on the Mississippi river, near the mouth of the 
Bad Axe, on the west boundary of what is now Vernon county, Wisconsin. About two o'clock 
on the morning of the second of August, the line of march began to the scene of the hist con- 
flict in the Black Hawk War. Dodge's command formed the advance, supported by regular 
troops, under Colonel Zachary Taylor, afterward president of the United States. Meanwhile an 
armed steamboat had moved up the Mississippi and lay in front of the savages ; so they were 
attacked on all sides by the exasperated Americans. The battle lasted about two hours, and 
was a complete victory for the whites. Black Hawk fled, but was soon after captured. This 
ended the war. 

The survey of public lands by the General Government ; the locating and opening of land 
offices at Mineral Point and Green Bay; the erection of Milwaukee county from a part of 
Brown, to include all the territory bounded on the east and south by the east and south lines of 
the present State, on the north by what is now the north boundary of Washington and Ozaukee 
counties and farther westward on the north line of township numbered twelve, and on the west 
by the dividing line between ranges eight and nine ; and the changing of the eastern boundary 
of Iowa county to correspond with the western one of Milwaukee county; — are some of the 
important events following the close of the Black Hawk war. There was an immediate and 
rapid increase of immigration, not only in the mining region but in various other parts of what 
is now Wisconsin, more especially in that portion bordering on Lake Michigan. The interior 
was yet sparsely settled. By the act of June z8, 1834, congress having attached to the Territory 
of Michigan, for judicial purposes, all the country "west of the Mississippi river, and north of 
the State of Missouri," comprising the whole of what is now the State of Iowa, all of the present 
State of Minnesota west of the Mississippi river, and more than half of what is now the Terri- 
tory of Dakota, the legislative council of Michigan Territory extended her laws over the whole 
area, dividing it on the 6th of September, 1S34, by a line drawn due west from the lower end of 
Rock island to the Missouri river into two counties : the country south of that line constituting 
the county of Des Moines; north of the line, to be known as the county of Dubuque. This 
whole region west of the Mississippi was known as the Iowa district. Immediately after the 
treaty of 1832 with the Sacs and Foxes, the United States having come into ownership of a large 
tract in this district, several families crossed the Mississippi, and settled on the purchase, but as 


the time provided for tiie Indians to give possession was the first of June, 1833, these settlers 
were dispossessed by order of the General Government. So soon, however, as the Indians yielded 
possession, settlements began, but, from the date just mentioned until September, 1834, after the 
district was attached, for judicial purposes, to Michigan Territory, it was without any municipal 
law whatever. The organization of the counties of Dubuque arid Des Moines on the sixth of 
that month, secured, of course a regular administration of justice. In 1835, in order to facili- 
tate intercourse between the two remote military posts of Fort Howard at Green Bay, and Fort 
Crawford at Prairie du Chien, a military road was commenced to connect the two points; so, 
one improvement followed another. On the 9th of January, 1836, a session (the first one) of 
the seventh legislative council of Michigan Territory — that is, of so much of it as lay to the 
westward of Lake Michigan — was held at Green Bay, and a memorial adopted, asking Congress 
for the formation of a new Territory west of that lake ; to include all of Michigan Territory not 
embraced in the proposed State of Michigan. Congress, as will now be shown, very soon com- 
plied with the request of the memorialists. 


The establishing of a separate and distinct Territory west of Lake Michigan, was the result 
of the prospective admission of Michigan into the Union (an event which took place not until 
the twenty-sixth of January, 1837), as the population, in all the region outside of the boundaries 
determined upon by the people for that State, would otherwise be left without a government, or, 
at least, it would be necessary to change the capital of the old Michigan Territory farther to the 
westward ; so it was thought best to erect a new territory, to be called Wisconsin (an Indian 
word signifying wild rushing water, or channel, so called from the principal eastern tributary of 
the Mississippi within its borders), which was done by an act of congress, approved April 20, 
1836, to take effect from and after the third day of July following. The Territory was made to 
include all that is now embraced within the States of Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, and a part of 
the Territory of Dakota, more particularly described within boundaries commencing at the north- 
east corner of the State of Illinois, running thence through the middle of Lake Michigan to a 
point opposite the main channel of Green bay ; thence through that channel and the bay to the 
mouth of the Menomonee river ; thence up that stream to its head, which is nearest the lake of the 
Desert ; thence to the middle of that lake ; thence down the Montreal river to its mouth ; thence 
with a direct line across Lake Superior to where the territorial line of the United States last touches 
the lake northwest; thence on the north, with the territorial line, to the White Earth river; on the 
west by a line drawn down the middle of the main channel of that stream to the Missouri river, 
and down the middle of the main channel of the last mentioned stream to the northwest corner of 
the State of Missouri ; and thence with the boundaries of the States of Missouri and Illinois, as 
already fixed by act of congress, to the place or point of beginning. Its counties were Brown, 
Milwaukee, Iowa, Crawford, Dubuque, and Des Moines, with a portion of Chippewa and Michili- 
mackinac left unorganized. Although, at this time, the State of Michigan was only engaged, so 
to speak, to the Union, to include the two peninsulas (many of its citizens preferring in lieu 
thereof the lower one only, with a small slice off the northern boundary of the State of Ohio as 
now constituted), yet the marriage ceremony was performed, as has been stated, a few months 

The act of congress establishing the Territorial government of Wisconsin was very full and 
complete. It first determined its boundaries; then it declared that all authority of the govern- 
ment of Michigan over the new Territory should cease on the fourth day of July, 1836, with a 


proper reservation of rights in favor of the Indians. It provided for subsequently dividing tne 
Territory into one or more, should congress deem it wise so to do. It also declared that the 
executive power and authority in and over the Territory should be vested in a governor, at the same 
time defining his powers. It provided for the appointment of a secretary, stating what his duties 
should be. The legislative power was vested in the governor and legislative assembly, the latter 
to consist of a council and house of representatives, answering respectively to the senate and 
assembly, as states are usually organized. There was a provision for taking the census of the 
several counties, and one giving the governor power to name the time, place, and manner of 
holding the first election, and to declare the number of members of the council and house of 
representatives to which each county should be entitled. He was also to determine where the 
first legislative assembly should meet, and a wise provision was that the latter should not be in 
session in any one year more than seventy-five days. 

One section of the act declared who should be entitled to vote and hold office ; another 
defined the extent of the powers of the legislature, and a third provided that all laws should be 
submitted to congress for their approval or rejection. There was a section designating what 
offices should be elective and what ones should be filled by the governor. There were others 
regulating the judiciary for the Territory and declaring what offices should be appointed by the 
United States, providing for their taking the proper oaths of office and regulating their salaries. 
One, perhaps the most important of all, declared that the Territory should be entitled to and enjoy 
all the rights, privileges, and advantages granted by the celebrated ordinance of 1787. There 
was also a provision for the election of a delegate to the house of representatives of the United 
States; and a declaration that all suits- and indictments pending in the old courts should be con- 
tinued in the new ones. Five thousand dollars were appropriated for a library for the accommo- 
dation of the legislative assembly of the Territory and of its supreme court. 

For the new Territory, Henry Dodge was, on the 30th of April, 1836, by Andrew Jackson, 
then President of the United States, commissioned governor. John S. Horner was commissioned 
secretary; Charles Dunn, chief justice; David Irvin and William C. Frazer, associate judges; 
W. W. Chapman, attorney, and Francis Gehon, marshal. The machinery of a territorial gov- 
ernment was thus formed, which was set in motion by these officers taking the prescribed oath of 
office. The next important step to be taken was to organize the Territorial legislature. The 
provisions of the organic' act relative to the enumeration of the population of the Territory were ■ 
that previously to the first election, the governor should cause the census of the inhabitants of 
the several counties to be taken by the several sheriffs, and that the latter should make returns of 
the same to the Executive. These figures gave to Des Moines county, 6,257 ; Iowa county, 
5,234; Dubuque county, 4,274; Milwaukee county, 2,893; Brown county, 2,706; Crawford 
county, 850. The entire population, therefore, of Wisconsin Territory in the summer of 1836, 
as given by the first census was, in precise numbers, twemty-two thousand two hundred and four- 
teen, of which the two counties west of the Mississippi furnished nearly one half. The apportion- 
ment, after the census had been taken, made by the governor, gave to the different counties thir- 
teen councilmen and twenty-six representatives. Brown county got two councilmen and three 
representatives; Crawford, two representatives, but no councilmen; Milwaukee, two councilmen 
and three representatives ; Iowa, Dubuque and Des Moines, each three councilmen ; but of repre- 
sentatives, Iowa got six; Dubuque, five, and Des Moines, seven. The election was held on the 
tenth of October, 1836, exciting considerable interest, growing out, chiefly, of local considera- 
tions. The permanent location of the capital, the division of counties, and the location of county 
seats, were the principal questions influencing the voters. There were elected from the county 
of Brown, Henry S. Baird and John P. Arndt, members of the council; Ebenezer Childs, Albert 


G. Ellis and Alexander J. Irwin, members of the house of representatives ; from Milwaukee, 
the councilmen were Gilbert Knapp and Alanson Sweet ; representatives, William B. Sheldon, 
Madison W. Cornwall and Charles Durkee : from Iowa, councilmen, EbenezerBrigham, JohnB. 
Terry and James R. Vineyard; representatives, William Boyles, G. F. Smith, D. M. Parkinson, 
Thomas McKnight, T. Shanley and J. P. Cox : from Dubuque, councilmen, John Foley, Thomas 
McCraney and Thomas McKnight; representatives, Loring Wheeler, Hardin Nowlin, Hosea T. 
Camp, P. H. Engle and Patrick Quigley : from Des Moines, councilmen, Jeremiah Smith, Jr., 
Joseph B. Teas and Arthur B. Ingliram ; representatives, Isaac Leffler, Thomas Blair, Warren L. 
Jenkins, John Box, George W. Teas, Eli Reynolds and David R. Chance : from Crawford, repre- 
sentatives, James H. Lockwood and James B. Dallam. 

Belmont, in the present county of LaFayette, then in Iowa county, was, by the governor, 
appointed the place for the meeting of the legislature ; he also fixed the time — the twenty-fifth 
of October. A quorum was in attendance in both branches at the time decided upon for their 
assembling, and the two houses were speedily organized by the election of Peter Hill Fngle. of 
DubuqJl, speaker of the house, and Henry S. Baird, of Brown, president of the council. Each 
of the separate divisions of the government — the executive, the judicial, and the legislative — 
was now in working order, except that it remained for the legislature to divide the Territory into 
judicial districts, and make an assignment of the judges ; and for the governor to appoint a Ter- 
ritorial treasurer, auditor and attorney general. The act of congress establishing the Terri- 
tory required that it should be divided into three judicial districts. The counties of Crawford 
and Iowa were constitued by the legislature the first district, to which was assigned Chief Justice 
Dunn. The second district was composed of the counties of Des Moines and Dubuque ; to it 
was assigned Associate Judge Irvin. The third district was formed of the counties of Brown 
and Milwaukee, to which was assigned Associate Judge Frazer. 

Governor Dodge, in his first message to the Territorial legislature, directed attention to the 
necessity for defining the jurisdiction and powers of the several courts, and recommended that 
congress should be memorialized to extend the right of pre-emption to actual settlers upon the 
public lands and to miners on mineral lands; also, to remove the obstructions in the rapids 
of the Upper Mississippi, to construct harbors and light-houses on Lake Michigan, to improve 
the navigation of Fox river and to survey the same from its mouth to Fort Winnebago, to 
increase the amount of lands granted to the Territory for school purposes, and to organize and 
arm the militia for the protection of the frontier settlements. The first act passed by the legis- 
lature was one privileging members from arrest in certain cases and conferring on themselves 
power to punish parties for contempt. The second one established the three judicial districts 
and assigned the judges thereto. One was passed to borrow money to defray the expenses 
of the session ; others protecting a^l lands donated to the Territory by the United States in aid 
of schools, and creating a common school fund. A memorial to congress was adopted request- 
ing authorization to sell the school-section in each township, and appropriate the money arising 
therefrom for increasing the fund for schools. 

During this session, five counties were "set off " west of the Mississippi river: Lee, Van 
Buren, Henry, Louisa, Muscatine, and Cook ; and fifteen east of that stream : Walwortli, Racine, 
Jefferson, Dane, Portage, Dodge, Washington, Sheboygan, Fond du Lac, Calumet, Manitowoc, 
Marquette, Rock, Grant and Green. 

The principal question agitating the legislature at its first session was the location of the 
capital. Already the people west of the Mississippi were speculating upon the establishment of 
a Territory on that side the river, prospects for which would be enhanced evidently, by placing 
the seat of government somewhat in a central position east of that stream, for Wisconsin 


Territory. Now, as Madison was a point answering such requirements she triumphed over all 
competitors; and the latter numbered a dozen or more — including, among others, Fond du Lac, 
Milwaukee, Racine, Belmont, Mineral Point, Green Bay, and Cassville. The struggle over this 
question was one of the most exciting ever witnessed in the Territorial legislature. Madison 
was fixed upon as the seat of government, but it was provided that sessions of the legislature 
should be held at Burlington, in Des Moines county, until the fourth of March, T839, unless the 
public buildings in the new capital should be sooner completed. After an enactment that the 
legislature should thereafter meet on the first Monday of November of each )'ear, both houses, 
on the ninth day of December, 1836, adjourned siiie die. 

In the act of congress establishing the Territory of Wisconsin it was provided that a delegate 
to the house of representatives of the United States, to serve for the term of two years, should 
be elected by the voters qualified to elect members of the legislative assembly-, and that the 
first election should be held at such time and place or places, and be conducted in such manner 
as the governor of the Territory should appoint and direct. In pursuance of this en^ment. 
Governor Dodge directed that the election for delegate should be at the time and places 
appointed for the election of members of the legislative assembly — the loth of October, 1836. 
The successful candidate for that office was George W. Jones, of Sinsinawa Mound, Iowa 
county — in that portion which was afterward "set off " as Grant county. Jones, under the act 
of 1S19, had been elected a delegate for Michigan Territory, in October, 1835, and took his 
seat at the ensuing session, in December of that year. By the act of June 15, 1836, the consti- 
tution and State government which the people of Michigan had formed for themselves was 
accepted, ratified and confirmed, and she was declared to be one of the United States of 
America, so that the term of two years for which Jones had been elected was cut short, as, in 
the nature of the case, his term could not survive the existence of the Territory he represented. 
But, as he was a candidate for election to represent the new Territory of Wisconsin in congress 
as a delegate, and was successful, he took his seat at the commencement of the second session of 
the twenty-fourth congress — December 12, 1836, notwithstanding he had been elected only a 
little over two months. 

The first term of the supreme court of the Territory was held at Belmont on the 8th day of 
December. There were present, Charles Dunn, chief justice, and David Irvin, associate judge. 
John Catlin was appointed clerk, and Henry S. Baird having previously been commissioned 
attorney general for the Territory by Governor Dodge, appeared before the court and took the 
oath of office. Causes in which the United States was party or interested were looked after by 
the United States attorney, who received his appointment from the president; while all cases 
in which the Territory was interested was attended to by the attorney general, whose commission 
was signed by the governor. The appointing of a crier and reporter and the admission of 
several attorneys to practice, completed the business for the term. The annual term appointed 
for the third Monday of July of the following year, at Madison, was not held; as no business for 
the action of the court had matured. 

At the time of the complete organization of the Territory of Wisconsin, when the whole 
machinery had been put fairly in motion; when its first legislature at its first session had, after 
passing forty-two laws and three joint resolutions, in forty-six days, adjourned; — at this time, 
the entire portion west of the Mississippi had, in round numbers, a population of only eleven 
thousand; while the sparsely settled mineral region, the military establishments — Fort Craw- 
ford, Fort Winnebago, and Fort Howard — and the settlements at or near them, with the village 
of Milwaukee, constituted about all there was of the Territory east of that river, aggregating 
about twelve thousand inhabitants. There was no land in market, except a narrow strip along 



the shore of Lake Michigan, and in the vicinity of Green bay. The residue of the country 
south and east of the Wisconsin and Fox rivers was open only to preemption by actual settlers. 
The Indian tribes still claimed a large portion of the lands. On the north and as far west as 
the Red river of the north were located the Chippewas. The southern limits of their posses- 
sions were defined by a line drawn from a point on that stream in about latitude 46° 30' in a 
southeasterly direction to the liead of Lake St. Croix; thence in the same general direction to 
what is now Stevens Point, in the present Portage county, Wisconsin ; thence nearly east to 
Wolf river; and thence in a direction nearly northeast to the Menomonee river. The whole 
country bounded by the Red river and Mississippi on the east; the parallel of about 43° of 
latitude on the south; the Missouri and \Vhite Earth river on the west; and the Territorial line 
on the north, was occupied by the Sioux. In the southwest part of the Territory, lying mostly 
south of latitude 43° — in the country reaching to the Missouri State boundary line south, and 
to the Missouri river west — were the homes of the Pottawattamies, the lowas, and the Sacs and 
Foxes. Between the Wisconsin river and the Mississippi, and extending north to the south 
line of the Chippewas was the territory of the Winnebagoes. East of the Winnebagoes in the 
country north of the Fox river of Green bay were located the Menomonees, their lands 
extending to Wolf river. Such was the general outline of Indian occupancy in Wisconsin 
Territory at its organization. A portion of the country east of Wolf river and north of Green 
bay and the Fox river ; the whole of the area lying south of Green bay, Fox river and the 
Wisconsin ; and a strip of territory immediately west of the Mississippi, about fifty miles in 
width, and extending from the Missouri State line as far north as the northern boundary of the 
present State of Iowa, constituted the whole extent of country over which the Indians had 
no claim. 

The second session of the first legislative assembly of the Territory began at Burlington, 
now the county seat of Des Moines county, Iowa, on the 6th of November, 1837. The governor, 
in his message, recommended a codification of the laws, the organization of the militia, and other 
measures of interest to the people. An act was passed providing for taking another census, and 
one abolishing imprisonment for debt. By a joint resolution, congress was urged to make an 
appropriation of twenty thousand dollars in money, and two townships of land for a " University 
of the Territory of Wisconsin." The money was not appropriated, but the land was granted — 
forty-six thousand and eighty acres. This was the fundamental endowment of the present State 
university, at Madison. A bill was also passed to regulate the sale of school lands, and to 
prepare for organizing, regulating and perfecting schools. Another act, which passed the 
legislature at this session, proved an apple of discord to the people of the Territory. The 
measure was intended to provide ways and means whereby to connect, by canals and slack- 
water, the waters of Lake Michigan with those of the Mississippi, by way of Rock river, the 
Catfish, the four lakes and tlie Wisconsin, by the incorporation of the Milwaukee and Rock 
river canal company. This company was given authority to apply to congress for an appro- 
priation in money or lands to aid in the construction of the work, which was to have its eastern 
outlet in the Milwaukee river, and to unite at its western terminus with Rock river, near the 
present village of Jefferson, in Jefferson county. The result was that a grant of land of odd- 
numbered sections in a strip of territory five miles on each side of the line of the proposed canal 
was secured, and in July, 1839, over forty thousand acres were sold at the minimum price of 
two dollars and fifty cents per acre. However, owing mainly to the fact that purchasers were 
compelled to pay double the government price for their lands — owing also to the circumstance 
of an antagonism growing up between the officers of the canal company and the Territorial 
officers intrusted with the disposition of the lands, and to conflicts between'the beneficiaries of 


the grant and some of the leading politicians of the time — the whole scheme proved a curse 
and a blight rather than a blessing, antl eventuating, of course, in the total failure of the project. 
There had been much Territorial and State legislation concerning the matter ; but very little 
work, meanwhile, was done on the canal. It is only within the year 1875 that an apparent 
quietus has been given to the subject, and legislative enactments forever put at rest. 

Fourteen counties were set off during this session of the legislature at Burlington — all 
west of the Mississippi. They were Benton, Buchanan, Cedar, Clinton, Delaware, Fayette, 
Jackson, Johnson, Jones, Keokuk, Linn, Slaughter, Scott and Clayton. One hundred and five 
acts and twenty joint resolutions were passed. On the 20th of January, 1838, both houses 
adjourned until the second Monday of June following. 

The census of the Territory having been taken in May, the special session of the first legis- 
lature commenced on the eleventh of June, 1838, at Burlington, juirsuant to adjournment, mainly 
for the purpose of making a new apijortionment of members of the house. This was effected by 
giving twelve members to the counties east of the Mississippi, and fourteen to those west of that 
stream, to be contingent, however, upon the division of the Territory, which measure was not 
only then before congress, but had been actually passed by that body, though unknown to the 
Territorial legislature. The law made it incumbent on the governor, in the event of the Terri- 
tory being divided before the ne.\t general election, to make an apportionment for the part 
remaining, — enacting that the one made by the act of the legislature should, in that case, have 
no effect. Having provided that the next session should be held at Madison, the legislative body 
adjourned sine die on the twenty-fifth of June, 1S38, the public buildings at the new capital 
having been put under contract in April, previous. Up to this time, the officers of the Territory 
at large, appointed by the president of the United States at its organization, had remained 
unchanged, except that the secretary, John S. Horner, had been removed and his place given to 
William B. Slaughter, by appointment, dated February 16, 1837. Now there were two other 
changes made. On the nineteenth of June, Edward James was commissioned marshal, and on 
the fifth of July, Moses M. Strong was commissioned attorney of the United States for the Ter- 
ritory. By an act of congress, approved June 12, 1838, to divide the Territory of Wisconsin, 
and to establish a Territorial government west of the Mississippi, it was provided that from and 
after the third day of July following, all that part of Wisconsin Territory lying west of that river 
and west of a line drawn due north from its headwaters or sources to the Territorial line, for the 
purposes of a Territorial government should be set apart and known by the name of Iowa. It 
was further enacted that the Territory of Wisconsin should thereafter extend westward only to 
the Mississippi. It will be seen therefore that all that portion of the present State of Minnesota, 
extending eastward from the Mississippi to the St. Croix and northward to the United States 
boundary line, was then a part of Wisconsin Territory, even after the organization of the Terri- 
tory of Iowa. The census taken in May, just previous to the passage of this act, gave a total 
population to the several counties of the Territory, east of the Mississippi, of 18,149. 

On the third Monday of July, 1838, the annual terms of the supreme court — the first one 
after the re-organization of the Territory of Wisconsin — was held at Madison. There were 
present Chief Justice Uunn and Associate Judge Frazer. After admitting five attorneys to 
practice, hearing several motions, and granting several rules, the court adjourned. All the terms 
of the Supreme Court thereafter were held at Madison. 

At an election held in the Territory on the tenth day of September, 1838, James Duane Doty 

' received the highest number of votes for the office of delegate to congress, and was declared by 

Governor Dodge duly elected, by a certificate of election, issued on the twenty-seventh day of 

October following. Upon the commencement of the third session of the twenty- fifth congress 



on AFonday, December lo, 1S3S, Isaac E. Crary, member from Michigan, announced to the chair 
of the house of representatives that Doty was in attendance as delegate from Wisconsin Terri- 
tory, and moved that he be qualified. Jones, the former delegate, then rose and protested 
against Doty's right to the seat, claiming that his (Jones') term had not expired. The basis for 
his claim was that under the act of 181 7, a delegate must be elected only for one congress, and 
not for parts of two congressional terms; that his term as a delegate from Wisconsin did not 
commence until the fourth of March, 1837, and consequently would not expire until the fourth 
of March, 1S39. The subject was finally referred to the committee of elections. This com- 
mittee, on the fourteenth of January, 1839, reported in favor of Doty's right to his seat as dele- 
gate, submitting a resolution to that effect which passed the house by a vote of one hundred and 
sixty-five to twenty-five. Whereupon Doty was qualified as delegate from Wisconsin Territory, 
and took his seat at the date last mentioned. 

On the Sth of November, Andrew G. Miller was appointed by Martin Van Buren, then 
president of the United States, associate judge of the supreme court, to succeed Judge Frazer, 
who died at Milwaukee, on the 18th of October. During this year, Moses M. Strong succeeded 
W. W. Chapman as United States attorney for the Territory. 

On the 26th day of November, 1838, the legislature of the re-organized Territory of Wis- 
consin — being the first session of the second legislative assembly — met at Madison. Governor 
Dodge, in his message, recommended an investigation of the banks then in operation, memorial- 
izing congress for a grant of lands for the improvement of the Fox river of Green bay and the 
Wisconsin; the revision of the laws; the division of the Territory into judicial districts; the 
justice of granting to all miners who have obtained the ownership of mineral grounds under the 
regulations of the superintendent of the United States lead mines, either by discovery or pur- 
chase, the right of pre-emption; and the improvement of the harbors on Lake Michigan. 

The attention of this Legislature was directed to the mode in which the commissioners of 
public buildings had discharged their duties There was an investigation of the three banks 
then in operation in the Territory — one at (ireen Bay, one at Mineral Point, and the other at 
Milwaukee. A plan, also, for the revision of the laws of the Territory was considered. A new 
assignment was made for the holding of district courts. Chief Justice Dunn was assigned to the 
first district, composed of the counties of Iowa, Grant and Crawford; Judge Irvin to the second, 
composed of the counties of Dane, Jefferson, Rock, Walworth and Green; while Judge iVIiller 
was assigned to the third district, composed of Milwaukee, Brown and Racine counties — includ- 
ing therein the unorganized counties of Washington and Dodge, which, for judicial purposes, 
were, when constituted Ijy name and boundary, attached to Milwaukee county, and had so 
remained since that date. The legislature adjourned on the 22d of December, to meet again on 
the 2ist of the following month. "Although," said the president of the council, upon the occasion 
of the adjournment, '" but few acts of a general character have been passed, as the discussions and 
action of this body have been chiefly confined to bills "of a local nature, and to the passage of 
memorials to the parent government in behalf of the great interests of the Territory; yet it is 
believed that the concurrent resolutions of the two houses authorizing a revision of the laws, is a 
measure of infinite importance to the true interests of the people, and to the credit and charac- 
ter of the Territory." 

Tbe census of the Territory having been taken during the year 1838, showed a population 
of 18,130, an increase in two years of 6,447. 

The second session of the second legislative assembly commenced on the twenty-first day of 
January, 1839, agreeable to adjournment. The most important work was the revision of the laws 
which had been perfected during the recess, by the committee to whom the work was intrusted. 


consisting of three members from each house : from the council, M. L. Martin, Marshall M. 
Strong, and James Collins ; from the house oi representatives, Edward V. Whiton, Augustus 
Story, and B xrlow Shackleford. The act legalizing the revision, took effect on the fourth day of 
July following. The laws as revised, composed the principal part of those forming the Revised 
Statutes of 1839, a valuable volume for all classes in the territory — and especially so for the 
courts and lawyers — during the next ten years. The sine die adjournment of this legislature took 
place on the nth of March, 1839. 

On the 8th of March of this year, Henry Dodge, whose term for three years as governor 
was about to expire, was again commissioned by the president of the United States, as governor 
of the Territory of Wisconsin. At the July term of the supreme court, all the judges were pre- 
sent, and several cases were heard and decided. A seal for the court was also adopted. The 
attorney general of the lerritory at this time was H. N. Wells, who had been commissioned by 
Governor Dodge, on the 30th of March previous, in place of H. S. Baird, resigned. Wells not 
being in attendance at this term of the court, Franklin J. Muiiger was appointed by the judge 
attorney general for that session. The clerk, John Collin having resigned, Simeon Mills was 
selected by the court to fill his place. From this time, the supreme court met annually, as pro- 
vided by law, until Wisconsin became a State. 

The next legislature assembled at Madison, on the second of December, 1839. This was 
the third session of the second legislative assembly of the Territory. The term for which mem- 
bers of the house were elected, would soon expire ; it was therefore desirable that a new appor- 
tionment should be made. As the census would be taken ihe ensuing June, by the United States, 
it would be unnecessary for the Territory to make an additional enumeration. A short session 
was resolved upon, and then an adjournment until after the completion of the census. One of 
the subjects occupying largely the attention of the members, was the condition of the capitol, 
and the conduct of the commissioners intrusted with the money appropriated by. congress to 
defray the cost of its construction. The legislature adjourned on the thirteenth of January, 
1840, to meet again on the third of the ensuing August. The completion of the census showed 
a population for the Territory of thirty thousand seven hundred and forty-four, against eighteen 
thousand one hundred and thirty, two years previous. Upon the re-assembling of the legisla- 
ture — which is known as the extra session of the second legi~lative assembly — at the time agreed 
upon, some changes were made in the apportionment of members to the house of representa- 
tives ; the session lasted but a few days, a final adjournment taking place on the fourteenth of 
August, 1840. At the July term of the supreme court, Simeon Mills resigned the office of 
clerk, and La Fayette Kellogg was appointed in his place. Kellogg continued to hold the posi- 
tion until the state judiciary was organized. At the ensuing election, James Duane Doty was 
re-elected Territorial delegate, taking his seat for the first time under his second term, on the 
eighth day of December, 1840, at the commencement of the second session of the twenty-sixth 

The first session of the third legislative assembly commence^- on the seventh of December, 
1840, with all new members in the house except three. All had recently been elected under the 
new apportionment. Most of the session was devoted to the ordinary routine of legislation. 
There was, however, a departure, in the passage of two acts granting divorces, from the usual 
current of legislative proceedings in the Territory. There was, also, a very interesting contested 
election case between two members from Brown county. Such was the backwardness in regard 
to the building of the capitol, at this date, that a large majority of the members stood ready to 
remove the seat of government to some other place. However, as no particular point could be 
agreed upon, it remained at Madison. The legislature adjourned on the nineteenth of February, 


184 r, having continued a term of seventy-five days, the maxinnim time limited by the organic act, 
Francis J. Dunn, appointed by Martin Van Ruren, was commissioned in place of William 
B. Slaughter, as secretary of the Territory, on the 25th of January, 1841, but was himself super- 
ceded by the appointment of A. P. Field, on the 23d day of April following. On the 15th of 
March, Daniel Hugunin was commissioned as marshal in place of Edward James, and on the 
27th of April, Thomas W. Sutherland succeeded Moses M. Strong as United States attorney 
for the Territory. On the 26th of June, Governor Dodge commissioned as attorney general of 
the Territory, M. M. Jackson. On the 13th of September following. Dodge was removed from 
office by John Tyler, then president of the United States, and James Duane Doty appointed in 
his place. The appointment of Doty, then the delegate of the Territory in congress, by the 
president of the United States as governor, and the consequent resignation of the latter of his 
seat in the house of representatives, caused a vacancy which was filled by the election of Henry 
Dodge to that office, on the 27th of September, 1841; so that Doty and Dodge changed places. 
Dodge took his seat for the first time, at the commencement of the second session of the twenty- 
fifth congress — Monday, December 7, 1841. 

About this time, the Milwaukee and Rock river canal imbroglio broke out afresh. The 
loan agent appointed by the governor to negotiate a loan of one hundred thousand dollars for 
the work, reported that he had negotiated fifty-six thousand dollars of bonds, which had been 
issued ; but he did not report what kind of money was to be received for them. Now, the canal 
commissioners claimed that it was their right and duty not to recognize any loan which was to 
be paid in such currency as they disapproved of. This dispute defeated the loan, and stopped 
all work on the canal. During the year 1841, Thomas W. Sutherland succeeded Moses M. 
Strong as United States attorney. The second session of the third legislative assembly began 
at Madison, on the sixth of December, 1841. Governor Doty, in his message to that body, 
boldly avowed the doctrine that no law of the Territory was effective, until expressly approved 
by congress. "The act," said he, "establishing the government of Wisconsin, in the third sec- 
tion, requires the secretary of the Territory to transmit annually, on or before the first Monday 
in December, ' two copies of the laws to the speaker of the house of representatives, for the 
use of congress.' The sixth section provides that 'all laws of ,the governor and legislative 
assembly shall be submitted to, and, if disapproved by the congress of the United States, the 
same shall be null and of no effect.' " "These provisions," he added, "it seems to me, require 
the laws to be actually submitted to congress before they take effect. They change the law by 
which this country was governed while it was a part of Michigan. That law provided that 
the laws should be reported to congress, and that they should ' be in force in tiie district until 
the organization of the general assembly therein, unless disapproved of by congress.' " The 
governor concluded in these words: "The opinion of my predecessor, which was expressed to 
the first legislature assembled after the organization of this government, in his message delivered 
at Belmont on the twenty-sixth day of October, 1836, fully sustains this view of the subject which 
I have presented. He said: 'We have convened under an act of congress of the United States 
establishing the Territorial government of Wisconsin, for the purpose of enacting such laws as 
may be re<[uired for the government of the people of this Territory, after their approval by con- 
gress.'" This construction of the organic act resulted in a lengthy warfare between the gov- 
ernor and the legislative assembly. 

At this session, the Milwaukee and Rock river canal again raised a tumult. "Congress 
had made a valuable grant of land to the Territory in trust. The Territory was the trustee; 
the canal company the cestui que trust. The trust had been accepted, and a large portion of 
the lands h-.d been sold, one tenth of the purchase money received, and ample securities held 


for the balance." The Territory now, by its legislature, repealed all the laws authorizing a 
loan, and all which contemplated the expenditure of any money on its part in constructing the 
canal. The legislature resolved that all connection ought to be dissolved, and the work on 
the canal by the Territory abandoned, and that the latter ought not further to execute the 
trust. They resolved also that the congress be requested to divert the grant to such other 
internal improvements as should be designated by the Territory, subject to the approval of 
congress; and that, if the latter should decline to make this diversion, it was requested to take 
back the grant, and dispose of the unsold lands. On the eleventh of February, 1842, a tragedy 
was enacted in the legislative council, causing great excitement over the whole Territory. On 
that day, Charles C. P. Arndt, a member from Brown county, was, while that body was in 
session, shot dead by James R. Vineyard, a member from Grant county. The difficulty grew 
out of a debate on motion to lay on the table the nomination of Enos S. Baker to the office of 
sheriff of Grant county. Immediately before adjournment of the council, the parties who had 
come together, after loud and angry words had been spoken, were separated by the by-standers. 
When an adjournment had been announced, they met again ; whereupon Arndt struck at Vine- 
yard. The latter then drew a pistol and shot Arndt. He died in a few moments. Vineyard 
immediately surrendered himself to the sheriff of the county, waived an e.xamination, and was 
committed to jail. After a short confinement, he was brought before the chief justice of the 
Territory, on a writ oi /laln-as corpus, and admitted to bail. He was afterward indicted for man- 
slaughter, was tried and acquitted. Three days after shooting Arndt, Vineyard sent in his 
resignation as member of the council. That body refused to receive it, or to have it read even; 
but at once expelled him. The second and last session of the third legislative assembly came 
to a close on the eighteenth of February, 1842. 

The first session of the fourth legislative assembly commenced on the fifth day of Decem- 
ber, 1842. The members had been elected under a new apportionment based upon a census 
taken in the previous June, which showed a total population for the Territory of forty-six thou- 
sand six hundred and seventy-eight — an increase of nearly ten thousand in two years. A politi- 
cal count showed a decided democratic majority in each house. Governor Doty's political 
proclivities were with the whig party. The contest between him and the legislature now 
assumed a serious character. He refused to "hold converse" with it, for the reason that, in his 
opinion, no appropriation had been made by congress to defray the expenses of the session, and, 
as a consequence, none could be held. The legislature made a representation to congress, then 
in session, of the objections of the governor, and adjourned on the tenth of December, to meet 
again on the thirteenth of January, 1843. I' ^^^-s not until the fourth of February following that 
a quorum in both houses had assembled, when the legislature, through a joint committee, waited 
on the governor, and informed him that they had again met according to adjournment, and were 
then ready to proceed to business. Previous to this time, congress had made an appropriation 
to cover the expenses of the legislature now in session, which- it was supposed would remove all 
conflict about its legality. But the governor had, on the thirtieth day of January previous, issued 
a proclamation, convening a special session of the legislature on the sixth of March, and still 
refused to recognize the present one as legal. Both houses then adjourned to the day fixed by 
the executive. A final adjournment took place on the seventeenth of April following. 

The term of two years for which Henry Dodge was elected as delegate, having expired at 
the close of the third session of the twenty-seventh congress, he was, on the twenty-fifth of Sep- 
tember, 1843, re-elected, taking his seat for the first time on his second term at the commence- 
ment of the first session of the twenty-eighth congress, Monday, December 4, 1843. O"^ 
the thirtieth of October of this year, George Floyd was commissioned by President Tyler as 


secretary of the Territory, in place of A. P. Field. 

The second session of the fourth legislative assembly of the Territory, commencing on the 
fourth of December, 1843, and terminating on the thirty-first of January, 1S44 — a period of f.l'ty- 
nine days — accomplished but little worthy of especial mention, except the submission of the 
question of the formation of a State government to a vote of the people, to be taken at the gene- 
ral election to be held in September following. The proposition did not succeed at the ballot- 
box. The third session of the fourth legislative assembly did not commence until the sixth of 
January, 1845, as the time had been changed to the first Monday in that month for annual meet- 
ings. Governor Doty having persisted in spelling Wisconsin with a "k" and an "a" — Wis- 
l-onsan — and some of the people having adopted his method, it was thought by this legislature 
a matter of sufficient importance to be checked. So, by a joint resolution, the orthography — • 
Wisronsm — employed in the organic act, was adopted as the true one for the Territory, and has 
ever since been used. Before the commencement of this session Doty's term of office had 
expired. He was superseded as governor of the Territory by N. P. Tallmadge, the latter having 
been appointed on the twenty-first of June, 1844. On the thirty-first of August, Charles M. 
Prevost was appointed marshal of the Territory, in place of Daniel Hugunin. There was the 
utmost harmony between Governor Tallmadge and the legislature of the Territory at its session 
in 1845. 

His message, which was delivered to the two houses in person, on the seventeenth of January, 
was well received. Among other items of interest to which he called the attention of the legis- 
lative assembly, was one concerning the construction of a railroad to connect Lake Michigan with 
the Mississippi. "The interests of the Territory," said he, "seem inperiously to demand the con- 
struction of a railroad, or otber communication, from some suitable point on Lake Michigan to 
t)ie Mississippi river. Much difference of opinion seems to exist as to what it shall be, and how 
it is to be accomplished. There is a general impression," continued the governor, " that the con- 
struction of the Milwaukee and Rock river canal, which was intended to connect those waters, is 
abandoned. It remains to be seen what shall be substituted for it." The session terminated on 
the twenty-fourth of February, 1845. 

James K. Polk having been inaugurated president of the United States on the fourth of 
March, 1845, Henry Dodge was again put into the gubernatorial chair of the Territory, receiving 
his appointment on the eighth of April, 1845. Other changes were made by the president during 
the same year, John B. Rockwell being, on the fourteenth of March, appointed marshal, and W. 
P. Lynde, on the fourteenth of July, United States attorney for the Territory, Governor Tall- 
madge, on the twenty-second of January of this year, having commissioned the latter also as 
attorney general. On the twenty-second of September, Morgan L. Martin was elected delegate 
to the twenty-ninth congress, as the successor of Henry Dodge. 

The fourth and last session of the fourth legislative assembly was organized on the fifth of 
January, 1846. This session, although a short one, proved very important. Preliminary steps 
were taken for the formation of a State government. The first Tuesday in April next succeeding 
was the day fixed upon for the people to vote for or against the proposition. When taken it 
resulted in a large majority voting in favor of the measure. An act was passed providing for taking 
the census of the Territory, and for the apportionment by the governor of delegates to form a 
State constitution, based upon the new enumeration. The delegates were to be elected on the first 
Monday in September, and the convention was to assemble on the first Monday in October, 1846. 
The constitution when formed was to be submitted to the vote of the people for adoption or 
rejection, as, at the close of the session, the terms of members of the council who had been elected 
for four years, and of the house, who had been elected for two years, all ended. The legislature 


re-organized the election districts, and conferred on the governor the power and duty of making 
an apportionment, based on the census to be taken, for the next legislative assembly, when, on 
the third of February, 1846, both houses adjourned sine die. On the twenty-second of January, 
Governor Dodge appointed A. Hyatt Smith attorney general of the Territory. On the twenty- 
fourth of February, John Catlin was appointed Territorial secretary by the president. 

The census taken in the following June showed a population for the Territory of one hun- 
dred and fifty-five thousand two hundred and seventy-seven. Delegates having been elected to- 
form a constitution for the proposed new State, met at Madison on the fifth day of October. 
After completing their labors, they adjourned. This event took place on the sixteenth of 
December, 1846. The constitution thus formed was submitted to a popular vote on the first 
Tuesday of April, 1847, and rejected. The first session of the fifth legislative assembly com- 
menced on the fourth of January of that year. But little was done. Both houses finally 
adjourned on the eleventh of February, 1847. John H. Tweedy was elected as the successor 
of Morgan L. Martin, delegate to the thirtieth congress, on the sixth of September following. On 
the twenty-seventh of that month. Governor Dodge issued a proclamation for a special session 
of the legislature, to commence on the eighteenth of the ensuing month, to take action concern- 
ing the admission of Wisconsin into the Union. The two houses assembled on the day named 
in the proclamation, and a law was passed for the holding of another convention to frame a 
constitution; when, after nine days' labor, they adjourned. Delegates to the new convention 
were elected on the last Monday of November, and that body met at Madison on the fifteenth 
of December, 1847. A cen-us of the Territory was taken this year, which showed a population 
of two hundred and ten thousand five hundred and forty-six. The result of the labors of the 
second constitutional convention was the formation of a constitution, which, being submitted 
to the people on the second Monday of March, 1848, was duly ratified. 

The second and last session of thefifth legislative assembly- — the last legislative assembly 
of Wisconsin Territory — commenced on the seventh of February, 1848, and adjourned sine die 
on the thirteenth of March following. On the twentieth of the same month, J. H. Tweedy, 
delegate from Wisconsin, introduced a bill in congress for its admission into the Union. The 
bill was finally passed; and on the twenty-ninth of May, 1848, Wisconsin became a State. 
There had been seventeen sessions of the legislative assembly of the Territory, of an average 
duration of forty days each : the longest one lasted seventy-six days ; the shortest, ten days. So 
long as the Territory had an existence, the apportionment of thirteen members for the council, and 
twenty-six for the house of representatives, was continued, as provided in the organic act. 
There had been, besides those previously mentioned, nine additional counties " set off " by the 
legislative assembly of the Territory, so that they now numbered in all twenty-eight : Milwaukee, 
Waukesha, Jefferson, Racine, Walworth, Rock, Green, Washington, Sheboygan, Manitowoc, Calu- 
met, Brown, Winnebago, Fond du Lac, Marquette, Sauk, Portage, Columbia, Dodge, Dane, Iowa, 
La Fayette, Grant, Richland, Crawford, Chippewa, St. Croix, and La Pointe. 


First Administration. — Nelson Dewey, Governor — 1848, 1849. 

The boundaries prescribed in the act of congress, entitled "An Act to enable the people of 
Wisconsin Territory to fijrm a Constitution and State Government, and for the admission of such 
State into the Union," approved August 6, 1846, were accepted by the convention which formed 
the constitution of Wisconsin, and are described in that instrument as " beginning at the north- 
east corner of the State of Illinois — that is to say, at a point in the center of Lake Michigan 


where the line of forty-two degrees and thirty minutes of north hititude crosses the same ; thence 
running with the boundary line of the State of Michigan, through Lake Michigan [and] Green 
bay to the mouth of the Menomonee river ; thence up the channel of the said river to the Brule 
river; thence up said last mentioned river to Lake Brule; thence along the southern shore of 
Lake Brule, in a direct line to the center of the channel between Middle and South islands, in 
the Lake of the Desert; thence in a direct line to the head waters of the Montreal river, as 
marked upon the survey made by Captain Cram ; thence down the main channel of the Mon- 
treal river to the middle of Lake Superior; thence through the center of Lake Superior to the 
mouth of the St. Louis river ; thence up the main channel of said river to the first rapids in the 
same, above the Lidian village, according to Nicollett's map ; thence due south to the main 
branch of the River St. Croi.x ; thence down the main channel of said river to the Mississippi ; 
thence down the center of the main channel of that river to the northwest corner of the State 
of Illinois ; thence due east with the northern boundary of the State of Illinois to the place of 
beginning " The territory included within these lines constitutes the St.\te of Wisconsin, 
familiarly known as the "Badger State." All that portion of Wisconsin Territory, as formerly 
constituted, lying west of so much of the above mentioned boundary as extends from the middle 
of Lake Superior to the mouth of the St. Croix river, not being included in Wisconsin, the limits 
of the State are, of course, not identical with those of the Territory as they previously existed. 

The State of Wisconsin, thus bounded, is situated between the parallel of forty-two degrees 
thirty minutes and that of forty-seven degrees, north latitude, and between the eighty-seventh 
and ninety-third degrees west longitude, nearly. For a portion of its northern border it has 
Lake Superior, the largest body of fresh water in the world ; for a part of its eastern boundary it 
has Lake Michigan, almost equal in size to Lake Superior ; while the Mississippi, the largest 
river in the world but one, forms a large portion of its western boundary. The State of Michi- 
gan lies on the east ; Illinois on the south ; Iowa and Minnesota on the west. Wisconsin has an 
average length of about two hundred and sixty miles; an average breadth of two hundred and 
fifteen miles. 

The constitution of Wisconsin, adopted by the people on the second Monday of March, 
1848, provided for the election of a governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, treasurer, 
attorney general, members of the State legislature, and members of congress, on the second 
Monday of the ensuing May. On that day — the 8th of the month — the election was held, 
which resulted in the choice of Nelson Dewey, for governor ; John E. Holmes, for lieutenant 
governor ; Thomas McHugh, for secretary of state ; Jairus C. Fairchild, for state treasurer ; 
and James S. Brown, for attorney general. The State was divided into nineteen senatorial, and 
sixty-six assembly districts, in each of which one member was elected ; it was also divided into 
two congressional districts, in each of which one member of congress was elected- - William 
Pitt Lynde in the first district, composed of the counties of Milwaukee, Waukesha, Jefferson, 
Racine, Walworth, Rock, and Green ; Mason C. Darling, in the second district, composed of the 
counties of Washington) Sheboygan, Manitowoc, Calumet, Brown, Winnebago, Fond du Lac, 
Marquette, Sauk, Portage, Columbia, Dodge, Dane, Iowa, La Fayette, Grant, Richland, Craw- 
ford, Chippewa, St. Croix, and La Pointe — the counties of Richland, Chippewa and La Pointe 
being unorganized. 

The first session of the legislature of Wisconsin commenced at Madison, the seat of govern- 
ment for the State, on Monday, the 5th day of June, 1S48. Ninean E. Whiteside was elected 
speaker of the assembly, and Henry Billings president of the senate, /rt; tempore. The democrats 
were largely in the majority in both houses. The legislature, in joint convention, on the 7th of 
June, canvassed, in accordance with the provisions of the constitution, the votes given on the 
8th of May previous, fur the State officers and the two representatives in congress. On the same 


day, the governor, lieutenant governor, secretary ot state, treasurer, and attorney general, were 
sworn into office in presence of both houses. All these officers, as well as the representatives in 
congress, were democrats. Dewey's majority over John H. Tweedy, whig, was five thousand and 
eighty-nine. William P. Lynde's majority in the first district, for congress, over Edward V. 
Whiton, whig, was two thousand four hundred and forty-seven. Mason C. Darling's majority in 
the second district, over Alexander L. Collins, whig, was two thousand eight hundred and forty- 
six. As the thirtieth congress, to which Lynde and Darling were elected would expire on the 4th 
of March, 1849, their terms of office would, of course, end on that day. The former took his 
seat on the sth of June, the latter on the 9th of June, 1848. 

The constitution vested the judicial power of the State in a supreme court, circuit courts, 
courts of probate, and in justices of the peace, giving the legislature power to vest such juris- 
diction as should be deemed necessary in municipal courts ; also, conferring upon it the power 
to establish inferior courts in the several counties, with limited civil and criminal jurisdiction. 
The State was divided into five judicial circuits; and judges were to be elected at a time to be 
provided for by the legislature at its first session. It was provided that there should be no 
election for a judge or judges, at any general election for State or county officers, nor within 
thirty days either before or after such election. 

On the Sth of June, 1848, Governor Dewey delivered his first message to a joint convention 
of the two houses. It was clear, concise, and definite upon such subjects as, in his opinion 
demanded immediate attention. His views were generally regarded as sound and statesmanlike 
by the people of the State. " You have convened," said he, " under the provisions of the con- 
stitution of the State of Wisconsin, to perform as representatives of the people, the important 
duties contemplated by that instrument." " The first session of the legislature of a free people," 
continued the governor, " after'assuming the political identity of a sovereign State, is an event of 
no ordinary character in its history, and will be fraught with consequences of the highest 
importance to its future welfare and prosperity. Wisconsin possesses the natural elements, 
fostered by the judicious system of legislation," the governor added, " to become one of the 
most populous and prosperous States of the American Union. With a soil unequaled in fertility, 
and productive of all the necessary comforts of life, rich in mineral wealth, with commercial 
advantages unsurpassed by any inland State, possessing extensive manufacturing facilities, with a 
salubrious climate, and peopled with a population enterprising, industrious, and intelligent, the 
course of the State of Wisconsin must be onward, until she ranks among the first of the States 
of the Great West. It is," concluded the speaker, " under the most favorable auspices that the 
State of Wisconsin has taken her position among the families of States. With a population 
numbering nearly one quarter of a million, and rapidly increasing, free from the incubus of a 
State debt, and rich in the return yielded as the reward of labor in all the branches of industrial 
pursuits, our State occupies an enviable position abroad, that is highly gratifying to the pride of 
our people." Governor Dewey then recommended a number of measures necessary, in his 
judgment, to be made upon changing from a Territorial to a State government. 

The first important business of the legislature, was the election of two United • States 
senators. The successful candidates were Henry Dodge and Isaac P. Walker, both democrats. 
Their election took place on the Sth of June, 1848, Dodge taking his seat in the senate on the 
23d of June, and Walker on the 26th of June, 1S48. The latter drew the short term ; so that 
his office would expire on the 4th day of March-, 1849, at the end of the thirtieth congress : 
Dodge drew the long term, his office to expire on the 4th day of March, 1851, at the end of the 
thirty-first congress. The residue of the session was taken up in passing such acts as were 
deemed necessary to put the machinery of the new State government, in all its branches, in fair 

\\^sco^fSI^' as a state. 55 

running order. One was passed providing for tlie annual meeting of the legislature, on the 
second Wednesday of January of each year ; another prescribing the duties of State officers ; 
one dividing the State into three congressional districts. The first district was composed of the 
counties of Milwaukee, Waukesha, Walworth, and Racine ; the second, of the counties of Rock, 
Green, La Fayette, Grant, Dane, Iowa, Sauk, Richland, Crawford, Adams, Portage, Chijjpewa, La 
Pointe, and St. Croix ; the third, of the counties of Washington, Sheboygan, Manitowoc, Brown, 
Winnebago, Calumet, Fond du Lac, Marquette, Dodge, Jefferson, and Columbia. Another act 
provided for the election of judges of the circuit courts, on the first Monday of August, 184S. 
By the same act, it was provided that the first term of the supreme court should be held in 
Madison on the second Monday of January, 1849, and thereafter at the same place on the same 
day, yearly ; afterward changed so as to hold a January and June term in each year. An act 
was also passed providing for the election, and defining the duties of State superintendent of 
public instruction. That officer was to be elected at the general election to be holden in each 
year, his term of 'office to commence on the first Monday of January succeeding his election. 
.\nother act established a State university ; another exempted a homestead from a forced sale ; 
another provided for a revision of the statutes. The legislature, after a session of eighty-five 
days, adjourned sine die on the twenty-first of August, 1848. 

The State, as previously stated, was divided into five judicial circuits : Edward V. Whiton 
being chosen judge at the election on the first Monday in August, 1848, of the first circuit, com- 
posed of the counties of Racine, Walworth, Rock, and Green, as then constituted ; Levi Hubbell 
of the second, composed of Milwaukee, Waukesha, Jefferson, and Dane ; Charles H. Larrabee, 
of the third, composed of Washington, Dodge, Columbia, Marquette, Sauk, and Portage, as then 
formed; Alexander W. Stow, of the fourth, composed of Brown, ^lanitowoc, Sheboygan, Fond 
du Lac, Winnebago, and Calumet ; and Mortimer M. Jackson, of the fifth circuit, composed of 
the counties of Iowa, LaFayette, Grant, Crawford and St. Croix, as then organized ; the county 
of Richland being attached to Iowa county; the county of Chippewa to the county of Craw- 
ford; and the county of LaPointe to the county of St. Croix, for judicial purposes. 

In the ensuing Fair there was a presidential election. There were then three organized 
political parties in the State : whig, democratic, and free-soil — each of which had a ticket in 
the field. The democrats were in the majority, and their four electors cast their votes for Lewis 
Cass and William O. Butler. At this election, Eleazer Root was the successful candidate for State 
superintendent of public instruction. In his election party politics were not considered. There 
were also three members for the thirty-first congress chosen : Charles Durkee, to represent the 
first district; Orsamus Cole, the second; and James D. Dotv, the third district. Durkee 
was a free-soiler; Cole, a whig ; Doty, a democrat — with somewhat decided Doty proclivities. 
The act of the legislature, exempting a homestead from forced sale of any debt or liability 
contracted after January i, 1849, approved the twenty-ninth of July previous, and another act 
for a like exemption of certain personal property, approved August 10, 1848, were laws the most 
liberal in their nature passed by any State of the Union previous to those dates. It was prophe- 
sied that they would work wonderful changes in the business transactions of the new State — for 
the worse ; but time passed, and their utility were soon evident : it was soon very generally 
acknowledged that proper exemption laws were highly beneficial — a real good to the greatest 
number of the citizens of a State. 

So much of Wisconsin Territory as lay west of the St. Croix and the State boundary north 
of it, was, upon the admission of Wisconsin into the Union, left, for the time being, without a 
government — unless it was still "Wisconsin Territory." Henry Dodge, upon being elected to the 
United States senate from Wisconsin, vacated, of course, the office of governor of this fraction. 
John H. Tweedy, delegate in congress at the time Wisconsin became a State, made a formal 


resignation of Iiis ofifice, thus leaving the fractional Territory unrepresented. Thereupon John 
Catlin, secretary of the Territory of Wisconsin as a whole, and now claiming, by virtue of that 
office, to be acting governor of the fractional part, issued a proclamation as such officer for an 
election on the thirtieth of October, 1848, of a delegate in congress. Nearly four hundred votes 
were polled in the district, showing "Wisconsin Territory" still to have a population of not less 
than two thousand. H. H. Sibley was elected to that office. On the fifteenth of January, 1849, 
he was admitted to a seat as "delegate from Wisconsin Territory." This hastened the formation 
of the Territory of Minnesota — a bill for that purpose having become a law on the third of 
March, when " Wisconsin Territory" ceased finally to exist, being included in the new Territory. 

The year 1848 — the first year of the existence of Wisconsin as a State — was one of general 
prosperity to its rapidly increasing population. The National Government effected a treaty with 
the Menomoneee Indians, by which their title was extinguished to the country north of the Fox 
river of Green bay, embracing all their lands in the State. This was an important acquisition, 
as it opened a large tract of country to civilization and settlement, which had been for a consid- 
erable time greatly desired by the people. The State government at the close of the year hac 
been in existence long enough to demonstrate its successful operation. The electric telegraph 
had already reached the capital ; and Wisconsin entered its second year upon a flood tide of 

Under the constitution, the circuit judges were also judges of the supreme court. An act 
of the legislature, approved June 29, 1848, providmg for the election of judges, and for the 
classification and organization of the judiciary of the State, authorized the election, by the judges, 
of one of their number as chief justice. Judge Alexander W. Stow was chosen to that office, 
and, as chief justice, held, in conjunction with Associate Judges Whiton, Jackson, Larrabee, and 
Hubbell, the first session of the supreme court at Madison, commencing on the eighth day of 
January, 1849. 

The second session of the State legislature commenced, according to law, on the tenth of 
January, 1849, Harrison C. Hobart being elected speaker of the assembly. Governor Dewey, in 
his message, sent to both houses on the nth, referred to the rapidly increasing population of the 
State, and the indomitable energy displayed in the development of its productive capacity. He 
recommended the sale of the university lands on a long credit, the erection of a State prison, 
and the modification of certain laws. On the seventeenth of January, the two houses met in 
joint convention to elect an United States senator in place of Isaac P Walker, who had drawn 
the short term. The democrats had a small majority on joint ballot. Walker was re-elected; 
this time, for a full term of six years, from the 4th of March, 1849. The legislature at this 
session passed many acts of public utility; some relating to the boundaries of counties; others, 
to the laying out of roads ; eighteen, to the organization of towns. The courts were cared for ; 
school districts were organized; special tax:: were authorized, and an act passed relative to the 
sale and superintendence of the school and university lands, prescribing the powers and duties 
of the commissioners who were to have charge of the same. These commissioners, consisting 
of the secretary of state, treasurer of state, and attorney general, were not only put in charge 
of the school and university lands held by the State, but also of funds arising from the sale of 
them. This law has been many times amended and portions of it repealed. The lands at 
present subject to sale are classified as school lands, university lands, agricultural college lands, 
Marathon county lands, normal school lands, and drainage lands, and are subject to sale at 
private entry on terms fixed by law. Regulations concerning the apportionment and investment 
of trust funds are made by the commissioners in pursuance of law. All lands now the property 
of the State subject to sale, or that have been State lands and sold, were derived from the Gen- 


eral Government. Lands owned by the State amount, at the present time, to about one and one 
half million acres. 

A joint resolution passed the legislature on the 31st of March, 1849, instructing Isaac P. 
Walker to resign his seat as United States senator, for " presenting and voting for an amend - 
jnent to the general appropriation bill, providing for a government in California and New Mexico, 
west of the Rio Grande, which did not contain a provision forever prohibiting the introduction 
of slavery or involuntary servitude " in those Territories. The senator refused to regard these 
instructions. The legislature adjourned on the second of April, 1849, after a session of eighty- 
three days. 

In July, 1848, the legislature of Wisconsin elected M. Frank, Charles C. Jordan, and A. W. 
Randall, commissioners to collate and revise all the public acts of the State, of a general and 
permanent nature in force at the close of the session. Randall declining to act, Charles M. 
Baker was appointed by the governor in his place. The commissioners commenced their labors 
in August, 1848, and were engaged in the revision the greater part of the time until the close of 
tlie session of the legislature of 1849. It was found impossible for the revisers to conclude their 
labors within the time contemplated by the act authorizing their appointment; so a joint select 
committee of the two houses at their second session was appointed to assist in the work. The 
laws revised by this committee and by the commissioners, were submitted to, and approved by, 
the legislature. These laws, with a few passed by that body, which were introduced by individual 
members, formed the Revised Statutes of Wisconsin of 1849 — a volume of over nine hundrf4 

At the general election held in November of this year, Dewey was re-elected governor. 
S. W. Beall was elected lieutenant governor; William A. Barstow, secretary of state; Jairus C. 
Fairchild was re-elected treasurer; S. Park Coon was elected attorney general; and Eleazer 
Root, re-elected superintendent of public instruction. All these officers were chosen as dem- 
ocrats, except Root, who ran as an independent candidate, the term of his office having been 
changed so as to continue two years from the first day of January next succeeding his election. 
By the revised statutes of 1849, all State officers elected for a full term went into office on the 
first of January next succeeding their election. 

The year 1849 developed in an increased ratio the productive capacity of the State in every 
department of labor. The agriculturist, the artisan, the- miner, reaped the well-earned reward of 
his honest labor. The commercial and manufacturing interests were extended in a manner 
highly creditable to the enterprise of the people. The educational interest of the State began to 
assume a more systematic organization. The tide of immigration suffered no decrease during 
the year. Within the limits of Wisconsin, the oppressed of other climes continued to find 
welcome and happy homes. 

Second Administration. — Nelson Dewey, Governor (Second Term) — 1850, 1851. 

On the first day of January, 1850, Nelson Dewey took the oath of office, and quietly entered 
upon his duties as governor, for the second term. The third legislature convened on the niniii. 
AFoses M. Strong was elected speaker of the assembly. Both houses had democratic majorities. 
Most of the business transacted was of a local character. By an act approved the fifth of Feb- 
ruary, the " January term " of the supreme court was changed to December. The legislature 
adjourned after a session of only thirty-four days. An act was passed organizing a sixth judicial 
circuit, from and after the first Monday in July, 1850, consisting of the counties of Crawford, 
Chippewa, Bad Axe, St. Croix and La Pointe, an election for judge to be holden on the same 
day. Wiram Knowlton was elected judge of that circuit. 


The first charitable institution in Wisconsin, incorporated by the State, was the " Wisconsin 
Institute for the Education of the Blind." A school for that unfortunate class had been opened 
in Janesville, in the latter part of 1S59, receiving its support from the citizens of that place and 
vicinity. By an act of the legislature, approved February 9, 1S50, this school was taken under 
the care of the Institute, to continue and maintain it, at Janesville, and to qualify, as far as might 
he, the blind of the State for the enjoyment of the blessings of a free government; for obtaining 
the means of subsistence ; and for the discharge of those duties, social and political, devolving 
upon American citizens. It has since been supported from the treasury of the State. On the 
seventh of October, 1850, it was opened for the reception of pupils, under the direction of a 
board of trustees, appointed by the governor. The Institute, at the present time, has three 
departments: in one is given instruction such as is usually taught in common schools; in 
another, musical training is imparted ; in a third, broom-making is taught to the boys, — sewing, 
knitting and various kinds of fancy work to the girls, and seating cane-bottomed chairs to both 
boys and girls. On the thirteenth of April, 1874, the building of the Institute was destroyed by 
fire. A new building has since been erected. 

The taking of the census by the United States, this year, showed a population for Wisconsin 
of over three hundred and five thousand — the astonishing increase in two years of nearly ninety- 
five thousand! In 1840, the population of Wisconsin Territory was only thirty thousand. This 
addition, in ten years, of two hundred and seventy-five thousand transcended all previous 
experience in the settlement of any portion of the New World, of the same extent of territory. 
It was the result of a steady and persistent flow of men and their families, seeking permanent 
homes in the young and rising State. Many were German, Scandinavian and Irish; but 
the larger proportion were, of course, from the Eastern and Middle States of the Union. The 
principal attractions of Wisconsin were the excellency and cheapness of its lands, its valuable 
mines of lead, its extensive forests of pine, and the unlimited wa*er-power of its numerous 

By the Revised Statutes of 1849, Wisconsin was divided into three congressional districts — 
the second congressional apijortionment — each of which was entitled to elect one representative 
in the congress of the United States. The counties of Milwaukee, Waukesha, Walworth and 
Racine constituted the first district; the counties of Rock, Green, La Fayette, Grant, Iowa, 
Dane, Sauk, Adams, Portage, Richland, Crawford, Chippewa, St. Croix and La Pointe, the second 
district; the counties of Washington, Sheboygan, Manitowoc, Brown, Winnebago, Calumet, Fond 
du Lac, Marquette, Columbia, Dodge and Jefferson, the third district. At the general election 
in the Autumn of this year, Charles Durkee, of the first district ; Benjamin C. Eastman, of the 
second ; and John B. Macy, of the third district, were elected to represent the State in the 
thirty-second congress of the United States. Durkee, it will be remembered, represented the 
same district in the previous congress : he ran the second time as an independent candidate. 
Eastman and Macy were elected upon democratic tickets. The General Government this year 
donated to the State all the swamp and overflowed lands within its boundaries. 

The year 1850 to the agriculturist of Wisconsin was not one of unbounded prosperity, 
owing to the partial failure of the wheat crop. In the other branches of agriculture there were 
fair returns. The State was visited during the year by cholera ; not, however, to a very alarming 

The fourth session of the legislature of the State commenced on the 8th of January, 
1851. Frederick W. Horn was elected speaker of the assembly. The majority in the legisla- 
ture was democratic. Governor Dewey, in his message, referred to the death of the president of 
the United States, Zachary Taylor; said that the treasury and finances of the State were in a 


sound condition ; and then adverted to many topics of interest and importance to the people of 
Wisconsin. It was an able document. One of the important measures of the session was the 
election of an United States senator, in the place of Henry Dodge, whose term of office would 
expire on the 4th of March, next ensuing. In joint convention of the legislature held on the 
zoth of January, Dodge was re-elected for a full term of six years. On the 2 2d, the governor 
approved a joint resolution of the legislature, rescinding not only so much of the joint resolu- 
tion of the legislative assembly of Wisconsin, passed March 31, 1849, as censured Isaac J. 
Walker, but also the instructions in those resolutions relative to his resigning his seat in the 
senate of the United States, 

Among the important bills passed at this session of the legislature was one providing for 
the location and erection of a State prison. Another one — the apportionment bill — was vetoed 
by the governor, and having been passed on the last day of the session, failed to become a law. 
The legislature adjourned on the eighteenth of March, 1851, after a session of seventy days. 

On the ist day of January, 185 1, Timothy O. Howe took his seat as one of the associate 
judges of the supreme court, he having been elected judge of the fourth circuit in place of Alex- 
ander W. Stow. The office of chief justice of the supreme court, which had been filled by Judge 
Stow, therefore became vacant, and so remained until the commencement of the next term — June 
18, 1 85 1 — when Levi Hubbell, judge of the second circuit, was, by the judges present, jiursuant 
to the statute, elected to that office. 

By an act of the legislature approved March 14, 185 1, the location and erection of a State 
prison for Wisconsin was provided for — the point afterward determined upon as a suitable 
place for its establishment being Waupun, Dodge county. By a subsequent act, the prison was 
declared to be the general penitentiary and prison of the State for the reformation as well as for 
the punishment of offenders, in which were to be confined, employed at hard labor, and governed 
as provided for by the legislature, all offenders who might be committed and sentenced accord- 
ing to law, to the punishment of solitary imprisonment, or imprisonment therein at hard labor. 
The organization and management of this the first reformatory and penal State institution in 
Wisconsin, commenced and has been continued in accordance with the demands of an advanced 
civilization and an enlightened humanity. 

On the 29th of September, 185 1, Judge Hubbell was re-elected for the full term of six years 
as judge of the second judicial circuit, to commence January i, 1852. 

At the general election in November, 1851, Leonard J. Farwell was chosen governor; 
Timothy Burns, lieutenant governor; Charles D. Robinson, secretary of State; E. H. Janssen, 
State treasurer; E. Estabrook, attorney general; and Azel P. Ladd, superintendent of public 
instruction. All these officers were elected as democrats except Farwell, who ran as a whig ; 
his majority over D. A. J. Upham, democrat, was a little rising of five hundred. 

Third Administration. — L. J. F.xrwell, Governor — 1852-1853. 

Governor Farwell's administration commenced on the fifth day of January, 1852. Previous 
to this — on the third day of the month — Edward V. Whiton was chosen by the judges of the 
supreme court, chief justice, to succeed Judge Hubbell. On the fourteenth of that month, the 
legislature assembled at Madison. This was the beginning of the fifth annual session. James 
McM. Shafter was elected speaker of the assembly. In the senate, the democrats had a 
majority ; in the assembly, the whigs. The governor, in his message, recommended the memorial- 
izing of congress to cause the agricultural lands within the State to be surveyed and brought 
into market; to cause, also, the mineral lands to be surveyed and geologically examined, and 
offered for sale; and to make liberal appropriations for the improvement of rivers and harbors. 
The question of " bank or no bank " having been submitted to the people in November previous. 


and decided in favor of banks, under the constitution, the power was thereby given to the legis- 
lature then in session to grant bank charters, or to pass a general banking law. Farwell recom- 
mended that necessary measures be taken to carry into effect this constitutional provision. A 
larger number of laws was passed at this session than at any previous one. By a provision of 
the constitution, the legislature was given power to provide by law, if they should think it exjie- 
dient and necessary, for the organization of a separate supreme court, to consist of one chief 
justice and two associate justices, to be elected by the qualified electors of the State, at such 
tirrlfe and in such manner as the legislature might provide. Under this authority, an act was 
passed at this session providing for the election of a chief justice and two associates, on the last 
Monday of the September following, to form a supreme court of the State, to supplant the old 
one, provision for the change being inserted in the constitution. There was also an act passed 
to apportion and district anew the members of the senate and assembly, by which the number 
was increased from eighty-five to one hundred and seven: twenty-five for the senate; eighty- 
two for the assembly. An act authorizing the business of banking passed the legislature and 
was approved by the governor, on the igth of April. By this law, the office of bank-comptroller 
was created — the officer to be first appointed by the governor, and to hold his office until the first 
Monday in January, 1854. At the general election in the Fall of 1853, and every two years 
thereafter, the office was to be filled by vote of the people. Governor Farwell afterward, on the 
20th of Noveirber, appointed James S. Baker to that office. The legislature adjourned on the 
nineteenth of April, 1852. 

The second charitable institution incorporated by the State was the "Wisconsin Institute 
for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb." It was originally a private school for deaf mutes, 
near, and subsequently in, the village of Delavan, Walworth county. By an act of the legislature 
approved April 19, 1852, it was made the object and duty of the corporation to establish, con- 
tinue and maintain this school for the education of the deaf and dumb, "at or near the village 
of Delavan, to qualify, as near as might be, that unfortunate class of persons for the enjoyment 
of the blessings of a free government, obtaining the means of subsistence, and the discharge of 
those duties, social and political, devolving upon American citizens." It has since been sup- 
ported by annual appropriations made by the legislature. A complete organization of the 
school was effected in June, 1852, under the direction of a board of trustees appointed by the 
governor of the State. The institute has for its design the e ucation of such children of the 
State as, on account of deafness, can not be instructed in common schools. Instruction is given 
by signs, by the manual alphabet, by written language, and to one class by articulation. Two 
trades are taught: cabinet-making and shoe-making. 

During this year, considerable interest was manifested in the projecting of railroads. At 
the September election, E. V. Whiton was elected chief justice of the new supreme court and 
Samud Crawford and Abram D. Smith associate justices. ' Under the law, the chief justice was 
to serve a term of four years from the first day of June next ensuing; while the two associates 
were to cast lots — one to serve for six years, the other for two years, from June i, 1853. Craw- 
ford drew the short term — Smith the long term. At the subsequent general election for mem- 
bers to the thirty-third congress, Daniel Wells, Jr., was chosen from the first district , B. C 
Eastman from the second.' and J. B. Macy from the third district. All were democrats. A 
democratic electoral ticket was chosen at the same time. The electors cast their votes for Pierce 
and Butler. 

During 1852, the citizens of Wisconsin enjoyed unusual prosperity in the ample products 
and remuneration of their industry and enterprise. Abundant harvests and high markets; an 
increase in moneyed circulation, and the downward tendency of the rates of interest; a prevail- 
ing confidence among business men and in business enterprises; a continual accession to the 


population of the State by immigration; the energetic prosecution of internal improvements 
under the skillful management of companies; the extension of permanent agricultural improve- 
ments ; and the rapid growth of the various cities and villages ; were among the encouraging 
prospects of the year. 

The sixth session of the Wisconsin legislature commenced on the twelfth of January, 1853. 
On the twenty-sixth of the same month, William K. Wilson, of Milwaukee, preferred charges 
in the assembly against Levi Hubbell, judge of the second judicial circuit of the State, of 
divers acts of corruption and malfeasance in the discharge of the duties of his office. A resoli>- 
tion followed appointing a committee to report articles of impeachment, directing the members 
thereof to go to the senate and impeach Hubbell. Upon the trial of the judge before the 
senate, he was acquitted. An act was passed to provide for the election of a State prison commis- 
sioner by the legislature at that session — to hold his office until the first day of the ensuing 
January. The office was then to be filled by popular vote at the general election in November, 
1853 — and afterwards biennially — the term of office to be two years from the first day of Jan- 
uary next succeeding the election by the people. On the 28th of March, the legislature, in 
joint convention, elected John Taylor to that office. The legislature adjourned on the fourth 
day of April until the sixth of the following June, when it again met, and adjourned sine die on 
the thirteenth of July, both sessions aggregating one hundred and thirty-one days. 

By an act of the legislature approved February 9, 1853, the "Wisconsin State Agricultural 
Society," which had been organized in March, 185 1, was incorporated, its object being to promote 
and improve the condition of agriculture, horticulture, and the mechanical, manufacturing and 
household arts. It was soon after taken under the fostering care of the State by an appropria- 
tion made by the legislature, to be expended by the society in such manner as it might deem 
best calculated to promote the objects of its incorporation; State aid was continued down to the 
commencement of the rebellion. No help was extended during the war nor until 1873 ; since 
which time there has been realized annually from the State a sum commensurate with its most 
pressing needs. The society has printed seventeen volumes of transactions and has held annually 
a State fair, except during the civil war. Besides these fairs, its most important work is the 
holding annually, at the capital of the State, a convention for the promotion of agriculture gen- 
erally. The meetings are largely participated in by men representing the educational and 
industrial interests of Wisconsin. 

By an act of the legislature approved March 4, 1853, the "State Historical Society of 
Wisconsin " was incorporated — having been previously organized — the object being to collect, 
embody, arrange and preserve in authentic form, a library of books, pamphlets, maps, charts, 
manuscripts, papers, paintings, statuary and other materials illustrative of the history of the 
State; to rescue from oblivion the memory of its early pioneers, and to obtain and preserve 
narratives of their exploits, perils, and hardy adventures; to exhibit faithfully the antiquities, 
and the past and present condition, and resources of Wisconsin. The society was also author- 
ized to take proper steps to promote the study of history by lectures, and to diffuse and publish 
information relating to the description and history of the State. The legislature soon after took 
the society under its fostering care by voting a respectable sum for its benefit. Liberal State 
aid has been continued to the present time. The society, besides collecting a library of historical 
books and pamphlets the largest in the West has published eight volumes of collections and a 
catalogue of four volumes. Its rooms are in the capitol at Madison, and none of its property 
can be alienated without the consent. of the State. It has a valuable collection of painted por- 
traits and bound newspaper files; and in its cabinet are to be found many prehistoric relics. 

On the first day of June, 1853, the justices of the new supreme court went into office: Associate 


Justice Crawford, for two years; Chief Justice Whiton, for four years, Associate Justice Smith 
for six years as previously mentioned. The first (June) term was held at Madison. La Fayette 
Kellogg was appointed and qualified as clerk. On the 21st of September, Timothy Burns, lieu- 
tenant governor of Wisconsin, died at La Crosse. As a testimonial of respect for the deceased 
the several State departments, in accordance with a proclamation of the governor, were closed 
for one day — October 3, 1S53. In the Fall of this year, democrats, whigs and free-soiiers, each 
called a convention to nominate candidates for the various State offices to be supported by them 
at the ensuing election in November. The successful ticket was, for governor, William A. Bars- 
tow ; for lieutenant governor, James T. Lewis ^ for secretary of State, Alexander T. Gray, for 
State treasurer, Edward H. Janssen ; for attorney general, George B. Smith ; for superintendent 
of public instruction, Hiram A. Wright; for State prison commissioner, A. W. Starks; and 
for bank comptroller, William M. Dennis. They were all democrats. 

The year 1853 was, to the agriculturists of the State, one of prosperity. Every branch of 
industry prospered. The increase of commerce and manufactures more than realized the expec- 
tations of the most sanguine. 

Fourth Administration. — William A. Barstow, Governor — 1S54-1S55. 

On Monday, the second of January, 1S54, William A. Barstow took the oath of office as 
governor of Wisconsin. 

The legislature commenced its seventh regular session on the eleventh of January. Fred- 
erick W. Horn was elected speaker of the assembly. Both houses were democratic. The 
legislature adjourned on the 3d-of April following, after a session of eighty-three days. 

In the early part of March, a fugitive slave case greatly excited the people of Wisconsin. 
A slave named Joshua Glover, belonging to B. S. Garland of Missouri, had escaped from his 
master and made his way to the vicinity of Racine. Garland, learning the whereabouts of his 
personal chattel, came to the State, obtained, on the 9th of March, 1854, from the judges of the 
district court of the United States for the district of Wisconsin, a warrant for the apprehension 
of Glover, which was put into the hands of the deputy marshal of the United States. Glover 
was secured and lodged in jail in Milwaukee. A number of persons afterward assembled and 
rescued the fugitive. Among those who took an active part in this proceeding was Sherman M. 
Booth, who was arrested therefor and committed by a United States commissioner, but was 
released from custody by Abram D. Smith, one of the associate justices of the supreme court 
of Wisconsin, upon a writ of habeas corpus. The record of the proceedings was thereupon 
taken to that court in full bench by a writ of certiorari to correct any error that might have been 
committed before the associate justice. At the June term, 1854, the justices held that Booth 
was entitled to be discharged, because the commitment set forth no cause for detention. 

Booth was afterward indicted in the United States district court and a warrant issued for 
his arrest. He was again imprisoned; and again he applied to the supreme court — -then, in 
term time — for a writ of habeas corpus. Tliis was in July, 1854. In his petition to the supreme 
court. Booth set forth that he was in confinement upon a warrant issued by the district court of 
the United States and that the object of the imprisonment was to compel him to answer an 
indictment then pending against him therein. The supreme court of the State held that these 
facts showed that the district court of the United States had obtained jurisdiction of the case 
and that it was apparent that the indictment was for an offense of which the federal courts had 
exclusive jurisdiction. They could not therefore interfere; and his application for a discharge 
was denied. 

Upon the indictment. Booth was tried and convicted, fined and imprisoned, for a violation 
of thi fugitive slave law. Again the prisoner applied to the supreme court of Wisconsin, — his 


last application bearing date January 26, 1.S55. He claimed discharge on the ground of the 
unconstitutionality of the law under which he had been indicted. The supreme court held that 
the indictment upon which he had been tried and convicted contained three counts, the first of 
which was to be considered as properly charging an offense within the act of congress of Septem- 
ber 18, 1850, known as the "fugitive slave law," while the second and third counts did not set 
forth or charge an offense punishable by any statute of the United States; and as, upon these last- 
mentioned counts he was found guilty and not upon the first, he must be discharged. 

The action of the supreme court of Wisconsin in a second time discharging Booth, was 
afterward reversed by the supreme court of the United States ; and, its decision being respected 
by the State court. Booth was re-arrested in 1S60, and the sentence of the district court of the 
United States executed in part upon him, when he was pardoned by the president. 

By an act of the legislature, approved March 30, 1S54, a "State Lunatic Asylum " was directed 
to be built at or in the vicinity of Madison, the capital of the State, upon land to be donated or 
purchased for that purpose. By a subsequent act, the name of the asylum was changed to the 
" Wisconsin State Hospital for the Insane.' This was the third charitable institution established 
by the State. The hospital was opened for patients in July, 1S60, under the direction of a 
board of trustees appointed by the governor. All insane persons, residents of Wisconsin, who, 
under the law providing for admission of patients into the hospital for treatment, become resi- 
dents therein, are maintained at the expense of the State, provided the county in which such 
patient resided before being brought to the hospital pays the sum of one dollar and fifty cents a 
week for his or her support. Any patient can be supported by relatives, friends or guardians, if 
the latter desire to relieve the county and State from the burden, and can have special care and 
be provided w-ith a special attendant, if the expense of the same be borne by parties interested. 
The hospital is beautifully located on the north shore of Lake Mendota, in Dane county, about 
four miles from Madison. 

At the general election in the Fall of 1854, for members from Wisconsin to the thirty-fourth 
congress, Daniel Wells, Jr. was chosen from the first district ; C. C. Washburn, from the second, 
and Charles Billinghurst from the third district. Billinghurst and Washburn were elected as 
republicans — that party having been organized in the Summer previous. Wells was a democrat. 
The year 1854 was one of prosperity forjWisconsin, to all its industrial occupations. Abund- 
ant crops and increased prices were generally realized by the agriculturist. It was a year also of 
general health. It was ascertained that the amount of exports during the year, including lumber 
and mineral, exceeded thirteen millions of dollars. 

The eighth regular session of tlie State legislature commenced on the loth of January, 
1855. C. C. Sholes was elected speaker of the assembly. The senate was democratic ; the 
assembly, republican. On joint ballot, the republicans had but one majority. On the istof 
February, Charles Durkee, a republican, was elected United States senator for a full term of six 
years from the 4th of March next ensuing, to fill the place of Isaac P. Walker whose term would 
expire on that day. Among the bills passed of a general nature, was one relative to the rights of 
married women, providing that any married woman, whose husband, either from-drunkenness or 
profligacy, should neglect or refuse to provide for her support, should have the right, in her own 
name, to transact business, receive and collect her own earnings, and apply the same for her own 
support, and education of her children, free from the control and interference of her husband. 
The legislature adjourned sine die on the second of April, after a session of eighty-three days. 
Orsamus Cole having been elected in this month an associate justice of the supreme court in 
place of Judge Samuel Crawford, whose term of office would expire on the thirty-first of May of 
that year, went into office on the first day of June following, for a term of six years. His office 
would therefore end on the thirty-first of May, 1861. 


On the 27th of May, 1855, Hiram A. Wright, superintendent of public instruction, died at 
Prairie du Chien. On the 18th of June following, the governor appointed A. Constantine Barry to 
fill his place. On the 5th of July, Garland, the owner of the rescued fugitive slave Glover, 
having brought suit in the Un.ted States district court for the loss of his slave, against Booth, 
the trial came on at Madison, resulting in the jury bringing in a verdict under instructions from 
the judge, of one thousand dollars, the value of a negro slave as fixed by act of congress of 1850. 

The constitution of the State requiring the legislature to provide by law for an enumeration 
of the inhabitants in the year 1855, an act was passed by that body, approved March 31, of this 
year, for that purpose. The result showed a population for Wisconsin of over five hundred and 
fifty-two thousand. In November, at the general election, the deniocratic ticket for State offi- 
cers was declared elected: William A. Barstow, for governor; Arthur McArthur, for lieutenant 
governor; David W. Jones, for secretary of State; Charles Kuehn, for State treasurer; Wil- 
liam R. Smith, for attorney general; A. C. Barry, for superintendent of public instruction; 
William M. Dennis, for bank comptroller; and Edward McGarry for State prison commissioner vote for governor was very close; but the State canvassers declared Barstow elected by a 
s nail majority. The opposing candidate for that office was Coles Bashford, who ran as a 

The year 1855 was a prosperous one to the farmers of Wisconsin as well as to all industrial 
occupations. There were abundant crops and unexampled prices were realized. 

Fifth Administration. — Coles Bashford, Governor — i856-i8!;7. 

On the seventh day of January, 1856, William A. Barstow took and subscribed an oath of 
office as governor of Wisconsin, while Coles Bashford, who had determined to contest the right 
of Barstow to the governorship, went, on the same day, to the supreme court room, in Madison, 
and had the oath of office administered to him by Chief Justice Whiton. Bashford afterward 
called at the executive office and made a formal demand of Barstow that he should vacate the 
gubernatorial chair; but the latter respectfully declined the invitation. These were the initiatory 
steps of " Bashford 2's. Barstow," for the office of governor of Wisconsin. 

The fight now commenced in eir.isst. On the eleventh, the co.insel for Bashford called 
upon the attorney general and requested him to file an information in the nature of a ^ui^ 
ic'irranto against Barstow. On the fifteenth that officer complied with the request. Thereupon 
a summons was issued to Barstow to appear and answer. On the twenty-second, Bashford, by 
his attorney, asked the court that the information filed by the attorney general be discontinued 
and that he be allowed to file one, which request was denied by the court. While the motion 
was being argued, Barstow, by his attorneys, entered his appearance in the case. 

On the second of February, Barstow moved to quash all proceedings for the reason that the 
court had no jurisdiction in the matter. This motion was denied by the court ; that tribunal at 
the same time deciding that the filing of the motion was an admission by Barstow that the alle- 
gations contained in the information filed by the attorney general were true. 

On the twenty-first of February, the time appointed for pleading to the information, Bar- 
stow, by his attorneys, presented to the court a stipulation signed by all the parties in the case, to 
the effect that the board of canvassers had determined Barstow elected governor; that the secre- 
tary of State had certified to his election ; and that he had taken the oath of office. They submit- 
ted to the court whether it had jurisdiction, beyond the certificates, of those facts and the canvass 
so made to inquire as to the number of votes actually given for Barstow,^Bashford offering to 
prove that the certificates were made and issued through mistake and fraud, and that he, instead 
of Barstow, received the greatest number of votes. This stipulation the court declined to enter- 
tain or to pass upon the questions suggested ; as they were not presented in legal form. Barstow 


was thereupon given until the twenty-fifth of February to answer the information that had been 
filed against him by tlie attorney general. 

On the day appointed, Barstow filed his plea to the effect that, by the laws of Wisconsin 
regulating the conducting of general election for State officers, it was the duty of the board of 
canvassers to determine who was elected to the office of governor; and that the board had found 
that he was duly elected to that office. It was a plea to the jurisdiction of the court. A demurrer 
was interposed to this plea, setting forth that the matters therein contained were not sufficient in 
law to take the case out of court ; asking, also, for a judgment against Barstow, or that he answer 
further the information filed against him. The demurrer was sustained ; and Barstow was 
required to answer over within four days ; at the expiration of which time the counsel for Barstow 
withdrew from the case, on the ground, as they alleged, that they had appeared at the bar of the 
court to object to the jurisdiction of that tribunal in the matter; and the court had determined 
to proceed with the case, holding and exercising full and final jurisdiction over if, and that the) 
could take no further steps without conceding the right of that tribunal so to hold. Thereupon, 
on the eighth of March, Barstow entered a protest, by a communication to the supreme court, 
against any further interference with the department under his charge by that tribunal, "' either 
by attempting to transfer its powers to another or direct the course of executive action." 'I'he 
counsel for Bashford then moved for judgment upon the default of Barstow. 

A further hearing of the case was postponed until March 18, when the attorney general 
filed a motion to dismiss the proceedings ; against which Bashford. by his counsel, protested as 
being prejudicial to his rights. It was the opinion of the court that the attorney general could 
not dismiss the case, that every thing which was well pleaded for Bashford in his information was 
confessed by the default of Barstow. By strict usage, a final judgment ought then to have fol- 
lowed ; but the court came to the conclusion to call upon Bashford to bring forward proof, showing 
his right to the office. Testimony was then adduced at length, touching the character of the 
returns made to the State canvassers; after hearing of which it was the opinion of the court that 
Bashford had received a plurality of votes for governor and that there must be a judgment in 
his favor and one of ouster against Barstow ; which were rendered accordingly. 

The ninth regular session of the legislature of Wisconsin commenced on the ninth of 
January, 1856. William Hull was elected speaker of the assembly. The senate had a repub- 
lican majority, but the assembly was democratic. On the eleventh Barstow sent in a message to 
a joint convention of the two houses. On the twenty-first of March he tendered to the legisla- 
ture his resignation as governor, giving for reasons the action of the supreme court in " Bashford 
c's. Barstow," which tribunal was then hearing testimony in the case. On the same day Arthur 
McArthur, lieutenant governor, took and subscribed an oath of office as governor of the State, 
afterwards sending a message to the legislature, announcing that the resignation of Barstow 
made it his duty to take the reins of government. On the twenty-fifth, Bashford called on 
Mc.\rthur, then occupying the executive office, and demanded possession — at the same time 
intimating that he preferred peaceable measures to force, but that the latter would be employed 
if necessary. The lieutenant governor thereupon vacated the chair, when the former took the 
gubernatorial seat, exercising thereafter the functions of the office until his successor was elected 
and qualified. His right to the seat was recognized by the senate on the twenty-fifth, and by the 
assembly on the twenty-seventh of March, 1856. This ended the famous case of " Bashford rs. 
Barstow," the first and only " war of succession " ever indulged in by Wisconsin. 

The legislature, on the thirty-first of March, adjourned over to the third of September, to 
dispose of a congressional land grant to the State. Upon re-assembling, an important measure 
was taken up — that of a new apportionment for the legislature. It was determined to increase the 


number of members from one hundred and seven to one hundred and twenty-seven. The session 
closed on the thirteenth of October. The general election for members to the thirty-fifth congress, 
held in November, resulted in the choice of John H. Potter, from the first district ; C. C. Washburn 
from the second ; and Charles Billinghurst, from the third district. They were all elected as 
republicans. The presidential canvass of this year was an exciting one in the State. The 
republicans were successful. Electors of that party cast their five votes for Fremont and 

The year 1856 was not an unprosperous one, agriculturally speaking, although in some 
respects decidedly unfavorable. In many districts the earlier part of the season was exceedingly 
dry, which materially diminished the wheat crop. Other industrial interests were everywhere 
in a flourishing condition. 

The legislature commenced its tenth regular session at Madison, on the fourteenth day of 
January, 1857, with a republican majority in both houses. Wyman Spooner was elected speaker 
of the assembly. For the first time since the admission of the State into the Union, a majority of 
the members of both houses, together with the governor, were opposed to the democratic par'y. 
On the twenty-third the senate and assembly met in joint convention, for the purpose of elecimg 
a United States senator in place of Henry Dodge, whose term of office would expire on the 
fourth of March next ensuing. James R. Doolittle, republican, was the successful candidate for 
that office, for a full term of six years, from the fourth of March, 1857. The legislature 
adjourned on the ninth of March, 1857. At the Spring election, Judge Whiton was re-elected 
chief justice of the supreme court for a term of six years. 

The second reformatory State institution established in Wisconsin, was, by an act of the 
legislature, approved March 7, 1857, denominated a House of Refuge for Juvenile Delinquents, 
afterward called the State Reform School, now known as the Wisconsin Industrial School for 
Boys, and is located at Waukesha, the county seat of Waukesha county. The courts and 
several magistrates in any county in Wisconsin may, in their discretion, sentence to this school 
any male child between the ages of ten and sixteen years, convicted of vagrancy, petit larceny, 
or any misdemeanor; also of any offense which would otherwise be punishable by imprisonment 
in the State prison ; or, of incorrigible or vicious conduct in certam cases. The term of commit- 
ment must be to the age of twenty-one years. 

At the State election held in November of this year, the republicans elected A. W. Randall 
governor; S. D. Hastings, State treasurer, and Edward M. McGraw, State prison commis- 
sioner. The democrats elected E. D. Campbell, lieutenant governor ; D. W. Jones, secretary 
of State ; Gabriel Bouck, attorney general ; L. C. Draper, superintendent of public instruc- 
tion, and J. C. Squires, bank comptroller. 

The year 1 85 7 was a disastrous one to Wisconsin, as well as to the whole country, in a finan- 
cial point of view. Early in the Fall a monetary panic swept over the land. A number of 
prominent operators in the leading industrial pursuits were obliged to succumb. Agriculturally 
the year was a fair one for the State. 

Sixth Administration. — Alexander W. Randall, Governor — 1858-1859. 

Randall's administration began on the fourth day of January, 1858, when for the first time 
he was inaugurated governor of the State. On the eleventh of January the legislature 
commenced its eleventh regular session, with a republican majority in both houses. Frederick 
S. Lovell was elected speaker of the assembly. The legislature adjourned sine die on the 
seventeenth of March, after an unusually long session of one hundred and twenty-five days. " That 
a large majority of the members were men of integrity, and disposed for the public weal, can not 


be doubted ; but they were nearly all new members, and without former legislative experience. 
They set out to accomplish a groat good, by holding up to public scorn and execration the whole- 
sale bri'ljeries and iniquities of the immediate past ; but they lacked concentration of effort and. 
for want of union and preconcerted action, they failed to achieve the great triumph they sought 
by providing a ' sovereign remedy ' for the evils they exposed." 

At the regular session of the legislature of 1856, an act was passed for a general revisi-n of 
the laws of the State. Under this, and a subsequent act of the adjourned session of that year 
three commissioners — David Taylor, Samuel J. Todd, and F. S. Lovell — were appointed "to 
collect, compile and digest the general laws " of Wisconsin. Their report was submitted to the 
legislature of 185S, and acted upon at a late day of the session. The laws revised, which received 
the sanction of the legislature, were published in one volume, and constitute what is know as the 
Revised Statutes of i8j8. 

At the Fall election, John F. Potter from the first district, and C. C. Washburn from the 
second district, both republicans, were elected to the thirty-sixth congress ; while C. H. 
Larrabee, democrat, was elected to represent the third district. 

The twelfth regular session of the Wisconsin legislature commenced on the twelfth of 
January, 1859, with a republican majority in both houses. AVilliam P. Lyon was elected speaker 
of the assembly. The legislature adjourned siiu- die on the twenty-first of March, 1859, after a 
session of sixty-nine days. At the regular spring election, Byron Paine was chosen associate 
justice of the supreme court, for a full term of six years, as the successor of Associate Justice 
Smith. As it was a question when the term of the latter ended — whether on the 31st day of 
Maj', 1859, or on the first Monday in January, i860 — he went through with the formality of 
resigning his office, and the governor of appointing Paine as his successor, on the 20th of June, 
.1859. On the twelfth of April, 1859, Edward V. Whiton, chief justice of the supreme court, 
died at his residence in Janesville. The office was filled by executive appointment on the 19th 
of the same month — the successor of Judge Whiton being Luther S. Dixon. Late in the Sum- 
mer both political parties put into the field a full state ticket. The republicans were successful 
— electing for governor, Alexander W. Randall; for lieutenant governor, B. G. Noble; for 
secretary of state, L. P. Harvey ; for state treasurer, S. D. Hastings, for attorney general, James 
H. Howe; for bank comptroller, G. Van Steenwyck ; for superintendent of public instruction, 
J. L. Pickard; for state prison commissioner, H. C. Heg. 

Seventh Administration. — ^ilexander W. Randall, Governor (second term), 1860-1861. 
Alexander W. Randall was inaugurated the second time as governor of Wisconsin on 
Monday, January 2, 1S60. One week subsequent, the thirteenth regular session of the legis- 
lature commenced at Madison. For the first time the republicans had control, not only of all 
tiie State offices, but also of both branches of the legislature. William P. Lyon was elected 
speaker of the assembly. A new assessment law was among the most important of the acts 
passed at this session. The legislature adjourned on the second of .\pril. At the sprin<^ elec- 
tion, Luther S. Dixon, as an independent candidate, was elected chief justice of the supreme 
court for the unexpired term of the late Chief Justice Whiton. In the presidential election which 
followed, republican electors were chosen — casting their five votes, in the electoral college, for 
Lincoln and Hamlin. At the same election, John F. Potter, from the first district; Luther 
Hanchett, from the second, and A. Scott Sloan, from the third district, were elected members of 
the thirty-seventh congress. Hanchett died on the twenty-fourth of November, 1862, when, 
on the twentieth of December following, W. I). Mclndoe was elected to fill the vacancy. .Ml 
these congressional representatives were republicans. Wisconsin, in 1S60, was a strong repub- 


lican State. According to the census of this yea", it liad a population of over seven hundred 
and seventy-seven thousand. 

On the ninth of January, 1861, the fourteenth regular session of the State legislature coni- 
menced at Madison. Both branches were repulilican. Amasa Cobb was elected speaker of the 
assembly. On the tenth, both houses met in joint convention to hear the governor read his 
annual message. It was a remarkable document. Besides giving an excellent- synopsis of tlie 
operations of the State government for i860, the governor entered largely into a discussion of 
the question of secession and disunion, as then proposed by some of the southern states of the 
Union. These are his closing words : 

" The right of a State to secede from the Union can never be admitted. The National 
Government can not treat with a State while it is in the Union, and particularly while it stands 
in an attitude hostile to the Union. So long as any State assumes a position foreign, inde- 
pendent and hostile to the government, there can be no reconciliation. The government of the 
United States can not treat with one of its own States as a foreign power. The constitutional 
laws extend over every Stat^ alike. They are to be enforced in every State alike. A State can 
not come into the Union as it pleases, and go out when it pleases. Once in, it must stay until 
the Union is destroyed. There is no coercion of a State. But where a faction of a people arrays 
itself, not against one act, but against all laws, and against all government, there is but one 
answer to be made : ' The Goivrmncnt must be sustained ; the tuu's shall be enforced ! ' " 

On the twenty-third of January the legislature met in joint convention to elect a United 
States senator to fill the place of Charles Durkee, whose term of office would expire on the 
fourth of March next ensuing. The successful candidate was Timothy O. Howe, republican, 
who was elected for a full term of six years from the 4th of March, 1861. One of the important 
acts passed at this session of the legislature apportioned the State into senate and assembly 
districts, by which the whole number of members in both houses was increased from one hun- 
dred and twenty-seven to one hundred and thirty-three. Another act apportioned the State into 
six congressional districts instead of three. By this — the third congressional apportionment — • 
each district was to elect one representative. The first district was composed of the counties 
of Milwaukee, Waukesha, Walworth, Racine, and Kenosha ; the second, of the counties of Rock, 
Jefferson, Dane, and Columbia; the third, of Green, La Fayette, Iowa, Grant, Crawford, Ricli- 
land, and Sauk; the fourth, of Ozaukee, Washington, Dodge, Fond du Lac, and Sheboygan; tlie 
fifth, Manitowoc, Calumet, Winnebago, Green Lake, Marquette, Waushara, Waupaca, Outa- 
gamie, Brown, Kewaunee, Door, Oconto, and Shawano; and the sixth, of the counties of Bad 
Axe, La Crosse, M nroe, Juneau, Adams, Portage, Wood, Jackson, Trempealeau, Buffalo, Pepin, 
Pierce, St. Croix, Dunn, Eau Claire, Clark, Marathon, Chipi)ewa, Dallas, Polk, Burnett, Douglas, 
LaPointe, and Ashland. The legislature adjourned on the seventeenth of April, 1861. 

At the spring elections of this year, Orsamus Cole was re-elected as associate justice of the 
supreme court. On the ninth of May following. Governor Randall issued a proclamation convening 
the legislature in extra session on the fifteenth of the same month. " The extraordinary condition 
of the country," said he, " growing out of the rebellion, against the government of the United 
States, makes it necessary that the legislature of this State be convened in special session, to 
provide more completely for making the power of the State useful to the government and to 
other loyal States." The fifteenth or extra session began on the fifteenth of May, as designated 
in the governor's proclamation. The message of the governor was devoted entirely to the war. 
'' At the close of the last annual session of the legislature," said he, " to meet a sudden emer- 
gency, an act was passed authorizing me to respond to the call of the president of the United 
States, ' for aid in maintaining the Union and the supremacy of the laws, or to suppress rebellion 


or insurrection, or to repel inva ion within the United States,' and I was autiiori/cd, and it was 
made my duty, to take such measures as, in my judgment, should jjrovide in the speediest and 
most efficient manner for responding to such call : and to this end 1 was authorized to accept 
the services of volunteers for active service, to be enrolled in companies of not less than 
seventy-five men each, rank and file, and in regiments of ten comi)anies each. I was also 
authorized to provide for uniforming and equipping such companies as were not provided with 
uniforms and equipments." " The first call of the president for immediate active service," con- 
tinued the governor, " was for one regiment of men. My proclamation, issued immediately after the 
passage of the act of the legislature, was answered within less than ten days, by companies enough, 
each containing the requisite number of men, to make up at least five regiments instead of o. e. 
I then issued another proclamation, announcing the offers that had been made, and advising 
that thereafter companies might be enrolled to stand as minute men, ready to answer further 
calls, as they might be made, but without e.\pense to the State, except as they were mustered 
into service. In less t'.uin one month from the date of my first proclamation, at least five thou- 
sand men, either as individuals or enrolled companies, have offered their services for the war, 
and all ap[)ear an.xious for active service in the field." " 'I'he time for deliberation," concludes 
the governor, "must give way to the lime for action. The constitution of the United States 
must be sustained in all its first intent and wholeness. The right of the people of every State 
to go into every other State and engage in any lawful pursuit, without unlawful interference or 
molestation; tiie freedom of speech and of the press; the right of trial by jury; security from 
unjustifiable seizure of persons or papers, and all constitutional privileges and immunities, must 
receive new guarantees of safety." 

The extra session of the legislature passed, wtih a single exception, no acts except such as 
appertained to the military exigencies of the times. Both houses adjourned sine die on the 
twenty-seventh of May, 1861. As the administration of Governor Randall would close with the 
year, and as he was not a candidate for re-election, there was much interest felt throughout the 
State as to who his successor should be. Three State tickets were put in nomination : union, 
republican, and democratic. The republican ticket was successful, electing Louis P. Harvey, 
governor; Edward Salomon, lieutenant governor ; James T. Lewis, secretary of state ; S. D. 
Hastings, state treasurer; James H. Howe, attorney general; W. H. Ramsey, bank comp- 
troller; J. L. Pickard, superintendent of public instruction; and A. P. Hodges, state prison 

The War of Secession — L.'vst Year of Randall's Ad.ministratiox. 

When Wisconsin was first called upon to aid the General Government in its efforts to 
sustain itself against the designs of the secession conspirators, the commercial affairs of the 
State were embarrassed to a considerable degree by the depreciation of the currency. The 
designs of the secessionists were so far developed at the ending of the year i860 as to show that 
resistance to the national authority had been fully determined on. It is not a matter of wonder, 
then, that Governor Randall in his message to the legislature, early in January, 1861, should 
have set forth the dangers which threatened the Union, or should have denied the right of a 
State to secede from it. " Secession," said he, " is revolution ; revolution is war ; war against 
the government of the United States is treason." " It is time," he continued, "now, to know 
whether we have any government, and if so, whether it has any strength. Is our written 
constitution more than a sheet of parchment .' The nation must be lost or preserved by its own 
strength. Its strength is in the patriotism of the people. It is time now that politicians became 
Datriots; that men show their love of country by every sacrifice, but that of principle, and by 


unwavering devotion to its interests and integrity." "The hopes," added the governor, most 
eloquently, " of civilization and Christianity are suspended now upon the answer to this question 
of dissolution. The capacity for, as well as the riglit of, self-government is to pass its ordeal, 
and speculation to become certainty. Other systems have been tried, and have failed ; and all 
along, the skeletons of nations have been strewn, as warnings and land-marks, upon the great 
highway of historic overnment. Wisconsin is true, and her people steadfast. She will not 
destroy the Union, nor consent that it shall be done. Devised by great, and wise, and good 
men, in days of sore trial, it must stand. Like some bold mountain, at whose base the great seas 
break their angry floods, and around whose summit the thunders of a thousand hurricanes have 
rattled — strong, unmoved, immovable — so may our Union be, while treason surges at its base, 
and passions rage around it, unmoved, immovable — here let it stand forever." These are the 
words of an e,\alted and genuine patriotism. But the governor did not content himself with 
eloquence alone. He came down to matters of business as well. He urged the necessity of 
legislation that would give more efficient organization to the militia of the State. He warned 
the legislators to make preparations also for the coming time that should try the souls of men. 
"The signs of the times," said he, " indicate that there may arise a contingency in the condition 
of the government, when it will become necessary to respond to a call of the National Government 
for men and means to maintain the integrity of the Union, and to thwart the designs of men 
engaged in organized treason. While no unnecessary expense should be incurred, yet it is the 
part of wisdom, both for individuals and States, in revolutionary times, to be prepared to defend 
our institutions to the last extremity." It was thus the patriotic governor gave evidence to the 
members of both houses that he " scented the battle afar off." 

On the 1 6th of January, a joint resolution of the legislature was passed, declaring that the 
people of Wisconsin are ready to co-operate with the friends of the Union every where for its 
preservation, to yield a cheerful obedience to its requirements, and to demand a like obedience 
from all others ; that the legislature of Wisconsin, profoundly impressed with the value of the 
Union, and determined to preserve it unimpaired, hail with joy the recent firm, dignified and 
patriotic special message of the president of the United States ; that they tender to him, through 
the chief magistrate of their own State, whatever aid, in men and money, may be required to 
enable him to enforce the laws and uphold the authority of the Federal Government, and in 
defense of the more perfect Union, which has conferred prosperity and happiness on the 
American people. " Renewing," said they, " the pledge given and redeemed by our fathers, we 
are ready to devote our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honors in upholding the Union and 
the constitution." 

The legislature, in order to put the State upon a kind of "war footing," passed an act for 
its defense, and to aid in enforcing the laws and maintaining the authority of the General 
Government. It was under this act that Governor Randall was enabled to organize the earlier 
regiments of Wisconsin. By it, in case of a call from the president of the United States to aid 
in maintaining the Union and the supremacy of the laws to suppress rebellion or insurrection, or 
to repel invasion within the United States, the governor was authorized to provide, in the most 
efficient manner, for responding to such call — to accept the services of volunteers for service, 
in companies of seventy-five men each, rank and file, and in regiments of ten companies each, 
and to commission officers for them. The governor was also authorized to contract for 
uniforms and equipments necessary for putting such companies into active service. One 
hundred thousand dollars were appropriated for war purposes ; and bonds were authorized to 
be issued for that amount, to be negotiated by the governor, for raising funds. It will be seen, 
therefore, that the exigencies of the times — for Fort Su.nter had not yet been surrendered — 


were fully met by the people's representatives, they doing tlieir whole duty, as they then under- 
stood it, in aid of the perpetuity of the Union. 

Having defended Fort Sumter for thirty-four hours, until the quarters were entirely burned, 
the main gates destroyed, the gorge-wall seriously injured, the magazine surrounded by flames, 
and its door closed from the effects of the heat, four barrels and three cartridges of powder only 
being available, and no provisions but pork remaining, Robert Anderson, major of the first 
artillery. United States army, accepted terms of evacuation offered by General Beauregard, 
marched out of the fort on Sunday afternoon, the fourteenth of Ajsril, 1861, with colors flying 
and drums beating, bringing away company and private property, and saluting his flag with fifty guns. 
This, in brief, is the story of the fall of Sumter and the opening act of the War of the Rebellion. 

" Whereas," said Abraham Lincoln, president, in his proclamation of the next day, " the 
laws of the United States have been for some lime past, and now are, opposed, and the e.xecution 
thereof obstructed, in the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, and Texas, by combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course of 
judicial proceedings, or by the powers vested in the marshals by law." Now, in view of that 
fact, he called forth the militia of the several States of the Union, to the aggregate number of 
seventy-five thousand, in order to suppress those combinations, and to cause the laws to be duly 
executed. " A call is made on you by to-night's mail for one regiment of militia for immediate 
service," telegraphed the secretary of war to Randall, on the same day. 

In Wisconsin, as elsewhere, the public pulse quickened under the excitement of the fall of 
Sumter. " The dangers which surrounded the nation awakened the liveliest sentiments of 
patriotism and devotion. For the time, party fealty was forgotten in the general desire to save 
the nation. The minds of the people soon settled into the conviction that a bloody war was at 
hand, and that the glorious fabric of our National Government, and the principles upon which 
it is founded, were in jeopardy, and with a determination unparalleled in the history of any 
country, they rushed to its defense. On eyery hand the National flag could be seen displayed, 
and the public enthusiasm knew no bounds ; in city, town, and hamlet, the burden on every 
tongue was war." "We have never been accustomed," said Governor Randall, " to con»ider the 
military arm as essential to the maintenance of our government, but an exigency has arisen 
that demands its employment." "The time has come," he continued, " when parties and plat- 
forms must be forgotten, and all good citizens and patriots unite together in putting down rebels 
and'traitors." "What is money," he asked, "what is life, in the presence of such a crisis .' " 
Such utterances and such enthusiasm could but have their effect upon the legislature, which, it 
will be remembered, was still in session ; so, although that body had already voted to adjourn, 
sine lite, on the fifteenth of April, yet, when the moment arrived, and a message from the governor 
was received, announcing that, owing to the extraordinary exigencies which had arisen, an amend- 
ment of the law of the thirteenth instant was necessary, the resolution to adjourn was at once 
rescinded. The two houses thereupon not only increased the amount of bonds to be issued to 
two hundred thousand dollars, but they also passed a law exempting from civil process, during 
the time of service, all persons enlisting and mustering into the L'nited States army from Wis- 
consin. When, on the seventeenth, the legislature did adjourn, the scene was a remarkable one. 
Nine cheers were given for the star spangled banner and tliree for the Governor's Guard, who 
had just then tendered their services — the first in the State — ^under the call for a regiment of 
men for three months' duty. 

" For the first time in the history of this federal government," are the words of the gover- 
nor, in a proclamation issued on the sixteenth of .Vpril, "organized treason has manifested itself 
within several States of the Union, and armed rebels are making war against it." " The 
treasuries of the country," said he, "must no longer be plundered; the public property must be 


protected from aggressive violence ; that already seized must be retaken, and the laws must 
be executed in every State of the Union alike." " A demand," he added, " made upon Wiscon- 
sin by the president of the United States, for aid to sustain the federal arm, must meet with a 
prompt response." The patriotism of the State was abundantly exhibited in their filling up 
a regiment before some of the remote settlements had any knowledge of the call. On the twenty- 
second. Governor Randall reported to the secretary of war that the First regiment was ready 
to go into rendezvous. The place designated was "Camp Scott," at Milwaukee; the day, the 
twenty-seventh of April. Then and there the several companies assembled — the regiment after- 
ward completing its organization. 

With a wise foresight, Governor Randall ordered, as a reserve force and in advance of another 
call for troops by the president, the formation of two more regiments — the Second and Third, 
and, eventually, the Fourth. Camps at Madison, Fond du Lac, and Racine, were formed for 
their reception, where suitable buildings were erected for their accommodation. Companies 
assigned to the Second regiment were ordered to commence moving into "Camp Randall," at 
Madison, on the first day of May. On the seventh, the secretary of war, under call of the presi- 
dent of the United States for forty-two thousand additional volunteers — this time for three years, 
or during the war — telegraphed Governor Randall that no more three months' volunteers were 
wanted; that such companies as were recruited must re-enlist for the new term or be disbanded. 

At the extra session of the legislature of Wisconsin, which, as already mentioned, com- 
menced on the fifteenth of May, called by Governor Randall immediately upon his being notified 
of the second call of the president for troops, on the third of May, the law hurriedly passed at 
the close of the regular session, and under which the governor had organized the First regi- 
ment, was found inadequate to meet the second call for troops. " A bill was introduced, and became 
a law, authorizing the governor to raise six regiments of infantry, inclusive of those he had organ^ 
ized or placed at quarters. When the six regiments were mustered into the United States service, 
he was authorized to raise two additional regiments, and thus to keep two regiments continually 
in reserve to meet any future call of the General Government. He was authorized to quarter 
and subsist volunteers at rendezvous — to transport, clothe, subsist and quarter them in camp at 
the expense of the State. Arms and munitions were to be furnished by the United States. 
Recruits were to be mustered into State service, and into United States service, for three years. 
Two assistant surgeons to each regiment were to be appointed, and paid by the State. The regi- 
ments, as they came into camp, were to be instructed in drill and various camp duties, to secure 
efficiency in the field. The troops, so called in, were to be paid monthly by the State, the same 
pay and emoluments as the soldiers in the United States army, from the date of enlistment. The 
paymaster general was authorized to draw funds from the State treasury for the payment of 
the State troops, and the expense incurred in subsisting, transporting and clothing them. The 
governor was authorized to purchase military stores, subsistence, clothing, medicine, field and 
camp equipage, and the sum of one million dollars was appropriated to enable the governor to 
carry out the law." 

Other laws were passed relating to military matters. One authorized the governor to pur- 
chase two thousand stand of arms ; and fifty thousand dollars were appropriated to pay tor the 
same. Another authorized counties, towns, cities and incorporated villages to levy taxes for 
the purpose of providing for the support of families of volunteers residing in their respective 
limits. The one passed at the previous session, exempting volunteers from civil process vhile in 
the service, was amended so as to include all who might thereafter enlist. One granted five dollars 
per month as extra pay to enlisted volunteers having families dependent upon them for support, 
payable to their families. Another authorized the governor to employ such aids, clerks and 


messengers, as he deemed necessary for the public interests. Still another authorized the pay- 
ment of those who had enlisted for three months, but had declined to go in for three years. 
The expenses of the extra session were ordered to be paid out of the " war fund." One million 
dollars in bonds were authorized to be issued for war purposes to form that fund. The governor, 
secretary of state and state treasurer were empowered to negotiate them. By a joint resolu- 
tion approved the twenty-first of May, the consent of the legislature was given to the governor 
to be absent from the State during the war, for as long a time as m his discretion he might think 
proper or advisable, in connection with the military forces of the State. For liberality, zeal and 
genuine patriotism, the members of the Wisconsin legislature, for the year iS6i, deserve a high 
commendation. All that was necessary upon their final adjournment at the close of the extra 
session to place the State upon a " war footing," was the organization by the governor of the 
various military departments. These he effected by appointing Brigadier General William L. 
Utley, adjutant general; Brigadier General W. W. Tredway, quartermaster general; Colonel 
Edwin R. Wadsworth, commissary general ;' Brigadier General Simeon Mills, paymaster gen- 
eral; Brigadier General E. B. Wolcott, surgeon general ; Major E. L. Buttrick, judge advocate ; 
and Colonel William H. Watson, military secretary. 

On the seventeenth of May, the First regiment, at "Camp Scott," was mustered into the 
United States service, and the war department informed that it awaited marching orders. The 
regimental officers were not all in accordance with the law and mode adopted afterwards. On 
the seventh of the month Governor Randall had appointed Rufus King a brigadier general, and 
assigned the First, Second, Third and Fourth regiments to his command as the Wisconsin 
brigade; although at that date only the First and Second had been called into camp. This 
brigade organization was not recognized by the General Government. The secretary of war 
telegraphed the governor of Wisconsin that the quota of the State, under the second call of the 
president, was two regiments — so that the whole number under both calls was only three — one 
(the First) for three months, two (the Second and Third) for three years. Notwithstanding this. 
Governor Randall proceeded to organize the Fourth. 

As a number of the companies ordered into " Camp Randall " on the first day of May to 
form the Second regiment had only enlisted for three months, the order of the secretary of war 
of the seventh of that month making it imperative that all such companies must re-enlist for 
three years or during the war, or be disbanded, the question of e.xtending their term of enlist- 
ment was submitted to the companies of the regiment, when about five hundred consented to 
the change. The quota of the regiment was afterward made r.p, and the whole mustered into 
the service of the United States for three years or during the war, under the president's second 
call for troops. This was on the eleventh of June, 1861. The Third regiment having had its 
companies assigned early in May, they were ordered in June into "Camp Hamilton" at Fond 
du Lac, where the regiment was organized, and, on the twenty-ninth of June, mustered into the 
United States' service as a three years regiment. This filled Wisconsin's quota under the second 
call of President Lincoln. By this time war matters in the State began to assume a systematic 
course of procedure — thanks to the patriotism of the people, the wisdom of the legislature, and 
the untiring energy and exertions of the governor and his subordinates. 

The determination of the secretary of war to accept from Wisconsin only two three-years 
regiments under the second call for troops was soon changed, and three more were authorized, 
making it necessary to organize the Fourth, Fifth and Si.xth. The Fourth was called into "Camp 
Utley " at Racine on the si.xth of June, and was mustered into the service of the United States 
on the ninth of the folio- .ing month. By the twenty-eighth of June, all the companies of the 
Fifth had assembled at " Camp Randall," and on the thirteenth of July were mustered in as 


United States troops. By the first of July, at the same place, the complement for the Sixth 
regiment had been made up, and the companies were mustered for three years into the service 
of the General Government, on the sixteenth of the same month. Governor Randall did not 
stop the good work when six regiments had been accepted, but assigned the necessary companies 
to form two more regiments — the Seventh and Eighth; however, he wisely concluded not to call 
them into camp until after harvest, unless specially required to do so. " If they are needed 
sooner," said the governor, in a letter to the president on the first of July, " a call will be imme- 
diately responded to, and we shall have their uniforms and equipments ready for them." " By 
the authority of our legislature," added the writer, 'I shall, after the middle of August, keep 
two regiments equipped and in camp ready for a call to service, and will have them ready at an 
earlier day if needed." 

About the latter part of June, W. P. Alexander, of Beloit, a good marksman, was commis- 
sioned captain to raise a company of sharpshooters for Berdan's regiment. He at once engaged 
in the work. The company was filled to one hundred and three privates and three officers. It 
left the State about the middle of September under Captain Alexander, and vi^as mustered into 
the service at Wehawken on the twenty-third day of that month, as Company "G " of Berdan's 
regiment of sharpshooters. On the twenty-sixth of July, a commission was issued to G. Van 
Deutsch, of Milwaukee, to raise a company of cavalry. He succeeded in filling his company to 
eighty-four men. He left the State in September, joining Fremont. The company was after- 
ward attached to the fifth cavalry regiment of Missouri. 

About the 20th of August, Governor Randall was authorized to organize and equip as rapidly 
as possible five regiments of infantry and five batteries of artillery, and procure for them necessary 
clothing and equipments according to United States regulations and prices, subject to the inspec- 
tion of officers of the General Government. The five regiments were to be additional to the 
eight already raised. One regiment was to be German. During the last week of August the 
companies of the Seventh regiment were ordered into " Camp Randall," at Madison. They were 
mustered into the service soon after arrival. On the 28th of August orders were issued for the 
reorganization of the First regiment for three years, its term of three months having expired. 
The secretary of war having signified his acceptance of the regiment for the new term, its mus- 
tering into the service was completed on the nineteenth of October. This made six infantry regi- 
ments in addition to the eight already accepted, or fourteen in all. On the same day orders were 
issued assigning companies to the Eighth regiment, — the whole moving to " Camp Randall," at 
Madison, the first week in September, where their mustering in was finished on the thirteenth. 

The Ninth, a German reginent, was recruited in squads, and sent into camp, where they were 
formed into companies, and the whole mustered in on the 26th of October, i86i,at " Camp Sigel," 
Milwaukee. Companies were assigned the Tenth regiment on the 18th of September, and 
ordered into camp at Milwaukee, where it was fully organized about the first of October, being 
mustered into the service on the fourteenth of that month. The Tenth infantry was enlisted in 
September, 1S61, and mustered in on the fourteenth of October, 1S61, at "Camp Holton," Mil- 
waukee. The Eleventh regiment was called by companies into " Camp Randall " the latter part 
of September and first of October, 1861, and mustered in on the eighteenth. The Twelfth was 
called in to the same camp and mustered in by companies between the twenty-eighth of October 
and the fifth of November, 1861. The Thirteenth rendezvoused at "Camp Treadway," Janes- 
ville, being mustered into the United States service on the seventeenth of October, 1861. These 
thirteen regiments were all that had been accepted and mustered into the United States serv^'^e 
while Randall was governor. 

From the commencement of the rebellion a great desire had been manifested for the orfan- 


ization of artillery companies in Wisconsin, and this desire was finally gratified. Each battery 
was to number one hundred and fifty men, and, as has been shown, five had been authorized by 
the General Government to be raised in Wisconsin. The First battery was recruited at La 
Crosse, under the superintendence of Captain Jacob T. Foster, and was known as the " La Crosse 
Artillery." It rendezvoused at Racine^early in October, 1861, where on the tenth of that month, 
it was mustered into the United States service. The Second battery. Captain Ernest Herzberg, 
assembled at " Camp Utiey," Racine, and was mustered in with the First battery on the tenth. 
The Third, known as the " Badger Battery," was organized by Captain L. H. Drury, at Madison 
and Berlin, and was mustered into the service on the same day and at the same place as the First 
and Second. The Fourth battery, recruited and organized at Beloit, under the supervision of 
Captain John F. Vallee, was mustered in on the first of October, 1S61, at Racine. The Fifth 
battery was recruited at Monroe, Green county, under the superintendence of Captain Oscar F- 
Pinney, moving afterward to " Camp Utley," Racine, where, on the first of October, it was mus- 
tered in, along with the Fourth. So brisk had been the recruiting, it was ascertained by the 
governor that seven companies had been raised instead of five, when the secretary of war was 
telegraphed to, and the extra companies — the Sixth and Seventh accepted ; the Sixth, known as 
the " Buena Vista Artillery," being recruited at Lone Rock, Richland county, in September, 
Captain Henry Dillon, and mustered in on the second of October, 1S61, at Racine; the Seventh, 
known as the "Badger State Flying Artillery," having organized at Milwaukee, Captain Richard 
R. Griffiths, and mustered in on the fourth of the same month, going into camp at Racine on the 
eighth. This completed the mustering in of the first seven batteries, during Governor Randall's 
administration ; the whole mustered force being thirteen regiments of infantry; one company of 
cavalry ; one of sharpshooters ; and these seven artillery companies. " Wisconsin," said the gov- 
ernor, in response to a request as to the number of regiments organized, " sent one regiment 
for three months, — officers and men eight hundred and ten. The other regiments i n the war up 
to the Thirteenth (including the First, re-organized), will average one thousand men each; one 
company of sharpshooters for Berdan's regiment, one hundred and three men ; and seven 
companies of light artillery." Of cavalry from Wisconsin, only Deutsch's company had been 
mustered into the United States, although three regiments had been authorized by the General 
Government before the close of Randall's administration. The governor, before the expiration 
of his office, was empowered to organize more artillery companies — ten in all ; and five additional 
regiments of infantry — making the whole number eighteen. On the tenth of December, he 
wrote : " Our Fourteenth infantry is full and in camp. * * * Fifteenth has five companies 
in camp, and filling up. Sixteenth has eight companies in camp, and will be full by the 25th of 
December. Seventeenth has some four hundred men enlisted. Eighteenth will be in camp, full, 
by January i. Seven maximum companies of artillery in camp. * * * Three regiments of 
cavalry — two full above the maximum ; the third, ahout eight hundred men in camp." It 
will be seen, therefore, that a considerable number of men in the three branches of the service 
was then in camp that had not been mustered into the service ; and this number was considerably 
increased by the 6th of January, 1S62, the day that Randall's official term expired; but no more 
men were mustered in, until his successor came into office, than those previously mentioned. 

The First regiment — three months' — left " Camp Scott," Milwaukee, on the ninth of June, 
1861, for Harrisburg, Pennsylvania — eight hundred and ten in number; John C. Starkweather, 
colonel. The regiment returned to Milwaukee on the seventeenth of August, 1S61, and was 
mustered out on the twenty-second. 

The First regiment re-organized at "Camp Scott," Milwaukee. Its mustering into the 
service, as previously mentioned, was completed on the nineteenth of October. On the twenty- 


eighth, it started for Louisville, Kentucky — nine hundred and forty-five strong — under command 
of its former colonel, John C. Starkweatjier. The Second regiment, with S. Park Coon as 
colonel, left " Camp Randall," Madison, for Washington city, on the eleventh of June, 1861 — 
numbering, in all, one thousand and fifty-one. The Third regiment started from " Camp 
Hamilton," Fond du Lac, for Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, under command of Charles S. Hamilton, ■ 
as colonel, on the twelfth of July, 1861, with a numerical strength of nine hundred and seventy- 
nine. The Fourth regiment — Colonel Halbert E. Payne — with a numerical strength of one 
thousand and fifty-three, departed on the fifteentji of July, 186 1, from "Camp Utley," Racine, 
for Baltimore, Maryland. The Fifth regiment left " Camp Randall," Madison, one thousand 
and fifty-eight strong, commanded by Colonel Amasa Cobb, on the twenty-fourth of July, 1861, 
for Washington city. On the twenty-eighth of July, 1861, the Sixth regiment, numbering one 
thousand and eighty-iour, moved from Madicon, having been ordered to Washington city. It 
was commanded by Colonel Lysander Cutter. The Seventh regiment — Joseph Van Dor, Colonel 
— with a numerical strength of one thousand and sixteen men — officers and privates, received 
orders, as did the Fifth and Sixth, to move forward to Washington. They started from Madison 
on the morning of the twenty-first of September, 1861, for active service. The Eighth infantry, 
nine hundred and seventy-three strong, commanded by Colonel Robert C. Murphy, left Madison, 
en route for St. Louis, Missouri, on the morning of the twelfth of October, 1861. The Ninth, or 
German regiment, with Frederick Salomon in command as colonel, did not leave " Camp Sigel," 
for active service, while Randall was governor. The Tenth infantry moved from " Camp 
Holton," Milwaukee, commanded by Colonel Alfred R. Chapin, on the ninth of November, 1S61, 
destined for Louisville, Kentucky, with a total number of nine hundred and sixteen officers and 
privates. On the twentieth of November, 1861, the Eleventh regiment "broke camp" at 
Madison, starting for St. Louis, under command of Charles L. Harris, as colonel. Its whole 
number of men was nine hundred and sixteen. The Twelfth regiment, at " Camp Randall," 
Madison — Colonel George E. Bryant, and the Thirteenth, at " Camp Tredway," Janesville — 
Colonel Maurice Maloney — were still in camp at the expiration of the administration of Governor 
Randall : these, with the Ninth, were all that had not moved out of the State for active service, 
of those mustered in previous to January 6, 1861, — making a grand total of infantry sent from 
Wisconsin, up to that date, by the governor, to answer calls of the General Government, for 
three years' service or during the war, of nine thousand nine hundred and ninety-one men, in ten 
regiments, averaging very nearly one thousand to each regiment. Besides these ten regiments 
of infantry for three years' service, Wisconsin had also sent into the field the'First regiment, for 
three months' service, numbering eight hundred and ten men; Alexander's company of sharp- 
shooters, one hundred and six; and Deutsch's company of cavalry, eighty-four: in all, one 
thousand. Adding these to the three years' regiments, and the whole force, in round numbers, 
was eleven thousand men, furnished by the State in 1861. 

Eighth Administration. — Lnuis P. Harvey and Edward S.\lomon, Governors — 1862-1863. 

Louis P. Harvey was inaugurated governor of Wisconsin on the sixth of January, 1862. 
The fifteenth regular session of the legislature of the State began on the eighth of the same 
month. In the senate, the republicans were in the majority; but in the assembly they had 
only a plurality of members, there being a number of " Union " men in that branch — enough, 
indeed, to elect, by outside aid, J. W. Beardsley, who ran for the assembly, upon the " Union " 
ticket, as speaker. Governor Harvey, on the tenth, read his message to the legislature in joint 
convention. " No previous legislature," are his opening words, " has convened under equal 
incentives to a disinterested zeal in the public service The occasion," he adds, "pleads 

wisco:srsiN" as a state. 77 

with you in rebuke of all the meaner passions, admonishing to the exercise of a conscientious 
patriotism, becoming the representatives of a Christian- people, called in God's providence to 
pass through the furnace of a great trial of their virtue, and of the strength of the Government." 
On the seventh of .\prii following, the legislature adjourned until the third of June next ensuing. 
Before it again assembled, an event occurred, casting a gloom over the whole State. The 
occasion was the accidental drowning of Governor Harvey. 

Soon after the battle of Pittsburgh Landing, on the seventh of April, 1862, the certainty 
that some of the Wisconsin regiments had suffered severely, induced the governor to organise 
a relief party, to aid the wounded and suffering soldiers from the State. On the tenth, Harvey 
and others started on their tour of benevolence. Arriving at Chicago, they found a large num- 
lier of boxes had been forwarded there from different points in the State, containing supplies of 
various kinds. At Mound City, Paducah, and Savannah, the governor and his party adminis- 
tered to the wants of the sick and wounded Wisconsin soldiers. Having completed their mission 
of mercy, they repaired to a boat in the harbor of Savannah, to await the arrival of the Minne- 
haha, which was to convey them to Cairo, on their homeward trij). It was late in the evening of 
the nineteenth of April, 1862, and very dark when the boat arrived which was to take the 
governor and his friends on board ; and as she rounded to, the bow touching the Dunleith, on 
which was congregated the party ready to depart. Governor Harvey, by a misstep, fell overboard 
l>etween the two boats, into the Tennessee river. The current was strong, and the water more 
than thirty feet deep. Every thing was done that could be, to save his life, but all to no 
purpose. His body was subsequently found and brought to Madison for interment. Edward 
Salomon, lieutenant governor, by virtue of a provision of the constitution of the State, upon the 
death of Harvey, succeeded to the office of governor of Wisconsin. On the third day of June, 
the legislature re-assembled in accordance with adjournment on the seventh of April previous. 
Governor Salomon, in his message of that day, to the senate and assembly, after announcing 
the sad event of the death of the late governor, said : '' The last among the governors elected 
by the people of this State, he is the first who has been removed by death from our midst. The 
circumstances leading to and surrounding the tragic ;md melancholy end of the honored and 
lamented deceased, are well known to the people, and are, with his memory, treasured up in 
their hearts." He died," added Salomon, " while in the exercise of the highest duties of philan- 
thropy and humanity, that a noble impulse had imposed upon him." The legislature, on the 
thirteenth of June, by a joint resolution, declared that in the death of Governor Harvey, the 
State had "lost an honest, faithful, and efficient public officer, a high-toned gentleman, a warm 
hearted philanthropist, and a sincere friend." Both houses adjourned siiu die, on the sevententh 
of June, 1862. 

Business of great public importance, in the judgment of the governor, rendering a special 
session of the legislature necessary, he issued, on the twenty-ninth of August, 1862, his proc- 
lamation to that effect, convening both houses on the tenth of September following. On that 
day he sent in his message, relating wholly to war matters. He referred to the fact that since 
the adjournment of the previous session, six hundred thousand more men had been called for bv 
the president of the United States, to suppress the rebellion. " It is evident," said he, "' that to 
meet further calls, it is necessary to rely upon a system of drafting or conscription, in Wisconsin.' 
The governor then proceeded to recommend such measures as he deemed necessary to meet 
the exigencies of the times. The legislature levied a tax to aid volunteering, and passed a law 
giving the right of suffrage to soldiers in the military service. They also authorized the raising 
of money for payment of bounties to volunteers. The legislature adjourned on the twenty- 
sixth of September, 1862, after a session of sixteen days, and the enacting of seventeen laws. 


On the yth of October, James H. Howe, attorney general, resigned his office to enter the 
army. On the 14th of that month, Winfield Smith was appointed by the governor to fill the 


At the general election in the l'"all of this year, si.x congressmen were elected to the thirty- 
ei"hth congress: James S. Brown from the first district; I. C. Sloan, from the second; Amasa 
Cobb, from the third ; Charles A. Eldredge, from the fourth ; Ezra Wheeler, from the fifth ; and 
\V. D. Mclndoe, from the sixth district. Sloan, Cobb, and Mclndoe, were elected as republi- 
cans ; Brown, Eldridge, and Wheeler, as democrats. 

The sixteenth regular session of the Wisconsin legislature, commenced on the fourteenth of 
January, 1863. J. Allen Barber was elected speaker of the assembly. The majority in both 
houses was republican. Governor Salomon read his message on the fifteenth, to the joint 
convention, referring, at length, to matters connected with the war of the rebellion. A large 
number of bills were passed by the legislature for the benefit of soldiers and their families. On 
the twenty-second, the legislature re-elected James R. Doolittle, to the United States senate for 
six years, from the fourth of March next ensuing. The legislature adjourned sine die on the 
second of April following. In the Spring of this year, Luther S. Dixon was re-elected chief 
justice of the supreme court, running as an independent candidate. 

By a provision of the Revised Statutes of 1858, as amended by an act passed in 1862, and 
interpreted by another act passed in 1875, the terms of the justices of the supreme court, 
elected for a full term, commence on the first Monday in January next succeeding their election. 

At the Fall election there were two tickets in the field : democratic and union republican. 
The latter was successful, electing James T. Lewis, governor ; Wyman Spooner, lieutenant 
governor; Lucius Fairchild, secretary of state; S. D. Hastings, state treasurer; Winfield 
Smith, attorney general ; J. L. Pickard, state superintendent ; W. H. Ramsay, bank comp- 
troller; and Henry Cordier, state prison commissioner. 

War of Secession — Harvey and Salomon's Administration. 

When Governor Randall turned over to his successor in the gubernatorial chair, the military 
matters of Wisconsin, he had remaining in the State, either already organized or in process of 
formation, the Ninth infantry, also the Twelfth up to the Nineteenth inclusive ; three regiments 
of cavalry ; and ten batteries — First to Tenth inclusive. Colonel Edward Daniels, in the Summer 
of 1861, was authorized by the war department to recruit and organize one battalion of cavalry 
in Wisconsin. He was subsequently authorized to raise two more companies. Governor Ran- 
dall, in October, was authorized to complete the regiment— the First cavalry — by the organiza- 
tion of six additional companies. The organization of the Second cavalry regiment was author- . 
ized in the Fall of 1861, as an "independent acceptance," but was finally turned over to the 
State authorities. Early in November, 1861, the war department issued an order discontinuing 
enlistments for the cavalry service, and circulars were sent to the different State executives to 
consolidate all incomplete regiments. Ex-Governor Barstow, by authority of General Fremont, 
which authority was confirmed by the General Government, had commenced the organization of 
a cavalry regiment — the Third Wisconsin — when Governor Randall received information that 
the authority of Barstow had been revoked. The latter, however, soon had his authority 
restored. In October, Governor Randall was authorized by the war department to raise three 
additional companies of artillery — Eighth to Tenth inclusive. These three batteries were all 
filled and went into camp by the close of 1S61. Governor Randall, therefore, besides sending 
out of the State eleven thousand men, had in process of formation, or fully organized, nine 
regiments of infantry, three regiments of cavalry, and ten companies of artillery, left behind in 


various camps in the State, to be turned over to his successor. 

The military officers of Wisconsin were the governor, Louis P. Harvey, commander-in- 
chief; Brigadier General Augustus Gaylord, adjutant general ; Brigadier General \V. W. Tred- 
way, quartermaster general; Colonel Edwin R. Wadsworth, commissary general; Brigadier Gen- 
eral Simeon Mills, paymaster general; Brigadier General E. B. Wolcott, surgeon general; Major 
M. H. Carpenter, judge advocate; and Colonel William H. Watson, military secretary. As the 
General Government had taken the recruiting service out of the hands of the executives of the 
States, and appointed superintendents in their place, the offices of commissary general and 
paymaster general were no longer necessary; and their time, after the commencement of the 
administration in Wisconsin of 1862, was employed, so long as tliey continued their respective 
offices, in settling up the business of each. The office of commissary general was closed about 
the first of June, 1862; that of paymaster general on the tenth of July following. On the last 
of August, 1S62, Brigadier General Tredway resigned the position of quartermaster general, and 
Nathaniel F. Lund was appointed to fill liis place. 

Upon the convening of the legislature of the State in its regular January session of this 
year— 1862, Governor Harvey gave, in his message to that body, a full statement of what had 
been done by Wisconsin in matters appertaining to the war, under the administration of his 
predecessor. He stated that the State furnished to the service of the General Governmciu 
under the call for volunteers for three months, one regiment — First Wisconsin ; under the call 
for volunteers for three years, or the war, ten regiments, numbering from the First re-organizeJ 
to the Eleventh, excluding the Ninth or German regiment. He gave as the whole number of 
officers, musicians and privates, in these ten tliree-year regiments, ten thousand one hundred and 
seventeen. He further stated that there were then organized and awaiting orders, the Ninth, in 
" Camp Sigel," Milwaukee, numbering nine hundred and forty men, under Colonel Frederick 
Salomon; the Twelfth, in " Camp Randall," one thousand and thirty-nine men, under Colonel 
George E. Bryant; the Thirteenth, in "Camp Tredway," Janesville, having nine hundred and 
nineteen men, commanded by Colonel M. Maloney ; and the Fourteenth, at " Camp Wood," 
Fond du Lac, eight hundred and fifty men, under Colonel D. E. Wood. 

The Fifteenth or Scandinavian regiment. Colonel H. C. Heg, seven hundred men, and the 
Sixteenth, Colonel Benjamin Allen, nine hundred men, were at that time at "Camp Randall," in 
near readiness for marching orders. The Seventeenth (Irish) regiment, Colonel J. L. Doran, and 
the Eighteenth, Colonel James S. Alban, had their full number of companies in readiness, lacking 
one, and had been notified to go into camp — the former at Madison, the latter at Milwaukee. 
Seven companies of artillery, numbering together one thousand and fifty men, had remained for 
a considerable time in " Camp Utley," Racine, impatient of the delays of the General Govern- 
ment in calling them to move forward. Three additional companies of artillery were about 
going into camp, numbering three hundred and thirty-four men. Besides these, the State had 
furnished, as already mentioned, an independent company of cavalry, then in Missouri, raised 
by Captain Von Deutsch, of eighty-one men ; a company of one hundred and four men for Bcr- 
dan's sharpshooters; and an additional company for the Second regiment, of about eighty men. 
'I'hree regiments of cavalry — the First, Colonel E. Daniels; the Second, Colonel C. C. Washburn; 
and the Third, Colonel W. A. Barstow; were being organized. They numbered together, two thou- 
sand four hundred and fifty men. The Nineteenth (independent) regiment was rapidly organ- 
izing under the direction of the General Government, by Colonel H. T. Sanders, Racine. Not 
bringing this last regiment into view, the State had, at the commencement of Governor Harvey's 
administration, including the First, three-months' regiment, either in the service of the United 
States or organizing for it, a total of twenty-one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three men. 


The legislature at its regular session of 1862, passed a law making it necessary to present 
all claims which were made payable out of the war fund, within twelve months from the time they 
accrued ; a law was also passed authorizing the investment of the principal of the school fund in 
the bonds of the state issued for war purposes ; another, amendatory of the act of the extra session 
of T^6i, granting exemption to persons enrolled in the military service, so as to except persons 
acting as fiduciary agents, either as executors or administrators, or guardians or trustees, or 
persons defrauding the State, or any school district of moneys belonging to the same; also author- 
izing a stay of proceedings in foreclosures of mortgages, by advertisements. " The State Aid 
Law" was amended so as to apply to all regiments of infantry, cavalry, artillery and sharpshooters, 
defining the rights of families, fixing penalties for the issue of false papers, and imposing duties on 
military officers in the field to make certain reports. These amendments only included regi- 
ments and companies organized up to and including the Twentieth, which was in process of 
organization before the close of the session. A law was also passed suspending the sale of lands 
mortgaged to the State, or held by volunteers ; another defining the duties of the allotment com- 
missioners appointed by the president of the United States, and fixing their compensation. One 
authorized the issuing of bonds for two hundred thousand dollars for war purposes ; one author- 
ized a temporary loan from the general fund to pay State aid to volunteers ; and one, the appoint- 
ment of a joint committee to investigate the sale of war bonds; while another authorized the 
governor to appoint surgeons to batteries, and assistant surgeons to cavalry regiments. 

The legislature, it will be remembered, took a recess from the seventh of April to the third 
of June, 1862. Upon its re-assembling, .... act was passed providing . jr the discontinuance of the 
active services of the paymaster general, quartermaster general and commissary general. 
Another act appropriated twenty thousand dollars to enable the governor to care for the sick 
and wounded soldiers of the State. There was also another act passed authorizing the auditing, 
by the quartermaster general, of bills for subsistence and transportation of the Wisconsin cavalry 
regiments. At the extra session called by Governor Salomon, for the tenth of September, 1862, 
an amendment was made to the law granting aid to families of volunteers, by including all regi- 
ments of cavalry, infantry, or batteries of artillery before that time raised in the State, or that 
might afterward be raised and mustered into the United States service. It also authorized the 
levying of a State tax of two hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars to be placed to the credit 
of the war fund and used in the payment of warrants for "State Aid" to families of volunteers. 
-Vnother law authorized commissioned officers out of the State to administer oaths and take 
acknowledgments of deeds and other papers. One act authorized soldiers in the field, although 
out of the State, to e.xercise the right of suffrage ; and another gave towns, cities, incorporated 
villages and counties the authority to raise money to pay bounties to volunteers. 

On the fifth of August, 1862, Governor Salomon received from the war department a dispatch 
stating that orders had been issued for a draft of three hundred thousand men to be immediately 
called into the service of the United States, to serve for nine months unless sooner discharged ; 
that if the State quota under a call made July 2, of that year, for three hundred thousand vol- 
unteers, was not filled by the fifteenth of August, the deficiency would be made up by draft ; and 
that the secretary of war would assign the quotas to the States and establish regulations for the 
draft. On the eighth of that month, the governor of the Stale was ordered to immediately cause 
an enrollment of all able-bodied citizens between eighteen and forty-five years of age, by counties. 
Governor Salomon was authorized to appoint proper officers, and the United States promised to 
pay all reasonable expenses. The quota for Wisconsin, under the call for nine months' men, was 
eleven thousand nine hundred and four. The draft was made by the governor in obedience tu 
the order he had received from Washington ; but such had been the volunteering under the stim- 


ulus caused by a fear of it, that only four thousand five hundred and tliirty-seven men were 
drafted. This was the first and only draft made in Wisconsin by the Stale authorities. 
Subsequent ones were made under the direction of the provost marshal general at Wash- 

The enlisting, organization and mustering into the United States service during Randal/s 
administration of thirteen regiments of infantry — the First to the Thirteenth inclusive, and the 
marching of ten of them out of the State before the close of 1861, also, of one company of cavalry 
under Captain Von Deutsch and one company of sharpshooters under Captain Alexander, con- 
stituted the effective aid abroad of Wisconsin during that year to suppress the rebellion. But for 
the year 1S62, this aid, as to number of organizations, was more than doubled, as will now be 

The Ninth regiment left " Camp Sigel," Milwaukee, under command of Colonel 
Salomon, on the twenty-second of January, 1862, numbering thirty-nine officers and eight hun 
dred and eighty-four men, to report at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 

The Twelfth infantry left Wisconsin under command of Colonel George E. Bryant, ten 
hundred and forty-five strong, the eleventh of January, 1862, with orders to report at Weston, 

The Thirteenth regiment — Colonel Maurice Maloney — left "Camp Tredway," Janesville, on 
the eighteenth of January, i862j nine hundred and seventy strong, under orders to report at 
Leavenworth, Kansas, where it arrived on the twenty-third. 

The Fourteenth regiment of infantry departed from " Camp Wood," Fond du Lac, under 
command of Colonel David E. Wood, for St. Louis, Missouri, on the eightii of March, 1862, it 
having been mustered into the United States service on the thirtieth of January previous. Its 
total strength was nine hundred and seventy officers and men. It arrived at its destination on 
the tenth of March, and went into quarters at " Benton Barracks." 

The Fifteenth regiment, mostly recruited from the Scandinavian population of Wisconsin, 
was organized at " Camp Randall," Madison — Hans C. Heg as colonel. Its muster into the 
United States service was completed on the fourteenth of February, 1862, it leaving the State for 
St. Louis, Missouri, on the second of March following, with a total strength of eight hundred and 
one officers and men. 

The Sixteenth regiment was organized at "Camp Randall," and was mustered into the 
service on the last day of January, 1862, leaving the State, with Benjamin Allen as colonel, for 
St. Louis on the thirteenth of March ensuing, having a total strength of one thousand and 

The reg. mental organization of the Seventeenth infantry (Irish), Colonel John L. Doran, 
was effected at " Camp Randall," and the mustering in of the men completed on the fifteenth of 
March, 1862, the regiment leaving the State on the twenty-third for St. Louis 

The Eighteenth regiment organized at " Camp Trowbridge," Milwaukee — James S. Alban, 
colonel — completed its muster into the United States service on the fifteenth of March, 1862, 
and left the State for St. Louis on the thirtieth, reaching their point of destination on the thirty- 

The Nineteenth infantry rendezvoused at Racine as an independent regiment, its colonel, 
Horace T. Sanders, being commissioned by the war department. The men were mustered into 
the service as fast as they were enlisted. Independent organizations being abolished, by an 
order from Washington, tiie Nineteenth was placed on the same footing as other regiments in the 
State. On the twentieth of April, 1S62, the regiment was ordered to " Camp Randall " to guard 
rebel prisoners. Here the mustering in was completed, numbering in all nine hundred and 
seventy-three. They left the State for Washington on the second of June. 


The muster into the United States service of the Twentieth regiment — Bertine Pinckney, 
colonel — was completed on the twenty-third of August, 186;?, at "Camp Randall," the original 
strength being nine hundred and ninety. On the thirtieth of August the regiment left the State 
for St. Louis. 

The Twenty-first infantry was organized at Oshkosh, being mustered in on the fifth of Sep- 
tember, 1862, with a force of one thousand and two, all told — Benjamin J. Sweet, colonel — 
leaving the State for Cincinnati on the eleventh. 

The Twenty-second regiment — Colonel William L. Utley — was organized at " Camp Utley," 
Racine, and mustered in on the second of September, 1862. Its original strength was one thou- 
sand and nine. It left the State for Cincinnati on the sixteenth. 

On the thirtieth of August, 1862, the Twenty-third regiment — Colonel Joshua J. Guppey — 
was mustered in at "Camp Randall," leaving Madison for Cincinnati on the fifteenth. 

The Twenty-fourth infantry rendezvoused at " Camp Sigel," Milwaukee. Its muster in was 
completed on the twenty-first of August, 1862, the regiment leaving the State under Colonel 
Charles H. Larrabee, for Kentucky, on the fifth of September, one thousand strong. 

On the fourteenth of September, 1862, at " Camp Salomon," LaCrosse, the Twenty-fifth 
regiment was mustered into the service — Milton Montgomery, colonel. They left the State on 
the nineteenth with orders to report to General Pope, at St. Paul, Minnesota, to aid in suppress- 
ing the Indian difficulties in that State. Their entire strength was one thousand and eighteen. 
The regiment, after contributing to the preservation of tranquillity among the settlers, and 
deterring the Indians from hostilities, returned to Wisconsin, arriving at " Camp Randall " on the 
eighteenth of December, 1862. 

The Twenty-sixth — almost wholly a German regiment — was mustered into the service at 
"Camp Sigel," Milwaukee, on the seventeenth of September, 1862. The regiment, under com- 
mand of Colonel William H. Jacobs, left the State for Washington city on the sixth of October, 
one thousand strong. 

The Twenty-seventh infantry was ordered to rendezvous at "Camp Sigel," Milwaukee, on 
the seventeenth of September, 1862; but the discontinuance of recruiting for new regiments in 
August left the Twenty-seventh with only seven companies full. An order authorizing the 
recruiting of three more companies was received, and under the supervision of Colonel Conrad 
Krez the organization was completed, but the regiment at the close of the year had not been 
mustered into the service. 

On the twenty-fourth of October, 1862, the Twenty-eighth regiment — James M. Lewis, of 
Oconomowoc, colonel — -was mustered into the United States service at "Camp Washburn," Mil- 
waukee. Its strength was nine hundred and sixty-one. In November, the regiment was 
employed in arresting and guarding the draft rioters in Ozaukee county. It left the State for 
Columbus, Kentucky, on the twentieth of December, where they arrived on the twenty-second ; 
remaining there until the fifth of January, 1863. 

The Twenty-ninth infantry — Colonel Charles R. Gill — was organized at " Camp Randall," 
where its muster into the United States service was completed on the twenty-seventh of Sep- 
tember, 1862, the regiment leaving the State for Cairo, Illinois, on the second of November. 

The Thirtieth regiment, organized at "Camp Randall" under the supervision of Colonel 
Daniel J. Dill, completed its muster into the United States service on the twenty-first of October, 
1862, with a strength of nine hundred and six. On the sixteenth of November, one company of 
the Thirtieth was sent to Green Bay to protect the draft commissioner, remaining several weeks. 
On the eighteenth, seven companies moved to Milwaukee to assist in enforcing the draft in Mil- 
waukee county, while two companies remained in " Camp Randall" to guard Ozaukee rioters. 


On the twenty-second, six companies from Milwaukee went to West Bend, Washington county, 
one company returning to "Camp Randall." After the completion of the draft in Washington 
county, four companies returned to camp, while two companies were engaged in gathering up 
the drafted men. 

The final and complete organization of the Thirty-first infantry — Colonel Isaac E. Mess- 
more — was not concluded during the year 1862. 

The Thirty-second regiment, organized at "Camp Bragg," Oshkosh, with James H. Howe 
as colonel, was mustered into the service on the twenty-fifth of September, 1862 ; and, on the 
thirtieth of October, leaving the State, it proceeded by way of Chicago and Cairo to Memphis, 
Tennessee, going into camp on the third of November. The original strength of the Thirty- 
second was nine hundred and ninety-three. 

The Thirty-third infantry — Colonel Jonathan B. Moore — mustered in on the eighteenth of 
October, 1862, at " Camp Utley," Racine, left the State, eight hundred and ninety-two strong, 
moving by way of Chicago to Cairo. 

The Thirty-fourth regiment, drafted men, original strength nine hundred and si.\ty-one — 
Colonel Fritz Anneke — -had its muster into service for nine months completed at " Camp Wash- 
burn," Milwaukee, on the last day of the year 1862. 

Of the twenty-four infantry regiments, numbered from the Twelfth to the Thirty-fourth 
inclusive, and including also the Ninth, three — the Ninth, Twelfth, and Thirteenth — were mus- 
tered into the United States service in 1861. The whole of the residue were mustered in during 
the year 1862, except the Twenty-seventh and the Thirty-first. All were sent out of the State 
during 1862, except the last two mentioned and the Twenty-fifth, Thirtieth, and Thirty-fourth. 

The First regiment of cavalry — Colonel Edward Daniels — perfected its organization at 
" Camp Harvey," Kenosha. Its muster into the United States service was completed on the 
eigluh of March, 1862, the regiment leaving the State for St. Louis on the seventeenth, with a 
strength of eleven hundred and twenty-four. 

The muster of the Second Wisconsin cavalry was completed on the twelfth of March, 1862, 
at "Camp Washburn," Milwaukee, the regiment leaving the State for St. Louis on the twenty- 
fourth, eleven hundred and twenty-seven strong. It was under the command of Cadwallader C. 
Washburn as colonel. 

The Third Wisconsin cavalry — Colonel William A. Barstow — was mustered in at " Camp 
Barstow," Janesville. The muster was completed on the 31st of January, 1862, the regiment 
leaving the State on the 26th of March for St. Louis, with a strength of eleven hundred and 

The original project of forming a regiment of light artillery in Wisconsin was overruled 
by the war department, and the several batteries were sent from the State as independent 

The First battery — Captain Jacob T. Foster — perfected its organization at "Camp Utley," 
where the company was mustered in, it leaving the State with a strength of one hundred and 
fifty-five, on the 23d of January, 1862, for Louisville, where the battery went into "Camp 
Irvine," near that city. The Second batter) — Captain Ernest F. Herzberg — was mustered into 
the service at "Camp Utley," October 10, 1861, the company numbering one hundred and fifty- 
three. It left the State for Baltimore, on the 21st of January, 1862. The Third battery — Cap- 
tain L. H. Drury — completed its organization of one hundred and seventy at " Camp Utley," and 
was mustered in October 10, 1861, leaving the State for Louisville, on the 23d of January, 
t862. The Fourth battery — Captain John F. Vallee — rendezvoused at "Camp Utley." Its 
muster in was completed on the ist of October, 1861, its whole force being one hundred and fifty 
one. The company left the State for Baltimore on the 21st of January, 1862. The Fifth bat- 


tery, commanded by Captain Oscar F. Pinney, was mustered in on the ist of October, 1861, ui 
" Camp Utley," leaving the State for St. Louis, on the 15th of March, 1862, one hundred and 
fifty-five strong. The Sixth battery — Captain Henry Dillon — was mustered in on the 2d of 
October, 1861, at " Camp Utley," leaving the State for St. Louis, March 15, 1862, with a numer- 
ical strength of one hundred and fifty-seven. The Seventh battery — Captain Richard R. Grif- 
fiths — was mustered in on the 4th of October, 1S61, at " Camp Utley," and proceeded on the 15th 
of March, 1862, with the Fifth and Sixth batteries to St. Louis. The Eighth battery, com- 
manded by Captain Stephen J. Carpenter, was mustered in on the 8th of January, 1862, at 
"Camp Utley," and left the State on the i8th of March following, for St. Louis, one hundred and 
sixty-one strong. The Ninth battery, under command of Captain Cyrus H. Johnson, was organ- 
ized at Burlington, Racine county. It was mustered in on the' 7th of January, 1862, leaving 
" Camp Utley " for St. Louis, on the i8th of March. At St. Louis, their complement of men — 
one hundred and fifty-five — was made up by the transfer of forty-five from another battery. The 
Tenth battery — Captain Yates V. Bebee— after being mustered in at Milwaukee, on the loth of 
February, 1862, left "Camp Utley," Racine, on the i8th of March for St. Louis, one hundred and 
seventeen strong. The Eleventh battery — Captain John O'Rourke — was made up of the "Oconto 
Irish Guards " and a detachment of Illinois recruits. The company was organized at " Camp 
Douglas," Chicago, in the Spring of 1862. Early in 1862, William A. Pile succeeded in enlisting 
ninety-nine men as a company to be known as the Twelfth battery. The men were mustered in 
and sent forward in squads to St. Louis. Captain Pile's commission was revoked on the i8th 
of July. His place was filled by William Zickrick. These twelve batteries were all that left the 
State in 1862. To these are to be added the three regiments of cavalry and the nineteen regi- 
ments of infantry, as the effective force sent out during the year by Wisconsin. 

The military officers of the State, at the commencement of 1863, were Edward Salomon, 
governor and commander-in-chief; Brigadier General Augustus Gaylord, adjutant general; 
Colonel S. Nye Gibbs, assistant adjutant general; Brigadier General Nathaniel F. Lund, 
quartermaster general; Brigadier General E. B. Wolcott, surgeon general; and Colonel W. H. 
Watson, military secretary. The two incomplete regiments of 1862^ — • the Twenty-seventh and 
Thirty-first volunteers — were completed and in the field in March, 1863. The former was 
mustered in at " Camp Sigel " — Colonel Conrad Krez — on the 7th of March, and left the State, 
eight hundred and sixty-five strong, on the i6th for Columbus, Kentucky; the latter, under 
command of Colonel Isaac E. Messmore, with a strength of eight hundred and seventy-eight, 
left Wisconsin on the ist of March, for Cairo, Illinois. The Thirty-fourth (drafted) regiment 
left "Camp Washburn," Milwaukee, on the 31st of January, 1863, for Columbus, Kentucky, 
numbering nine hundred and sixty-one, commanded by Colonel Fritz Anneke. On the 17th of 
February, 1863, the Twenty-fifth regiment left "Camp Randall" for Cairo, Illinois. The 
Thirtieth regiment remained in Wisconsin during the whole of 1863, performing various 
duties — the only one of the whole thirty-four that, at the end of that year, had not left the State. 

On the 14th of January, 1863, the legislature of Wisconsin, as before stated, convened 
at Madison. Governor Salomon, in his message to that body, gave a summary of the transac- 
tions of the war fund during the calendar year; also of what was done in 1862, in the recruiting 
of military forces, and the manner in which the calls of the president were responded to. There 
were a number of military laws passed at this session. A multitude of special acts authorizing 
towns to raise bounties for volunteers, were also passed. 

No additional regiments of infantry besides those already mentioned were organized in 
1863, although recruiting for old regiments continued. On the 3d of March, 1S63, the congress 
of the United States passed the "Conscription Act." Under this act, Wisconsin was divided 


into six districts. In the first district, I. M. Bean was appointed provost marshal; C. M. I'.aker, 
commissioner; and J. B. Dousinan, examining surgeon. Headquarters of this district was at 
Milwaukee. In the second district, S. J. M. Putnam was appointed provost marshal ; L. B. 
Caswell, commissioner; and Dr. C. R. Head, examining surgeon. Headquarters of this 
district was at Janesville. In the third district, J. G. Clark was appointed provost marshal; E. 
E. Byant, commissioner ; and John H. Vivian, examining surgeon. Headquarters at Prairie 
du Chien. In the fourth district, E. L. Phillips was appointed provost marshal; Charles 
r.urchard, commissioner; and L. H. Cary, examining surgeon. Headquarters at Fond du 
Lac. In the fifth district, C. R. Merrill was appointed provost marshal ; William A. Bugh, 
commissioner ; and H. O. Crane, examining surgeon. Headquarters at Green Bay. In the 
sixth district, B. F. Cooper was appointed provost marshal; L. S. Fisher, commissioner; and 
D. D. Cameron, examining surgeon. Headquarters at LaCrosse. The task of enrolling the 
State was commenced in the month of May, and was proceeded with to its completion. The 
nine months' term of service of the Thirty-fourth regiment, drafted militia, having expired, the 
regiment was mustered out of service on the Slh of September. 

The enrollment in Wisconsin of all persons liable to the "Conscription" amounted to 
121,202. A draft was ordered to take place in November. Nearly fifteen thousand were 
drafted, only six hundred and twenty-eight of whom were mustered in ; the residue either 
furnished substitutes, were discharged, failed to report, or paid commutation. 

In the Summer of 1S61, Company " K," Captain Langworthy, of the Second Wisconsin 
infantry, was detached and placed on duty as heavy artillery. His company was designated as 
"A," First Regiment Heavy Artillery. Tiiis was the only one organized until the Summer of 
1863; but its organization was effected outside the State. Three companies were necessary to 
add to company " A " to complete the battalion. Batteries " B," "' C " and " D " were, therefore, 
organized in Wisconsin, all leaving the State in October and November, 1863. 

Ninth Admixist ration — J.^mes T. Lewis, Governor — 1S64-1865. 

James T. Lewis, of Columbia county, was inaugurated governor of Wisconsin on the fourth 
of January, 1864. In an inaugural address, the incoming governor pledged himself to use no 
executive patronage for a re-election; declared he would administer the government without 
prejudice or partiality ; and committed himself to an ecoaomical administration of affairs con- 
nected with the State. On the thirteenth the legislature met in its seventeenth regular session. 
W. W. Field was elected speaker of the assembly. The republican and union men were in 
the majority in this legislature. A number of acts were passed relative to military matters. 

On the ist day of October, J. L. Pickard having resigned as superintendent of public 
instruction, J. G. McMynn was, by the governor, appointed to fill the vacancy. On the fif- 
teenth of November, Governor Lewis appointed Jason Downer an associate justice of the 
supreme court, to fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of Judge Byron Paine, who had 
resigned his position to take effect on that day, in order to accei)t the position of lieutenant 
colonel of one of the regiments of Wisconsin, to which he had been commissioned on the tenth 
of August previous. The November elections of this year were entered into with great zeal by 
the two parties, owing to the fact that a president and vice president of the United States were 
to be chosen. The republicans were victorious. Electors of that party cast their eight votes 
for Lincoln and Johnson. The members elected to the thirty - ninth congress from Wisconsin 
at this election were : from the first district, H. E. Paine ; from the second, I. C. Sloan ; from 
the third, Amasa Cobb; from the fourth, C. A. Eldredge; from the fifth, Philetus Sawyer; and 


from the sixth district, W. D. Mclndoe. All were^ republicans except Eldredge, who was 
elected as a democrat. 

The Eighteenth regular session of the Wisconsin legislature began in Madison on the elev- 
enth of Januarj', 1865. W. W. Field was elected speaker of the assembly. The legislature 
was, as to its political complexion, "Republican Union." On the tenth of April, the last day of 
the session, Governor Lewis informed the legislature that General Lee and his arrhy had' sur- 
rendered. " Four years ago," said he, "on the day fixed for adjournment, the sad news of the 
fall of Fort Sumter was transmitted to the legislature. To-day, thank God! and next to Him 
the brave officers and soldiers of our army and navy, I am permitted to transmit to you the 
official intelligence, just received, of the surrender of General Lee and his army, the last prop 
of the rebellion. Let us rejoice, and thank the Ruler of the Universe for victory and the pros- 
pects of an honorable peace." In February preceding, both houses ratified the constitutional 
amendment abolishing slavery in the United States. At the Spring election, Jason Downer was 
chosen associate justice of the supreme court for a full term of six years. The twentieth of 
April was set apart by the governor as a day of thanksgiving for the overthrow of the rebellion 
and restoration of peace. At the Fall election both parties, republican and democratic, had 
tickets in the field. The republicans were victorious, electing Lucius Fairchild, governor; 
Wyman Spooner, lieutenant governor; Thomas S. Allen, secretary of state; William E. Smith, 
state treasurer; Charles R. Gill, attorney general; John G. McMynn, superintendent of 
public instruction; J. M. Rusk, bank comptroller; and Henry Cordier, state prison commis- 

War of Secession — Lewis' Administration. 

The military officers for 1864 were besides the governor (who was commander-in-chief) 
Brigadier General Augustus Gaylord, adjutant general; Colonel S. Nye Gibbs, assistant adju- 
tant general ; Brigadier General Nathaniel F. Lund, quartermaster and commissary general, 
and chief of ordnance; Brigadier General E. B. Wolcott, surgeon general; and Colonel Frank 
H. Firmin, military secretary. The legislature met at Madison on the 13th of January, 1864. 
"In response to the call of the General Governlnent," said the governor, in his message to that 
body, " Wisconsin had sent to the field on the first day of November last, exclusive of three 
months' men, thirty - four regiments of infantry, three regiments and one company of cavalry, 
twelve batteries of light artillery, three batteries of heavy artillery, and one company of sharp- 
shooters, making an aggregate of forty-one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five men." 

Quite a number of laws were passed at this session of the legislature relative to military 
matters : three were acts to authorize towns, cities and villages to raise money by tax for the 
payment of bounties to volunteers; one revised, amended and consolidated all laws relative to 
extra pay to Wisconsin soldiers in the service of the United States ; one provided for the proper 
reception by the State, of Wisconsin volunteers returning from the field of service; another 
repealed the law relative to allotment commissioners. One was passed authorizing the gov- 
ernor to purchase flags for regiments or batteries whose flags were lost or destroyed in the 
service : another was passed amending the law suspending the sale of lands mortgaged to tlie 
State or held by volunteers, so as to apply to drafted men; another provided for levying a State 
tax of $200,000 for the support of families of volunteers. A law was passed authorizing the 
governor to take care of the sick and wounded soldiers of Wisconsin, and appropriated ten 
thousand dollars for that purpose. Twq other acts authorized the borrowing of money for repel- 
ling invasion, suppressing insurrection, and defending the State in time of war. One act pro- 
hibited the taking of fees for procuring volunteers' extra bounty ; another one defined the resi- 
dence of certain soldiers from this St:;,te in the service of the United States, who had received 


local boiuities from towns other than their proper places of residence. 

At the commencement of 1864, there were recruiting in the State the Thirty-fifth regiment 
of infantry and the Thirteenth battery. The latter was mustered in on the 29th of December, 
1863, and left the State for New Orleans on the 28th of January, 1864. In February, authority 
was given by the war department to organize the Thirty-si.xth regiment of infantry. On the 
27th of that month, the mustering in of the Thirty-fifth was completed at " Camp Washburn " 
— Colonel Henry Orfl" — the regiment, one tliousand and sixty-si.\ strong, leaving the State on the 
i8th of April, 1864, for Alexandria, Louisiana. The other regiments, recruited and mustered 
into the service of the United States during the year 1864, were: the Thirty-sixth — Colonel 
Frank A. Haskell; the Thirty-seventh — Colonel Sam Harriman ; the Thirty-eighth — Colonel 
James Bintliff; the Thirty -ninth — Colonel Edwin L. Buttrick; the Fortieth — Colonel W. 
Augustus Ray; the Forty-first — Lieutenant Colonel George B. Goodwin; the Forty-second — 
Colonel Ezra T. Sprague; the Forty-third — Culonel .\masa Cobb. 

The regiments mustered into the service of the United States during the year 1865 were: 
the Forty-fourth — Colonel George C. Symes ; the Forty-fifth — Colonel Henry F. Belitz; Forty- 
sixth — Colonel Frederick S. Lovell ; Forty-seventh — Colonel George C. Ginty ; Forty-eighth — 
Colonel Uri B. Pearsall ; Forty-ninth — Colonel Samuel Fallows; Fiftieth — Colonel John G. 
Clark; Fifty-first — Colonel Leonard Martin; Fifty-second — Lieutenant Colonel Hiram J. Lewis ; 
and Fifty-third — Lieutenant Colonel Robert T. Pugh. 

All of the fifty-three regiments of infantry raised in Wisconsin during the war, sooner or 
later moved to the South and were engaged there in one way or other, in aiding to suppress the 
rebellion. Twelve of tliese regiments were assigned to duty in the eastern division, which con- 
stituted the territory on both sides of the Potomac and upon the seaboard from Baltimore to 
Savannah. These twelve regiments were: the First (three months). Second, Third, Fourth, 
Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Nineteenth, Twenty-sixth, Thirty-sixth, Tliirty-seventh, and Thirty-eighth. 
Ten regiments were assigned to the central division, including Kentucky, Tennessee, Northern 
.\labama, and Georgia. These ten were: the Tenth, Twenty-first, Twenty-second, Twenty- 
fourth, Thirtieth, Forty-third, Forty-fourth, Forty-fifth, Forty-sixtii, and Forty-seventh. Added 
to these was the First (re-organized). Thirty-one regiments were ordered to the western division, 
embracing the country west and northwest of the central division. These were: the Eighth, 
Ninth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, 
Twentieth, Twenty-third, Twenty-fifth, Twenty-seventh, Twenty-eighth, Twenty-ninth, Thirty-first, 
Thirty-second, Thirty-third, Thirty-fourth, Thirty-fifth, Thirty-ninth, Fortieth, Forty-first, Forty- 
second, Forty-eighth, Forty-iiinth, Fiftieth, Fifty-first, Fifty-second, and Fifty-third. During the 
war several transfers were made from one district to another. There were taken from the eastern 
division, the Third and Twenty-sixth, and sent to the central division; also the Fourth, which 
was sent to the department of the gulf. The Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Seven- 
teenth, Eighteenth, Twenty-fifth, Thirtieth, Thirty-first and Thirty-second were transferred from 
the western to the central department. 

The four regiments of cavelry were assigned to the western division — the First regiment 
being afterward transferred to the central division. Of the thirteen batteries of light artillery, the 
Second, Fourth, and Eleventh, were assigned to the eastern division ; the First and Third, to 
the central division ; the Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, Twelfth, and Thirteenth, 
to the western division. During the war, the First was transferred to the western division ; while 
the Fifth, Sixth, Eighth, Tenth, and Twelfth, were transferred to the central division. Of the 
twelve batteries of the First regiment of heavy artillery — "A," "E," "F," "G," "H," "I," 
"K," "L," and "M," were assigned to duty in the eastern division ; "B" and "C," to the central 


division; and "D," to tlie western division. Company "G," First regiment Berdan's sharp- 
shooters, was assigned to the eastern division. 

The military officers of the State for 1865 were the same as the previous year, except that 
Brigadier General Lund resigned his position as quartermaster general, James M. Lynch being 
appointed in his place. The legislature of this year met in Madison on the nth of January. 
"To the calls of the Government for troops," said Governor Lewis, in his message, " no State 
has responded with greater alacrity than has Wisconsin. She has sent to the field, since the 
commencement of the war, forty-four regiments of infantry, four regiments and one company of 
cavalry, one regiment of heavy artillery, thirteen batteries of light artillery, and one company of 
sharpshooters, making an aggregate (exclusive of hundred day men) of seventy-five thousand 
one hundred and thirty-three men." 

Several military laws were passed at this session : one authorizing cities, towns, and villages 
to pay bounties to volunteers; another, incorporating the Wisconsin Soldiers' Home; two others, 
amending the act relative "to the commencement and prosecution of civil actions against persons 
in the military service of the country." One was passed authorizing the payment of salaries, 
clerk hire, and expenses, of the offices of the adjutant general and quartermaster general from 
the war fund ; another, amending the act authorizing commissioned officers to take acknowledg- 
ment of deeds, affidavits and depositions; another, amending the act extending the right of 
suffrage to soldiers in the field. One act provides for correcting and completing the records of 
the adjutant general's office, relative to the military history of the individual members of the 
several military organizations of this State; another fixes the salary of the adjutant general and 
the quartermaster general, and their clerks and assistants; another prohibits volunteer or sub- 
stitute brokerage. One act was passed supplementary and explanatory of a previous one of the 
same session, authorizing towns, cities, or villages, to raise money to pay bounties to volunteers ; 
another, amending a law of 1864, relating to the relief of soldiers' families; and another, pro- 
viding for the establishment of State agencies for the relief and care of sick, wounded, and 
disabled Wisconsin soldiers. There was an act also passed, authorizing the borrowing of money 
for a period not exceeding seven months, to repel invasion, sujipress insurrection, and defend the 
State in time of war, — the amount not to exceed $850,000. 

On the 13th of April, 1865, orders were received to discontinue recruiting in Wisconsin, and 
to discharge all drafted men who had not been mustered in. About the! first of May, orders 
were issued for the muster out of all organizations whose term of service would expire on or 
before the first of the ensuing October. As a consequence, many Wisconsin soldiers were soon 
on their way home. State military officers devoted their time to the reception of returning 
regiments, to their payment by the United States, and to settling with those who were entitled to 
extra pay from the State. Finally, their employment ceased — the last soldier was mustered out 
—the War of the Rebellion was at an end. Wisconsin had furnished to the federal army during 
the conflict over ninety thousand men, a considerable number more than the several requisitions 
of the General Government called for. Nearly eleven thousand of these were killed or died of 
wounds received in battle, or fell victims to diseases contracted in the military service, to say 
nothing of those who died after their discharge, and whose deaths do not appear upon the mili- 
tary records. Nearly twelve million dollars were expended by the State authorities, and the 
people of the several counties and towns throughout the State, in their efforts to sustain the 
National Government. 

Wisconsin feels, as well she may, proud of her record made in defense of national existence. 
Shoulder to shoulder with the other loyal States of the Union, she stood — always ranking among 
the foremost. From her workshops, her farms, her extensive pineries, she poured forth stalwart 


men, to fill up the organizations which she sent to the field. The blood of these brave men 
drenched almost every battle-field from Pennsylvania to the Rio Grande, from Missouri to 
Georgia. To chronicle the deeds and exploits — the heroic achievements — the noble enthusiasm 
— of the various regiments and military organizations sent by her to do battle against the hydra- 
headed monster secession — would be a lengthy but pleasant task ; but these stirring annals 
belong to the history of our whole country. Therein will be told the story which, to the latest 
time in the existence of this republic, will be read with wonder and astonishment. But an out- 
line of the action of the State authorities and their labors, and of the origin of the various 
military organizations, in Wisconsin, to aid in the suppression of the rebellion, must needs 
contain a reference to other helps employed — mostly incidental, in many cases wholly charitable 
but none the less effective : the sanitary operations of the State during the rebellion. 

Foremost among the sanitary operations of Wisconsin during the war of the rebellion was 
the organization of the surgeon general's department — to the end that the troops sent to the 
field from the State should have a complete and adequate supply of medicine and instruments as 
well as an efficient medical staff. In 1861, Governor Randall introduced the practice of appoint- 
ing agents to travel with the regiments to the field, who were to take charge of the sick. The 
practice was not continued by Governor Harvey. On the 17th of June, 1862, an act of the 
legislature became a law authorizing the governor to take care of the sick and wounded soldiers 
of Wisconsin, and appropriated twenty thousand dollars for that purpose. Under this law 
several expeditions were sent out of the State to look after the unfortunate sons who were 
suffering from disease or wounds. Soldiers' aid societies were formed throughout the State soon 
after the opening scenes of the rebellion. When temporary sanitary operations were no longer 
a necessity in Wisconsin, there followed two military benevolent institutions intended to be of a 
permanent character : the Soldiers' Home at Milwaukee, and the Soldiers' Orphans' Home at 
Madison. The latter, however, has been discontinued. The former, started as a State institu- 
tion, is now wholly under the direction and support of the General Government. 

Whether in the promptitude of her responses to the calls made on her by the General Govern- 
ment, in the courage or constancy of her soldiery in the field, or in the wisdom and efficiency with 
which her civil administration was conducted during the trying period covered by the war of the 
rebellion, Wisconsin proved herself the peer of any loyal State. 


We publish on the following pages the report of the Adjutant General at the close of the war, 
but before all the Wisconsin organizations had been mustered out. It shows that 85,000 brave men 
were ready to forsake home, friends and the comforts of peaceful avocations, and offer their lives 
in defense of their country's honor. Twenty-two out of every hundred either died, were killed or 
wounded. Thirteen out of every hundred found a soldier's grave, while only 60 per cent of them 
marched home at the end of the war. Monuments may crumble, cities fall into decay, the tooth 
of time leave its impress on all the works of man, but the memory of the gallant deeds of the 
army of the Union in the great war of the rebellion, in which the sons of Wisconsin bore so 
conspicuous a part, will live in the minds of men so long as time and civilized governments endure. 






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Tenth Administration. — Lucius Fairchild, Governor — 1866-1867. 

The inauguration of the newly elected State officers took place on Monday, January j, 
1866. The legislature, in its nineteenth regular session, convened on the tenth. H. D. Barron 
was elected speaker of the assembly. The " Union " and " Republican " members were in a 
majority in both branches of the legislature. " Our first duty," said Governor Fairchild in his 
message, "is to give thanks to Almighty God for all His mercies during the year that is past." 
" The people of no nation on earth," he continued, " have greater cause to be thankful than 
have our people. The enemies of the country have been overthrown in battle. The war has 
settled finally great questions at issue between ourselves." Among the joint resolutions passed 
at this session was one submitting the question of a constitutional convention to frame a new 
constitution for the State, to the people. The legislature adjourned on the twelfth of April, 
having been in session ninety-three days. At the general election in November of this year, 
there were elected t> the Fortieth congress : H. E. Paine, from the first district; B. F. Hopkins, 
from the second ; Amasa Cobb, from the third ; C. A. Eldredge, from the fourth ; Philetus 
Sawyer, from the fifth, and C. C. Washburn, from the sixth district. All were republicans 
except Eldredge, who was elected as a democrat. The proposition for a constitutional conven- 
tion was voted upon by the people at this election, but was defeated. 

The twentieth session of the legislature commenced on the ninth of January, 1867. 
Angus Cameron was elected speaker of the assembly. The legislature was strongly " Repub- 
Hcan-Union." The message of Governor Fairchild was read by him in person, on the tenth. 
On the twenty-third, the two houses, in joint convention, elected Timothy O. Howe United 
States senator for the term of six years, commencing on the fourth of March next ensuing. 
This legislature pissed an act submitting to the people at the next Fall election an amendment 
to section twenty-one of article four of the constitution of tiie State, providing for paying a 
salary of three hundred and fifty dollars to each member of the legislature, instead of a per 
<iiem. allowance, as previously given. A sine die adjournment took place on the eleventh of April, 
after a service of ninety-three days. 

To provide for the more efficient collection of license fees due the State, an act, approved 
on the day of adjournment, authorized the governor to appoint an agent of the treasury, to 
superintend and enforce the collection of fees due for licenses fixed by law. This law is still in 
force, the agent holding his office at the pleasure of the executive of the State. 

On the 27th of March, Chief Justice Dixon resigned his office but was immediately 
appointed by the governor to the same position. At the election in April following, associate 
Justice Cole was re-elected, without opposition, for six years from the first Monday in Januarj- 
following. On the i6th of August, Associate Justice Downer having resigned, Byron Paine was 
appointed by the governor in his place. 

The republican State ticket, in the Fall, was elected over the democratic — resulting in the 
choice of Lucius Fairchild for governor ; Wyman Spooner, for lieutenant governor; Thomas 
S. Allen, Jr., secretary of state; William E. Smith, for state treasurer; Charles R. Gill, for 
attorney general ; A. J. Craig, for superintendent of public instruction ; Jeremiah M. Rusk, 
for bank comptroller, and Henry Cordier, for state prison commissioner. Except Craig, all 
these officers were the former incumbents. The amendment to section 21 of article 4 of the 
constitution of the State, giving the members a salary instead of a per diem allowance, was 
adopted at this election. As it now stands, each member of the legislature receives, for 
his services, three hundred and fifty dollars per annum, and ten cents for every mile he 
travels in going to and returning from the place of the meetings of the legislature, on the most 


usual route. In case of any extra session of the legislature, no additional compensation shall 
be allowed to any member thereof, either directly or indirectly. 

Eleventh Ad.ministration. — Lucius Fairchild, Governor (second term) — 1868-1869. 

The Eleventh Administration in Wisconsin commenced at noon on the 6th day of January, 
i868. This was the commencement of Governor Fairchild's second term. On the eighth of 
January, 1868, began the twenty-first regular session of the legislature of Wisconsin. A. M. 
Thomson was elected speaker of the assembly. Of the laws of a general nature passed by this 
legislature, was one abolishing the office of bank comptroller, transferring his duties to the 
state treasurer, and another providing for the establishing of libraries in the various townships 
of the State. A visible effect was produced by the constitutional amendment allowing members 
a salary, in abreviating this session, though not materially diminishing the amount of business 
transacted. A sine die adjournment took place on the si.\th of March. 

At the election in April, 1868, Chief Justice Dixon was chosen for the unexpired balance of 
his own term, ending on the first Monday of January, 1870. At th^ same election, Byron Paine 
was chosen associate justice for the unexpired balance of Associate Justice Downer's term, 
. ending the 1st day of January, 1872. 

At the Fall election in this year, republican electors were chosen over those upon the 
democratic ticket, for president and vice president ; and, as a consequence. Grant and Colfax 
received the vote of Wisconsin. Of the members elected at the same time, to the forty-first 
congress, all but one were republicans — Eldredge being a democrat. The successful ticket 
was: H. E. Paine, from the first district; B. F. Hopkins, from the second; Amasa Cobb, from 
the third ; C. A. Eldredge, from the fourth; Philetus Sawyer, from the fifth, and C. C. Washburn, 
t'rom the sixth district. These were all members, form their respective districts, in the previous 
congress — the only instance since Wisconsin became a State of a re-election of all the incum- 

On the thirteenth of January, 1869, began the twenty-second regular session of the State 
legislature. A. M. Thomson was elected speaker of the assembly. A very important duty 
imposed upon both houses was the election of a United States senator in the place of James R. 
Doolittle. The republicans having a majority in the legislature on joint ballot, the excitement 
among the members belonging to that party rose to a high pitch. The candidates for nomina- 
tion were Matthew H. Carpenter and C. C. Washburn. The contest was, up to that time, 
unparalleled in Wisconsin for the amount of personal interest manifested. Both gentlemen had 
a large lobby influence assembled at Madison. Carpenter was successful before the republican 
nominating convention, on the sixth ballot. On the twenty-seventh of January, the two houses 
proceeded to ratify the nomination by electing him United States senator for six years, from the 
fourth of March following. One of the most important transactions entered into by the legis- 
lature of 1S69 was the ratification of the suffrage amendment to the constitution of the United 
States. Both houses adjourned sine die on the eleventh of March — a very short session. At the 
spring election, on the 6th of April, Luther S. Dixon was re-elected without opposition, chief 
justice of the supreme court, for a term of six years, from the first Monday in January next 
ensuing. In the Fall, both democrats and republicans put a State ticket in the field for the 
ensuing election : the republicans were successful, electing Lucius Fairchild, governor ; Thad- 
deus C. Pound, lieutenant governor; Llywelyn Breese, secretary of state; Henry Baetz, state 
treasurer ; S. S. Barlow, attorney general ; • george F. Wheeler, state prison commissioner ; 
and A. L. Craig, superintendent of public instruction. The office of bank comptroller expired 
on the 31st day of December, 1869, the duties of the office being transferred to the state 

94 HISTORY OF Avisco^rsi?r. 


At this election, an amendment to sections 5 and 9 of article five of the constitution of 
the Slate was ratified and adopted by the people. Under this amendment, the governor 
receives, during his continuance in office, an annual compensation of five thousand dollars, which 
is in full for all traveling or other expenses incident to his duties. The lieutenant governor 
receives, during his continuance in office, an annual compensation of one thousand dollars. 

Twelfth Administration. — Lucius Fairchild, Governor (third term) — 1870-1S71. 

On the third of January, 1870, commenced the twelfth administration in Wisconsin, Gov- 
ernor Fairchild thus entering upon his third term as chief executive of the State ; the only 
instance since the admission of Wisconsin into the Union, of the same person being twice 
re-elected to that office. It was an emphatic recognition of the value of his services in the 
gubernatorial chair. On the twelfth of January, the twenty-third regular session of the legis- 
lature of the State commenced at Madison. James M. Bingham was elected speaker of the 
assembly. Before the expiration of the month, Governor Fairchild received official information 
that over two hundred thousand dollars of the war claim of Wisconsin upon the General Govern- 
ment had been audited, considerable more than one hundred thousand having the previous year 
been allowed. In the month of March, an energetic effort was made in the legislature, by 
members from Milwaukee, to remove the seat of government from Madison to their city; but 
the project was defeated by a considerable majority in the assembly voting to postpone the 
matter indefinitely. According to section eight of article one of the constitution, as originally 
adopted, no person could be held to answer for a criminal offense unless on the presentment or 
indictment of a grand jury, except in certain cases therein specified. The legislature of 1869 
proposed an amendment against the "grand jury system " of the constitution, and referred it to the 
legislature of 1870 for their approval or rejection. The latter took up the proposition and 
agreed to it by the proper majority, and submitted it to the people at the next election for their 
ratification. The sine die adjournment of both houses took place on the seventeenth of March^ 
1870. On the first day of January, previous, the member of congress from the second district 
of the State, B. F. Hopkins, died, and David Atwood, republican, was elected to fill the 
vacancy on the fifteenth of February following. 

Early in 1870, was organized the "Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters." By 
an act of the legislature approved March 16, of that year, it was incorporated, having among its 
specific objects, researches and investigations in the various departments of the material, meta- 
physical, ethical, ethnological and social sciences; a progressive and thorough scientific survey 
of the State, with a view of determining its mineral, agricultural and other resouices; the- 
advancement of the useful arts, through the application of science, and by the encouragement 
of original invention ; the encouragement of the fine arts, by means of honors and prizes, 
awarded to artists for original works of superior merit; the formation of scientific, economical 
and art museums ; the encouragement of philological and historical research ; tlie collection and 
preservation of historic records, and the formation of a general library; and the diffusion of 
knowledge by the publication of original contributions to science, literature and the arts. The 
academy has already published three volumes of transactions, under authority of the State. 

The fourth charitable institution established by Wisconsin was the " Northern Hospital for 
the Insane," located at Oshkosh, Winnebago county. It was authorized by an act of the legis- 
lature approved March 10, 1870. The law governing the admission of patients to this hospital, 
is the same as to the Wisconsin State Hos])ital. 


On the third day of July, 1870, A. J. Craig, superintendent of public instruction, died of 
consumption, and Samuel Fallows was, on the 6th of that month, appointed by the governor 
to fill the place made vacant by his death. The census taken this year by the General Govern- 
ment, showed the population of Wisconsin to be over one million si.xty-four thousand. At the 
Fall election for members to the forty-second congress, Alexander Mitchell was chosen to 
represent the first district; G. W. Hazelton, the second; J. A. Barber, the third; C. A. 
Eldredge, the fourth; Philetus Sawyer, the fifth ; and J. M. Rusk, the sixth district. Mitchell 
and Eldredge were democrats; the residue were republicans. The amendment to section 8, of 
article 7 of the constitution of the State, abolishing the grand jury system was ratified by a 
large majority. Under it, no person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due 
process of law, and no person, for the same offense, shall be put twice in jeopardy of punishment, 
nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself. All persons shall, 
before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses when the proof is 
evident and the presumption great ; and the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be 
suspended unless, when in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it. 

Governor Fairchild, in his last annual message to the legislature, delivered to that body at 
its twenty-fourth regular session beginning on the eleventh of January, 187 i, said that Wisconsin 
State polity was so wisely adapted to the needs of the people, and so favorable to the growth 
and prosperity of the commonwealth, as to require but few changes at the hands of the legisla- 
ture, and those rather of detail than of system. At the commencement of this session, William 
E. Smith was elected speaker of the assembly. A very carefully-perfected measure of this 
legislature was one providing for the trial of criminal offenses on information, without the inter- 
vention of a Grand Jury. A state commissioner of immigration, to be elected by the people, was 
provided for. Both bodies adjourned sine die on the twenty-fifth of March. On the thirteenth 
of January preceding. Associate Justice Byron Paine, of the supreme court, died; whereupon 
the- governor, on the 20th of the same month, appointed in his place, until the Spring election 
should be held, William Penn Lyon. The latter, at the election in April, was chosen by the 
people to serve the unexpired time of Associate Justice Paine, ending the first Monday of Jan- 
uary, 1872, and for a full term of six years from the same date. On the 3d of April, Ole C. 
Johnson was appointed by the governor state commissioner of immigration, to serve until his 
successor at the next general election could be chosen by the people. To the end that the 
administration of public charity and correction should thereafter be conducted upon sound 
principles of economy, justice and humanity, and that the relations existing between the State 
and its dependent and criminal classes might be better understood, there was, by an act of the 
legislature, approved March 23, 1871, a "state board of charities and reform" created — to 
consist of five members to be appointed by the governor of the State, the duties of the members 
being to investigate and supervise the whole system of charitable and correctional institutions 
supported by the State or receiving aid from the State treasury, and on or before the first day of 
December in each year to report their proceedings to the executive of the State. This board 
was thereafter duly organized and its members have since reported annually to the governor 
their proceedings and the amount of their expenses, as required by law. 

The "Wisconsin State Horticultural Society," although previously organized, first under the 
name of the " Wisconsin Fruit Growers' Association," was not incorporated until the 24th of 
March, 1871 — the object of the society being to improve the condition of horticulture, rural 
adornment and landscape gardening. By a law of 1868, provisioa was made for the publication 
of the society's transactions in connection with the State agricultural society ; but by the act 


of 187 1, this law was repealed and an appropriation made for their yearly publication in separate 
form; resulting in the issuing, up to the present time, of seven volumes. The society holds 
annual meetings at Madison. ' 

At the November election both republicans and democrats had a full ticket for the suffrages 
of the people. The republicans were successful, electing for governor, C. C. Washburn; M. H, 
Pettitt, for lieutenant governor; Llywelyn Breese, for secretary of state ; Henry Baetz, for state 
treasurer; Samuel Fallows, for superintendent of public instruction ; S. S. Barlow, for attorney 
general ; 0. F. Wheeler, for state prison commissioner ; and O. C. Johnson, for state commis- 
sioner of immigration. At this election an amendment to article four of the constitution of the 
State was ratified and adopted by the people. As it now stands, the legislature is prohibited 
from enaeting any special or private laws in the following cases : 1st. For changing the names of 
persons or constituting one person the heir-at-law of another. 2d. For laying out, opening, or 
altering highvvays, except in cases of State roads extending into more than one county, and mili- 
tary roads to aid in the construction of which lands may be granted by congress. 3d. For 
authorizing persons to keep ferries across streams, at points wholly within this State. 4th. For 
authorizing the sale or mortgage of real or personal property of minors or others under disability. 
5th. For locating or changing any county seat. 6th. For assessment or collection of taxes or for 
extending the time for the collection thereof 7th. For granting corporate powers or privileges, 
except to cities. 8th. For authorizing the apportionment of any part of the school fund. gth. 
For incorporating any town or village, or to amend the charter thereof. The legislature shall 
provide general laws for the transaction of any business that may be prohibited in the foregoing 
cases, and all such laws shall be uniform in their operation throughout the State. 

Industrially considered, the year 187 1 had but little to distinguish it from the average of 
previous years in the State, except that the late frosts of Spring and the drouth of Summer dimin- 
ished somewhat the yield of certain crops. With the exception of slight showers of only an hour 
or two's duration, in the month of September, no rain fell in Wisconsin from the eighth of July to 
the ninth of October — a period of three months. The consequence was a most calamitous event 
which will render the year 1871 memorable in the history of the State. 

The great drouth of the Summer and Fall dried up the streams and swamps in Northern 
Wisconsin. In the forests, the fallen leaves and underbrush which covered the ground became 
very ignitable. The ground itself, especially in cases of alluvial or bottom lands, was so dry and 
parched as to burn readily to tlie depth of a foot or more. For many days preceding the com- 
mencement of the second week in October fires swept through the timbered country, and in some 
instances over prairies and " openings." Farmers, saw-mill owners, railroad men and all others 
interested in exposed property, labored day and night in contending against the advance of 
devouring fires, which were destroying, notwithstanding the ceaseless energies of the people, an 
occasional mill or house and sweeping off, here and there, fences, haystacks and barns. Over the 
counties lying upon Green bay and a portion of those contiguous thereto on the south, southwest 
and west, hung a general gloom. No rain came. All energies were exhausted from " fighting 
fire." The atmosphere was every where permeated with smoke. The waters of the bay and 
even Lake Michigan, in places, were so enveloped as to render navigation difficult and in some 
instances dangerous. It finally became very diffrcult to travel upon highways and on railroads. 
Time drew on — but there came no rain. The ground in very many places was burned over. 
Persons sought refuge — some in excavations in the earth, others in wells. 

The counties of Oconto, Brown, Kewaunee, Door, Manitowoc, Outagamie and Shawano 
were all more or less swept by this besom of destruction ; but in Oconto county, and for some 
distance into Menomonee county, Michigan, across the Menomonee river, on the west shore of 


the bay and throughout the whole length and breadth of the peninsula, — that is, the territory 
lying between the bay and Lake Michigan, — the fires were the most devastating. The first week 
in October passed ; then came an actual whirlwind of fire — ten or more miles in width and of 
indefinite length. The manner of its progress was extraordinary. It destroyed a vast amount of 
property and many lives. It has been described as a tempestuous sea of flame, accompanied by 
a most violent hurricane, which multiplied the force of the destructive element. Forests, farm 
improvements and entire villages were consumed. Men, women and children perished — awfully 
perished. Even those who fled and sought refuge from the fire in cleared fields, in swamjis, 
lakes and rivers, found, many of them, no safety there, but were burned to death or died of suf- 

This dreadful and consuming fire was heralded by a sound likened to that of a railroad 
train — to the roar of a waterfall — to the noise of a battle at a distance. Not human beings 
only, but horses, o.\en, cows, dogs, swine— every thing that had life — ran to escape the impends 
ing destruction. The smoke was suffocating and blinding ; the roar of the tempest deafening ; 
the atmosphere scorching. Children were separated from their parents, and trampled upon by 
crazed beasts. Husbands and wives rushed in wild dismay, they knew not where. Death rode 
triumphantly upon that devastating, fiery flood. More than one thousand men, women and 
children perished. More than three thousand were rendered destitute — utterly beggared. 
Mothers were left with fatherless children ; fathers with motherless children. Every where were 
homeless orphans. All around lay suffering, helpless humanity, burned and maimed. Such was 
the sickening spectacle after the impetuous and irresistible wave of fire swept over that portion 
of the State. This appalling calamity happened on the 8th and 9th of October. The loso of 
property has been estimated at four million dollars. 

At the tidings of this fearful visitation, Governor Fairchild hastened to the burnt district, to 
assist, as much as was in his power, tlie distressed sufferers. He issued, on the 13th of the 
month, a stirring appeal to the citizens of Wisconsin, for aid. It was promptly responded to 
from all jjortions of the State outside the devastated region. Liberal con'ributions in money, 
clothing and provisions were sent — some from other States, and even from foreign countries. 
Northwestern Wisconsin also suffered severely, during these months of drouth, from large fires. 

A compilation of the public statutes of Wisconsin was prepared during the year iSyijby 
David Tayor, and published in two volumes, generally known as the Revised Statutes of 1871. 
It was wholly a private undertaking ; but the legislature authorized the secretary of state to 
purchase five hundred copies for the use of the State, at its regular session in 1872. 

Thirteenth Administration. — C. C. Washburn, Governor — 1872-1873. 

The thirteenth gubernatorial administration in Wisconsin commenced on Monday, January 
I, 1872. The only changes made, in the present administration from the previous one, were in 
the offices of governor and lieutenant governor. 

The twenty-fifih regular session of the legislature began on the loth of January, with a 
republican majority in both houses. Daniel Hall was elected speaker of the assembly. The 
next day the governor delivered to a joint convention of the legislature his first annual message 
— a lengthy document, setting fortii in detail the general condition of State affairs. The recent 
great conflagrations were referred to, and relief suggested. The work of this session of the Leg- 
islature was peculiarly difficult, owing to the many general laws which the last constitutional 
amendment made necessary. The apportionment of the State into new congressional districts 
was another perplexing and onerous task. Eight districts were formed instead of six, as at the 
commencement of the last decade. By this, the fourth congressional apportionment, each district 


elects one member. The first district consists of the counties of Rock, Racine, Kenosha, Wal- 
worth, and Waukesha; the second, of Jefferson, Dane, Sauk, and Columbia; the thirds of Grant, 
Iowa, LaFayette, Green, Richland, and Crawford ; the fourth, of Milwaukee, Ozaukee, and Wash- 
ington ; the fifth, of Dodge, Fond du Lac, Sheboygan and Manitowoc ; the sixth, of Green Lake, 
Waushara, Waupaca, Outagamie, Winnebago, Calumet, Brown, Kewaunee and Door ; the sev- 
enth, of Vernon, La Crosse, Monroe, Jackson, Trempealeau, Buffalo, Pepin, Pierce, St. Croix, Eau 
Claire, and Clark ; the eighth, of Oconto, Shawano, Portage, Wood, Juneau, Adams, Marquette, 
Marathon, Dunn, Chippewa, Barron, Polk, Burnett, Bayfield, Douglas, and Ashland. To this 
district have since been added the new counties of Lincoln and Taylor. 

After a session of seventy-seven days, the legislature finished its work, adjourning on the 
twenty-seventh of March. At the ensuing November election, the republican ticket for presi- 
dent and vice president of the United States was successful. The ten electors chosen cast their 
votes in the electoral college for Grant and Wilson. In the eight congressional districts, six 
republicans and two democrats were elected to the forty-third congress ; the last mentioned 
from the fourth and fifth districts. C. G. Williams represented the first district; G. W. Hazel- 
ton the second ; J. Allen Barber the third ; Alexander Mitchell the fourth ; C. A. Eldredge the 
fifth ; Philetus Sawyer the sixth ; J. M. Rusk the seventh ; and A. G. McDill the eighth district. 

Throughout Wisconsin, as in all portions of the Union outside the State, a singular pesti- 
lence prevailed among horses in the months of November and December, 1872, very few escap- 
ing. Horses kept in warm, well ventilated stables, avoiding currents of air, with little or no 
medicine, and fed upon nutritious and laxative food, soon recovered. Although but few died, 
yet the loss to the State was considerable, especially in villages and cities, resulting from the diffi- 
culty to substitute other animals in the place of the horse during the continuance of the disease. 

The twenty-sixth regular session of the State legislature commenced on the eighth day of 
January, 1873, with a republican majority in both houses. Henry D. Barron was elected 
speaker of the assembly. On the ninth. Governor Washburn's message — his second annual 
one — was delivered to the two houses. It opened with a brief reference to the abundant returns 
from agricultural pursuits, to the developments of the industries of the state, to the advance in 
manufacturing, to the rapid extension in railways, and to the general and satisfactory progress in 
education, throughout Wisconsin. He followed with several recommendations — claiming that 
"many vast and overshadowing corporations in the United States are justly a source of alarm," 
and that "the legislature can not scan too closely every measure that should come before it 
which proposed to give additional rights and privileges to the railways of the state." He also 
recommended that the " granting of passes to the class of state officials who, through their public 
office, have power to confer or withhold benefits to a railroad company, be prohibited." The 
message was favorably commented upon by the press of the state, of all parties. " If Governor 
Washburn," says one of the opposition papers of his administration, " is not a great statesman, 
he is certainly not a small politician." One of the first measures of this legislature was the elec- 
tion of United States senator, to fill the place of Timothy O. Howe, whose term of office would 
expire on the fourth of March next ensuing On the twenty-second of January the two houses 
met in joint convention, when it was announced that by the previous action of the senate and 
assembly, Timothy O. Howe was again elected to that office for the term of six years. On the 
twentieth of March, the legislature adjourned sine die, after a session of seventy-two days. 

Milton H. Pettitt, the lieutenant governor, died on the 23d day of March following the 
adjournment. By this sudden and unexpected death, the State lost an upright and conscientious 
public officer. 


Among the important acts passed by this legislature was one providing for a geological sur- 
vey of the State, to be begun in Ashland and Douglas counties, and completed within four years, 
by a chief geologist and four assistants, to be appointed by the governor, appropriating for the 
work an annual payment of thirteen thousand dollars. An act providing for a geological survey, 
of the State, passed by the legislature, and approved March 25, 1853, authorized the governor to 
appoint a state geologist, who was to select a suitable person as assistant geologist. Their 
duties were to make a geological and mineralogical survey of the State. Under this law Edward 
Daniels, on the first day of April, 1853, was appointed state geologist, superseded on the 12th 
day of August, 1854, by James G. Percival, who died in office on the 2d of May, 1856, at Hazel 
Green. By an act approved March 3, 1S57, James Hall, Ezra Carr and Edward Daniels were 
appointed by the legislature geological commissioners. By an act approved April 2, r86o, Hall 
was made principal of the commission. The survey was interrupted by a repeal, March 21, 1862, 
of previous laws promoting it. However, to complete the survey, the matter was reinstated by 
the act of this legislature, approved March 29, the governor, under that act, appointing as chief 
geologist Increase A. Lapham, April 10, 1873. 

.\nother act changed the management of the state prison — providing for the appointment 
bv the governor of three directors; one for two years, one for four years, and one for si.x years, 
in place of a state prison commissioner, who had been elected by the people every two years, 
ailing with other officers of the State. 

At the Spring election, Orsamus Cole, who had been eighteen years upon the bench, was 
re-elected, without opposition, an associate justice of the supreme court, for a term of si.x years 
from the first Monday in January following. The two tickets in the field at the Fall election 
were the republican and the people's reform. The latter was successful ; the political scepter 
p ssing out of the hands of the republicans, after a supremacy in the State continuing unbroken 
since the beginning of the seventh administration, when A. W. Randall (governor for a second 
term) and the residue of the State officers were elected — all republicans. 

The general success among the cultivators of the soil throughout the state during the year, 
notwithstanding "the crisis," was marked and satisfactory; but the financial disturbances during 
the latter part of the Fall and the first part of the Winter, resulted in a general depreciation of 

Fourteenth Ad.ministratiox. — William R. Taylor, Governor — 1874-75. 

The fourteenth administration of Wisconsin commenced at noon on Monday, the fifth day 
of January, 1S74, by the inauguration of William R. Taylor as governor; Charles D. Parker, 
lieutenant governor; Peter Doyle, secretary of state; Ferdinand Kuehn, state treasurer; 
A. Scott Sloan, attorney general; Edward Searing, superintendent of public instruction; 
and Martin J. Argard, state commissioner of immigration. These officers were not 
elected by any distinctive political party as such, but as the representatives of a new 
political organization, including " all Democrats, Liberal Republicans, and other electors 
of Wisconsin, friendly to genuine reform through equal and impartial legislation, honesty 
in office, and rigid economy in the administration of affairs." Among the marked characteristics 
of the platform agreed upon by the convention nominating the above-mentioned ticket was a 
declaration by the members that they would " vote for no candidate for office whose nomination 
is the fruit of his own importunity, or of a corrupt combination among partisan leaders ;" 
another, " that the sovereignty of the State over corporations of its own creation shall be sacredly 
respected, to the full extent of protecting the people against every form of monopoly or extor- 
tion," not denying, however, an encouragement to wholesome enterprise on the part of aggre- 

L ofC. 


gated capital — this "plank" having special reference to a long series of alleged grievances 
assumed to have been endured by the people on account of discriminations in railroad charges 
and a consequent burdensome taxation upon labor — especially upon the agricultural industry of 
the State. 

The twenty-seventh regular session of the Wisconsin legislature commenced at Madison on 
the fourteenth of January. The two houses were politically antagonistic in their majorities; the 
senate was republican, while the assembly had a "reform" majority. In the latter branch, 
Gabriel Bouck was elected speaker. Governor Taylor, on the fifteenth, met the legislature in 
joint convention and delivered his message. " An era," said he, "of apparent prosperity without 
parallel in the previous history of the nation, has been succeeded by financial reverses affecting, 
all classes of industry, and largely modifying the standard of values." "Accompanying these 
financial disturbances," added the governor, " has come an imperative demand from the people 
for a purer political morality, a more equitable apportionment of the burdens and blessings of 
government, and a more rigid economy in the administration of public affairs." 

Among the important acts passed by this legislature was one generally known as the 
" Potter Law," from the circumstance of the bill being introduced by Robert L. D. Potter, sen- 
ator, representing the twenty-fifth senatorial district of the state. The railroad companies for 
a number of years had, as before intimated, been complained of by the people, who charged them 
with unjust discriminations and exorbitantly high rates for the transportation of passengers and 
merchandize. All the railroad charters were granted by acts at different times of the State leg- 
islature, under the constitution which declares that " corporations may be formed under general 
laws, but shall not be created by a special act, exeept for municipal purposes and in cases 
where, in the judgment of the legislature, the objects of the corporations can not be attained 
under general laws. All general laws, or special acts, enacted under the provisions of this 
section, may be altered or repealed by the legislature at any time after their passage." The 
complaints of the people seem to have remained unheeded, resulting in the passage of the 
" Potter Law." This law limited the compensation for the transportation of passengers, classi- 
fied freight, and regulated prices for its transportation within the State. It also required the 
governor on or before the first of May, 1874, by and with the consent of the senate, to appoint 
tliree railroad commissioners ; one for one year, one for two years, and one for three years, 
whose terms of office should commence on the fourteenth day of May, and that the governor, 
thereafter, on the first day of May, of each year, should appoint one commissioner for three 
years. Under this law, the governor appointed J. H. Osborn, for three years; George H. Paul, 
for two years ; and J. W. Hoyt, for one year. Under executive direction, this commission inau- 
gurated its labors by compiling, classifying, and putting into convenient form for public use for 
the first time, all the railroad legislation of the State. 

At the outset the two chief railroad corporations of the State — the Chicago, Milwaukee and 
St. Paul, and the Chicago and Northwestern— served formal notice upon the governor of Wis- 
consin that they would not respect the provisions of the new railroad law. Under his oath of 
office, to support the constitution of the State, it was the duty of Governor Taylor to expedite 
all such measures as should be resolved upon by the legislature, and to take care that the laws 
be faithfully executed. No alternative, therefore, was le*'t the chief executive but to enforce the 
law by all the means placed in his hands for that purpose. He promptly responded to the noti- 
fication of the railroad companies by a proclamation, dated May i, 1874, in which he enjoined 
compliance with the statute, declaring that all the functions of his office would be exercised in 
faithfully executing the laws, and invoking the aid of all good citizens thereto. " The law of the 
land," said Governor Taylor, "must be respected and obeyed." "While none," continued he, 


" are so weak as to be without its protection, none are so strong as to be above its restraints. If 
provisions of the law be deemed oppressive, resistance to its mandates will not abate, but rather 
multiply the anticipated evils." '"It is the right," he added, "of all to test its validity through 
the constituted channels, but with that right is coupled the duty of yielding a general obedience 
to its requirements until it has been pronounced invalid by competent authority." 

Tlie railroad companies claimed not merely the unconstitutionality of the law, but that its 
enforcement would bankrupt the companies, and .suspend the operation of their lines. The 
governor, in reply, pleaded the inviolability of his oath of office and his pledged faith to the people. 
The result was an appeal to the courts, in which the State, under the direction of its governor, 
was compelled to confront an array of the most formidable legal talent of the country. Upon 
the result in Wisconsin depended the vitality of much similar legislation in neighboring Slates, 
and Governor Taylor and his associate representatives of State authority were thus compelled 
to bear the brunt of a controversy of national extent and consequence. The contention extended 
both to State and United States courts, the main question involved being the constitutional 
power of the State over corporations of its own creation. In all respects, the State was fully 
sustained in its position, and, ultimately, judgments were rendered against the corporations in 
all the State and federal courts, including the supreme court of the United States, and estab- 
lishing finally the complete and absolute i)ower of the people, through the legislature, to modify 
or altogether repeal the charters of corporations. 

Another act of the session of 1S74 abolished the office of State commissioner of immigra- 
tion, "on and after " the first Monday of January, 1876. The legislature adjourned on the 
twelfth of March, 1S74, after a session of fifty-eight days. 

The office of state prison commis'sioner having, by operation of law, become vacant on the 
fifth day of January, 1874, the governor, on the twenty-third of that month, appointed for State 
prison directors, Joel Rich, for tw < years; William E. Smith, for four years; and Nelson Dewey, 
for six years : these to take the place of that officer. 

On the sixteenth of June, Chief Justice Dixon, whose term of office would have expired on 
the first Monday in January, 1876, resigned his seat upon the bench of the supreme court. 
Governor Taylor appointing Edward G. Ryan in his place until his successor should be elected 
and qualified. At the November election of this year, the members chosen to the forty-fourth 
congress were — Charles G. Williams, from the first district; Lucian B. Caswell, from the 
second; Henry S. Magoon, from the third ; William Pitt Lynde, from the fourth; Samuel D. 
Burchard, from the fifth; A. M. Kimball, from the sixth; Jeremiah M. Rusk, from the seventh, 
and George W. Cate, from the eighth district. Lynde, Burchard and Gate were " reform ; " the 
residue were republican. 

At the same election, an amendment to section 3 of article 1 1 of the constitution of the 
State was duly ratified and adopted by the people. Under this section, as it now stands, it is 
the duty of the legislature, and they are by it empowered, to provide for the organization of 
cities and incorporated villages, and to restrict their power of taxation, assessment, borrowing 
money, contracting debts, and loaning their credit, so as to prevent abuses in assessments and 
taxation, and in contracting debts, by such municipal corporations. No county, city, town, 
village, school district, or other municipal corporation, shall be allowed to become indebted in 
any manner, or for any purpose, to any amount, including existing indebtedness in the aggregate, 
exceeding five per centum on the value of the taxable property therein, to be ascertained by the 
last assessment for State and county taxes previous to the incurring of such indebtedness. Any 
county, city, town, village, school district, or other municipal corporation, incurring any indebt- 
edness as aforesaid, shall, before, or at the time of doing so, provide for the collection of a direct 


annual tax sufficient to pay the interest on such debt as it falls due, and also to i)ay and discliarge 
the principal thereof within twenty years from the time of contracting the same. 

In 1872, the first appropriation for fish culture in Wisconsin was made by the legislature, 
subject to the direction of the United States commissioner of fisheries. In 1874, a further sum 
was appropriated, and the governor of the State authorized to appoint three commissioners, 
whose duties were, upon receiving any spawn or fish, by or through the United States commis- 
sioner of fish and fisheries, to immediately place such spawn in the care of responsible pisci- 
culturists of the State, to be hatched and distributed in the different waters in and surrounding 
Wisconsin. Two more members have since been added by law to the commission ; their labors 
have been much extended, and liberal appropriations made to further the object they have in 
view — with flattering prospects of Iheir finally being able to stock the streams and lakes of the 
State with the best varieties of food fish. 

The year 1874, in Wisconsin, was characterized as one of general prosperity among farmers, 
excepting the growers of wheat. The crop of that cereal was light, and, in places, entirely 
destroyed by the chinch-bug. .\s a consequence, considerable depression e.xisted in business in 
the wheat-growing districts. Trade and commerce continued throughout the year at a low ebb, 
the direct result of the monetary crisis of 1873. 

The legislature commenced its twenty-eighth regular session on the thirteenth of January, 
1875, with a republican majority in both houses. F. W. Horn was elected speaker of the 
assembly. The governor delivered his message in person, on the fourteenth, to the two houses. 
" Thanking God for all His mercies," are his opening words, " I congratulate you that order and 
peace reign throughout the^ length and breadth of our State. Our material prosperity has not 
fulfilled our anticipations. But let us remember that we bear no burden of financial depression 
not common to all the States, and that the penalties of folly are the foundation of wisdom." In 
regard to the " Potter Law," the governor said, " It is not my opinion that this law expressed the 
best judgment of the legislature which enacted it. While the general principles upon which it 
is founded command our unqualified ai)probation, and can never be surrendered, it must be 

conceded that the law is defective in some of its details The great object sought to be 

accomplished by our people," continued the speaker, "is not the management of railroad property 
by themselves, but to prevent its mismanagement by others." Concerning the charge that 
Wisconsin was warring upon railways within her limits, the governor added, " She has never 
proposed such a war. She proposes none now. She asks only honesty, justice and the peace of 
mutual good will. To all men concerned, her people say in sincerity and in truth that every 
dollar invested in our State shall be lawfully entitled to its just protection, whencesoever the 
danger comes. In demanding justice for all, the State will deny justice to none. In forbidding 
mismanagement, the State will impose no restraints upon any management that is h nest and 
just.. In this, the moral and hereditary instincts of our people furnish a stronger bond of good 
faith than the judgments of courts or the obligations of paper constitutions. Honest capital 
may be timid and easily frightened; yet it is more certain to seek investment among a people 
whose laws are at all times a shield for the weak and a reliance for the strong — where the 
wholesome restr.iints of judicious legislation are felt alike l)y the exalted and the humble, the 
rich and the poor." 

The first important business to be transacted by this legislature was the election of a United 
States senator, as the term for which M. H Carpenter had been elected would expire on the 
fourth of March ensuing. Much interest was manifested in the matter, not only in the two 
houses, but throughout the State. There was an especial reason for this ; for, although the then 


incumbent was a candidate for re-election, with a republican majority in the legislature, yet it 
was well known that enough members of that party were pledged, before the commencement of 
the session, to vote against him, to secure his defeat, should they stand firm to their pledges 
The republicans met in caucus and nominated Carpenter for re-election; but the recalcitrant 
members held themselves aloof. Now, according to usual precedents, a nomination by the domi- 
nant party was equivalenc to an election ; not so, however, in this case, notwithstanding the friends 
of the nominee felt sanguine of his election in the end. The result of the first ballot, on the 
twenty-sixth of January, was, in the senate, thirteen for the republican candidate; in the 
assembly, forty-six votes, an aggregate of only fifty-nine. He lacked four votes in the assembly 
and an equal number in the senate, of having a majority 1,1 each house. On the twenty-seventh, 
the two houses, in joint convention, hiving met to compare the record of the voting the day 
previous, and it appearing that no one person had received a majority of the votes in each house 
for United States senator, they proceeded to their first joint ballot. The result was, no election. 
The balloting was continued each day, until the third of February, when, on the eleventh joint 
trial, Angus Cameron, of LaOosse, having received sitxty-eight votes, to Carpenter's fifty-nine, 
with five scattering, was declared elected. 

As in the previous session so in this, — one of the most absorbing subjects before the legisla- 
ture was that of railroads; the " Potter Law" receiving a due share of attention in both houses. 
The result was an amendment in some important particulars without changing the right of State 
control : rates were modified. The law as amended was more favorable to the railroad compa- 
nies and was regarded as a compromise. The legislature adjourned sine die on the 6th of March. 
This was the shortest session ever held in the State except one of twenty-five years previous. 

On the i6th of February, O. W. Wight was appomted by the governor chief geologist of 
Wisconsin, in place of I. A. Lapham, whose appointment had not lieen acted upon by the Senate. 
On the 24th of the same month, J. W. Hoyt was appointed railroad commissioner for three 
years from the first day of May following, on which day his one-year term in the same office would 
expire. At the regular Spring election on the 6th of April following, Edward G. Ryan was 
elected, without opposition, chief justice of the supreme court for the unexpired terra of Chief 
Justice Dixon, ending the first Monday in January, 1876, and for a full term of six years from 
the last mentioned date ; so that his present term of office will expire on the 1st Monday in Jan- 
uary, 1882. An act providing for taking the census of Wisconsin on or before the ist of July, 
1875, was passed by the legislature and approved the 4th of March pievious. It required an 
enumeration of all the inhabitants of the State except Indians, who were not entitled to the right 
of suffrage. The result of this enumeration gave a total population to Wisconsin of one million 
two hundred and thirty-six thousand seven hundred and twenty-nine. 

At the November election, republican and "reform' tickets were in the field for State 
officers, resulting in the success of the latter, except as to governor. For this office Harrison 
Ludington was chosen by a majority, according to the State board of canvassers, over William 
R. Taylor, of eight hundred and forty-one. The rest of the candidates elected were : Charles 
D. Parker, lieutenant governor ; Petei Doyle, secretary of state ; Ferdinand Kuehn, treasurer 
of state, A. Scott Sloan, attorney general; and Edward Searing, superintendent of public 
instruction. The act abolishing the office of state commissionei of immigration was to take 
effect "on and after" the close of this administration; so, 01 course, no person was voted for to 
fill that position at the Fall election of 1875. 

During this administration the principle involved in a long-pending controversy between the 
State and Minnesota relating to valuable harbor privileges at the head of Lake Superior, was suc- 
cessfully and finally settled in favor of Wisconsin. The influence of the executive was largely 


instrumental in initiating a movement which resulted in securing congressional appropriations 
amounting to $800,000 to the Fox and Wisconsin river improvement. A change was inaugu- 
rated in the whole system of timber agencies over State and railroad lands, by which the duties of 
agents were localized, and efificiency was so well established that many important trespasses were 
brought to light from which over $60,000 in penalties was collected and paid into the Treasury, 
while as miich more was subsequently realized from settlements agreed upon and proceedings 
instituted. By decisive action on the part of the governor an unsettled printing claim of nearly 
a hundred thousand dollars was met and defeated in the courts. During this period also appro- 
priations were cut down, and the rate of taxation diminished. Governor Taylor bestowed unre- 
mitting personal attention to details of business with a view of promoting the public interests 
with strict economy, while his countenance and support was extended to all legitimate enter- 
prises. He required the Wisconsin Central railroad company to give substantial assurance that 
it would construct a branch lin'e from Stevens Point to Portage City as contemplated by congress, 
before issuing certificates for its land grants. 

The closing year of the century of our national existence — 1875, was one somewhat discour- 
aging to certain branches of the agricultural interests of Wisconsin. The previous Winter had 
been an unusually severe one. A greater breadth of corn was planted than in any previous year 
in the State, but the unusually late season, followed by frosts in August and September, entirely 
ruined thousands of acres of that staple. 

Fifteenth Administration. — Harrison Ludington, Governor — 1876-187 7. 

The fifteenth administration of Wisconsin commenced at noon on Monday, January 3, 1876, 
by the inauguration of State officers — Harrison Ludington, as previously stated, having been 
elected upon the republican ticket, to fill the chief executive office of the State ; the others, to 
the residue of the offices, upon the democratic reform ticket: the governor, like three of his 
predecessors — Farwell, Bashford, and Randall (first term) — having been chosen by a majority 
less than one thousand ; and, like two of his predecessors — Farwell and Bashford — when all the 
other State officers differed with him in politics. 

The twenty-ninth regular session of the legislature of Wisconsin began on the 12th of Janu- 
ary, 1876, at Madison. The republicans were in the majority in both houses. Samuel S. 
Fifield was elected speaker of the assembly. On the 13th, Governor Ludington delivered in 
person, to a jomt convention of that body, his message, communicating the condition of affairs of 
the State, and recommending such matters for the consideration of the legislators as were thought 
expedient : it was brief; its style condensed ; its striking peculiarity, a manly frankness. " It is 
not the part of wisdom," said he, in his concluding remarks, "to disguise the fact that the people 
of this State, in common with those of all sections of the Union, have suffered some abatement of 
the prosperity that they have enjoyed in the past." "We have entered," he continued, " upon 
the centennial of our existence as an independent nation. It is fit that we should renew the spirit 
in which the Republic had its birth, and our determination that it shall endure to fulfill the great 
purposes of its existence, and to justify the noble sacrifices of its. founders." The legislature 
adjourned sine t/i'e on the 14th of March, 1876, after a session of sixty-three days. The chief 
measures of the session were ; The amendment of the railroad laws, maintaining salutary restric- 
tions while modifying those features which were crippling and crushing an important interest of 
the State ; and the apportionment of the State into senate and assembly districts. It is a pro- 
vision of the constitution of the State that the number of the members of the assembly shall 
never be less than fifty-four, nor more than one hundred ; and that the senate shall consist of a 
number not more than one-third nor less than one-fourih of the number of the members of the 


assembly. Since the year 1862, the aggregate allotted to both houses had been one hundred and 
thirty-three, the maximum allowed by the constitution; one hundred in the assembly and thirty- 
three in the senate. The number of this representation was not diminished by the apportion- 
ment of 1876. One of the railroad laws abolished the board of railroad commissioners, confer- 
ring its duties upon a railroad commissioner to be appointed by the governor every two years. 
Under this law. DanaC. J.amb was appointed to that office, on the loth of March, 1876. On the 
2d day of February, previous, George W. Burchard was by the governor appointed state prison 
director for six years, in place of Joel Rich, whose term of office had expired. On the same day 
T. C. Chamberlin was appointed chief geologist of Wisconsin in place of O. W. Wight. 

The application of Miss Lavinia Goodell, for admission to the bar of Wisconsin, was 
rejected by the supreme court of the State, at its January terra, 1S76. "We can not but think,'' 
jaid Chief Justice Ryan, in the decree of refusal, " we can not but think the common law wise 
in excluding women from the profession of the law." "The profession," he added, "enters 
largely into the well-being of society, and, to be honorably filled, and safely to society,' exacts 
the devotion of life. The law of nature destines and qualifies the female sex for the bearing 
and nurture of the children of our race, and for the custody of the homes of the world, and 
their maintenance in love and honor. And all life-long callings of women inconsistent with 
these radical and social duties of their sex, as is the profession of the law, are departures from 
the order of Nature, and, when voluntary, are treason against it." By a law since passed, no 
person can be denied admission to any court in the State on account of sex; and Miss Goodell 
has been admitted to practice in the Supreme Court. 

Ey an act of the legislature, approved March 13, 1S76, a State board of health was estab- 
lished, the appointment of a superintendent of vital statistics, was provided for, and certain 
duties were assi!:;ned to local boards of health. The State board was organized soon after ; 
the governor having previously appointed seven persons as its members. The object of the 
organization, which is supported by the State, is, to educate the people of Wisconsin into a better 
knowledge of the nature and causes of disease, and a better knowledge and observance of 
hygienic laws 

By a law passed in 1868, as amended in 1870 and r873, the secretary of state, state 
treasurer, and attorney general, were constituted a State board of assessment, to meet in the 
city of Madison, on the third Wednesday in May, 1874, and biennally thereafter, to make an 
equalized valuation of the property in the State, as a guide to assessment for taxation. In the 
tables of equalized valuations compiled by this board in 1876, the whole amount of taxable 
property in Wisconsin, is set down at $423,596,290 ; of which sum $337,073,148, represents real 
estate and $86,523,142 personal property. 

This being the year for the election of president and vice president of the United States, 
the two political parties in Wisconsin — republican and democratic — had tickets in the field. 
At the election on Tuesday, November 7, the republican presidential electors received a 
majority of the votej cast in the State, securing Wisconsin for Hayes and Wheeler. The eight 
congressional districts elected the same day -their members to the forty-fifth congress, whose 
terms of office would expire on the 4th of March, 1879. Charles G. Williams was elected in the 
first district; Lucien B. Caswell, in the second; George C. Hazelton, in the third; William P. 
Lynde, in the fourth; Edward S. Bragg, in the fifth; Gabriel Bouck, in the sixth; H. L. 
Humphrey, in the seventh; and Thad. C. Pound, in the eighth district. A majority of the 
delegation was republican, the representatives from the fourth, fifth and sixth districts only, being 


There was a general and spontaneous exhibition of patriotic impulses throughout the length 
and breadth of Wisconsin, on the part of both native and foreign-born citizens, at the com- 
mencement of the centennial year, and upon the fourth of July. The interest of the people of 
the State generally, in the Exposition at Philadelphia, was manifested in a somewhat remarkable 
manner from its inception to its close. By an act of congress, approved March 3, 1871, pro- 
vision was made for celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of American Independence, by 
holding in that city, in 1876, an exhibition of arts, manufactures, and the products of the soil 
and mines of the country. A centennial commission, consisting of one commissioner and one 
alternate commissioner, from each State and Territory, was authorized to be appointed, to carry 
out the provisions of the act. David Atwood, as commissioner, and E. D. Helton, as alternate, 
were commissioned by the president of the United States, from Wisconsin. This commission 
gradually made progress in preparing for an international exposition. " The commission has 
been organized," said Governor Washburn, in his message to the legislature in January, 1873, 
" and has made considerable progress in its work. The occasion will be one to which I'he 
American jieojjle can not fail to respond in the most enthusiastic manner." The president of 
the United States, by proclamation, in July, 1873, announced the exhibition and national celebra- 
tion, and commended them to the people of the Union, and of all nations. " It seems fitting," 
said Governor Taylor, in his message to the Wisconsin legislature in 1S74, " that such a cele- 
bration of this important event, should be held, and it is hoped it will be carried out in a manner 
worthy of a great and enlightened nation." By the close of 1874, a large number of foreign 
governments had signified their intention to participate in the exhibition. 

The legislature of Wisconsin, at its session in 1875, deeming it essential that the State, 
with its vast resources in agricultural, mineral, lumbering, manufacturing, and other products 
and industries, should be fully represented at Philadelphia, passed an act which was approved 
March 3, 1875, to provide for a "Board of State Centennial Managers." Two thousand dollars 
were appropriated to pay its necessary expenses. The board was to consist of five members to 
be appointed by the governor ; and there were added thereto, as ex-officio members, the United 
States centennial commissioner and his alternate. The duties of the members were to dis- 
seminate information regarding the Exhibition; to secure the co-operation of industrial, scien- 
tific, agricultural, and other associations in the State ; to appoint co-operative local committees, 
representing the different industries of the State ; to stimulate local action on all measures 
intended to render the exhibition successful, and a worthy representation of the industries of 
the country ; to encourage the production of articles suitable for the Exhibition ; to distribute 
documents issued by the centennial commission among manufacturers and others in the State ; 
to render assistance in furthering the financial and other interests of the exhibition ; to furnish 
information to the commission on subjects that might be referred to the board ; to care for the 
interests of the State and of its citizens in matters relating to the exhibition ; to receive and 
pronounce upon applications for space ; to apportion the space placed at its disposal among the 
exhibitors from the State ; and to supervise such other details relating to the representation of 
citizens of Wisconsin in the Exhibition, as might from time to time be delegated by the United 
States centennial commission. 

The board was required to meet on the first Wednesday of April, 1875, at the capitol, in 
Madison, to organize and adopt such by-laws and regulations as might be deemed necessary for 
the successful prosecution of the work committed to their charge Governor Taylor appointed 
Eli Stilson, J. I. Case, J. B. Parkinson, T. C. Pound, and E. A. Calkins, members of the board. 
Its organization was perfected, at the appointed time, by the election of J. B. Parkinson as pre- 
sident, and W. W. Field, secretary. The ex-officio members of the board, were David Atwood, 


United States commissioner, and E. D. Holton, alternate From this time forward, the board 
was untiring in its efforts to secure a full and proper representation of the varied interests of 
Wisconsin in the centennial exhibition of 1876. E. A. Calkins having resigned his position as 
member of the board, Adolph Meinecke took his place by appointment of the governor July 
24, 1875. Governor Ludington, in his message to the legislature in January, 1876, spoke in 
commendation of the coming exhibition. "The occasion," said he, "will afford an excellent 
opportunity to display the resources and products of the State, and to attract hither capital and 

Soon after the organization of the United States centennial commission, a national organ- 
ization of the women of the country was perfected. A lady of Philadelphia was placed at its 
head; and a presiding officer from each State was appointed. Mrs. A. C. Thorp assumed the 
duties of chairman for Wisconsin, in March, 1875, appointing assistants in various parts of the 
State, when active work was commenced. This organization was efiScient in Wisconsin in 
arousing an interest in the general purposes and objects of the exhibition. 

By an act of the legislature, approved March 3, 1876, the sum of twenty thousand dollars 
was appropriated to the use of the board of centennial managers, for the purpose of arranging 
for, and making a proper exhibition of, the products, resources, and advantages of the State at 
the exposition. The treasurer of Wisconsin was, by this act, made an ex-officio member of the 
board. By this and previous action of the legislature — by efforts put tbrth by the board of 
managers — by individual enterprise — by the untiring labors of the "Women's Centennial Execu- 
tive Committee," to whom, by an act of the legislature, approved the 4th of March, 1875, one 
thousand dollars were appropriated — Wisconsin was enabled to take a proud and honorable 
position in the Centennial Exposition — a gratification not only to the thousands of her citizens 
who visited Philadelphia during its continuance, but to the people generally, throughout the 

In Wisconsin, throughout the centennial year, those engaged in the various branches of . 
agriculture and other useful avocations, were reasonably prosperous. The crop of wheat and 
oats was a light yield, and of poor quality ; but the corn crop was the largest ever before raised 
in the State, and of superior quality. The dairy and hog product was large, and commanded 
remunerative prices. Fruits were unusually plenty. Trade and business enterprises, however, 
generally remained depressed. 

By section five of article seven of the constitution of Wisconsin, the counties of the State 
were apportioned into five judicial circuits : the county of Richland being attached to Iowa, 
Chi])pewa to Crawford, and La Pointe to St. Croix In 1850, the fifth circuit was divided, and a 
sixth circuit formed. In 1864, Crawford and Richland were made part of the fifth circuit. By 
an act which took effect in 1854, a seventh circuit was formed. On the first day of January, 
1S55, the sixth circuit was divided, and an eighth and ninth circuit formed, the county of 
Columbia being made a i)art of the last mentioned one. In the same year was also formed a 
tenth circuit; and, in 1858, Winnebago county was attached to it; but, in 1870, that county was 
attached to the third circuit. In 185S, Kewaunee county was attached to the fourth circuit. 
An eleventh circuit was formed in 1864, from which, in 1865, Dallas county was detached, and 
made part of the eighth. By an act which took effect on the first day of January, 1871, the 
twelfth circuit was formed. In 1876, a thirteenth circuit was " constituted and re-organized." 

At that time, the whole sixty counties of the State stood apportioned in the thirteen judicial 
circuits as follows: First circuit, Walworth, Racine, and Kenosha; second circuit, Milwaukee, 
and Waukesha; third circuit, Green Lake, Dodge, Washington, Ozaukee, and Winnebago; 
fourth circuit, Sheboygan, Calumet, Kewaunee, Fond du Lac, and Manitowoc; fifth circuit,' 


Grant, Iowa, La Fayette, Richland, and Crawford ; sixth circuit, Clark, Jackson, Monroe, La 
Crosse, and Vernon ; seventh circuit. Portage, Marathon, Waupaca, Wood, Waushara, Lincoln, 
and Taylor; eighth circuit, Dunn, Pepin, Pierce, and St. Croix; ninth circuit, Adams, Columbia, 
Dane, Juneau, Sauk and Marquette ; tenth circuit, Outagamie, Oconto, Shawano, Door, and 
Brown ; eleventh circuit, Ashland, Barron, Bayfield, Burnett, Chippewa, Douglas, and Polk ; 
twelfth circuit. Rock, Green, and Jefferson; and the thirteenth circuit, Buffalo, Eau Claire, and 
Trempeleau, Marinette and New are now in the tenth ; Price is in the seventh circuit. 

The thirtieth regular session of the legislature of Wisconsin commenced, pursuant to law, 
on the loth of January, 1877. The republicans had working majorities in both houses. J. B. 
Cassoday was elected Speaker of the Assembly. Governor Ludington delivered his message to 
the joint convention of the legislature the following day. " We should not seek," said he, in 
his concluding remarks, " to conceal from ourselves the fact that the prosperity which our people 
have enjoyed for a number of years past, has suffered some interruption. Agriculture has ren- 
dered less return; labor in all departments has been less productive, and trade has consequently 
been less active, and has realized a reduced percentage of profit." " These adverse circum- 
stances," continued the governor, "will not be wholly a misfortune if we heed the lesson that 
they convey. This lesson is the necessity of strict economy in public and private affairs, ^\'e 
have been living upon a false basis ; and the time has now come when we must return to a solid 
foundation." The legislature adjourned sine die on the Sth of March, after a session of fifty- 
eight days, passing three hundred and one acts — one hundred and thirteen less than at the 
session of 1876 The most important of these, as claimed by the dominant party which passed 
it, is one for the maintenance of the purity of the ballot box, known as the '' Registry Law." On 
the 3d day of April, at the regular Spring election, William P. Lyon was re-elected, without 
opposition, an associate justice of the supreme court for six years from the first Monday in 
January, 1878, his term of office expiring on the first Monday of January, 1S84. 

Under a law of 1876, to provide for the revision of the statutes of the State, the justices of 
the supreme court were authorized to appoint three revisors. The persons receiving the appoint- 
ment were David Taylor, William F. Vilas and J. P. C. Cottrill. By an amendatory law of 1877, 
for the purpose of having the revision completed for the session of 1878, the justices of the 
supreme court were autiiorized to appoint two additional revisors, and assign them special duties 
on the commission. H. S. Orton was appointed to revise the criminal law and proceedings, and 
J. H. Carpenter to revise the probate laws. 

Governor Ludington declined being a candidate for renomination. His administration was 
characterized as one of practical efficiency. As the chief executive officer of Wisconsin, he kept 
in view the best interests of the State. In matters coming under his control, a rigid system of 
economy prevailed. 

There were three tickets in the field presented to the electors of Wisconsin for their suffrages 
at the general election l.eld on the sixth of November, 1877 : republican, democratic, and the 
■'greenback" ticket. The republicans were successful, electing William E. Smith, governor; 
James M. Bingham, lieutenant governor; Hans B. Warner, secretary of state; Richard Guenther, 
treasurer; Alexander Wilson, attorney general ; and William C. Whitford, state superintendent 
(jf public instruction. At the same election two amendments to the constitution of the State 
were voted upon and both adopted. The first one amends section four of article seven; so that, 
hereafter, " the supreme court shall consist of one chief justice and four associate justices, to be 
elected by the qualified electors of the State. The legislature shall, at its first session after the 
adoption of this amendment, provide by law for the election of two associate justices of said 
court, to hold their offices respectively for terms ending two and four years, respectively after the 


end of the term of the justice of the said court then last to expire. And thereafter the chief 
justices and associate justices of said court shall be elected and hold their offices respectively 
for the term of ten years." The second one amends section two of article eight ; so that, heie- 
after, "no money shall be paid out of the treasury except in pursuance of an appropriation by 
law. No appropriation shall be made for the payment of any claim against the State, except 
claims of the United States, and judgments, unless filed within six years after the claim accrued." 
The year 1877, in Wisconsin, was notable for excellent crops. A depression in monetary 
matters continued, it is true, but not without a reasonable prosiiect of a change for the better 
within the near future. 

Sixteenth Administration. — William E. Smith, Governor — 187S — 1879. 

At noon, on Monday, January 7, 1S78, began the sixteenth administration of Wisconsin, by 
the inauguration of the State officers elect. On the 9th of the same month, commenced the 
thirty-first regular session of the Legislature. A. R. Barrows was elected Speaker of the Assembly. 
On the day following. Governor Smith delivered his message — a calm, business-like document — to 
the Legislature. Both Houses adjourned sine die on the 21st of March following. On the ist day 
of April, Harlow S; Orton and David Taylor were elected Associate Justices of the Supreme Court; 
the term of the first named to expire on the first Monday of January, 1888 ; that of the last men- 
tioned, on the first Monday of January, 1886. In obedience to a proclamation of the Governor, 
the Legislature convened on the 4th day of June, A. D. 1878, in extra session, to revise the statutes, 
A. R. Barrows was elected Speaker of the Assembly. The Legislature adjourned sine die on the 
7th of the same month. In November following, the members chosen to tlie Forty-sixth Congress 
were C. G. Williams, in tlie First District ; L. B. Caswell, in the Second ; George C. Hazelton, in 
the Third ; P. V. Deuster, in the Fourth ; E. S. Bragg, in the Fifth ; Gabriel Bouck, in the Sixth ; 
H.L.Humphrey, in the Seventh; and T. C. Pound, in the Eighth. The thirty-second regular 
session of the Legislature commenced on the 8th day of January, 1879. D. M. Kelly was elected 
Speaker of the A-ssembly ; the next day, the message of the Governor — a brief, but able State 
paper — was delivered to both Houses. On the 21st, Matthew H. Carpenter was elected United 
States Senator for six years, from the 4th of Mardi thereafter, in place of Timothy O. Howe. 
The Legislature adjourned sine die on the 5th of March, 1879. On the ist day of April following, 
Orsamus Cole was elected Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, for a term of ten yea/s. 

Wisconsin has many attractive features. It is a healthy, fertile, well-watered and well-wooded 
State. Every where within its borders the lights of each citizen are held sacred. Intelligence and 
education are prominent characteristics of its people. All the necessaries and many of the comforts 
and luxuries of life are easily to be obtained. .Agriculture, the chief source of wealth to so many 
nations, is here conducted with profit and success. Generally speaking, the farmer owns the 
land he cultivates. Here, the laboring man, if honest and industrious, is most certain to secure 
a coini)etence for himself and family. Few States have made more ample provisions for the 
unfortunate — the deaf and dumb, the blind, and the insane— than has Wisconsin. Nor has she 
been less interested in her reformatory and penal institutions. In her educational facilities, she 
already rivals the most advanced of her sister States. Her markets are easily reached by rail- 
ways and water-navigation, so that the products of the country find ready sale. Her commerce 
is extensive ; her manufactures remunerative; her natural resources great and manifold. In 
morality and religion, her standard is high. Her laws are lenient, but not lax, securing the 
greatest good to those who are disposed to live up to their requirements. A\'isconsin has, in 
fact, all the essential elements of prosperity and good government. Exalted and noble, there- 
fore, must be her future career. 


By T. C. CHAMBERLIN, A. M., State Geologist. 

The surface features of Wisconsin are simple and symmetrical in character, and present a con- 
figuration intermediate between the mountainous, on the one hand, and a monotonous level, on the 
other. The highest summits within the state rise a little more than 1,200 feet above its lowest sur- 
faces. A few exceptional peaks rise Irom 400 to 600 feet above their bases, but abrupt elevations of 
more than 200 or 300 feet are not common. Viewed as a whole, the state may be regarded as oc- 
cupying a swell of land lying between three notable depressions; Lake Michigan on the east, about 
578 feet above the mean tide of the ocean. Lake Superior on the north, about 600 feet above the 
sea, and the valley of the Mississippi river, whose elevation at the Illinois state line is slightly below 
that of Lake Michigan. From these depressions the surface slopes upward to the summit altitudes 
of the state. But the rate of ascent is unequal. From Lake Michigan the surface rises by a long, 
gentle acclivity westward and northward. A similar slope ascends from the Mississippi valley to 
meet this, and their junction forms a north and south arch extending nearly the entire length of the 
state. From Lake Superior the surface ascends rapidly to the watershed, which it reaches within 
about thirty miles of the lake. 

If we include the contiguous portion of the upper peninsula of Michigan, the whole elevation 
maybe looked upon as a very low, rude, three-sided pyramid, with rounded angles. The ape.x is 
near the Michigan line, between the headwaters of the Montreal and Brule rivers. The 
northern side is short and abrupt. The southeastward and sDuthwestward sides are long, and 
decline gently. The base of this pyramid may be considered as, in round numbers, 600 feet 
above the sea, and its extreme apex 1,800 feet. 

Under the waters of Lake Michigan the surface of the land passes below the sea level 
before the limits of the state are reached. Under Lake Superior the land-surface descends to 
even greater depths, but probably not within the boundaries of the state. The regularity of the 
southward slopes is interrupted in a very interesting way by a remarkable diagonal valley 
occupied by Green bay and the Fox and Wisconsin rivers. This is a great groove, traversing 
the state obliquely, and cutting down the central elevation half its height. A line passing across 
the surface, from Lake Michigan to the Mississippi, at any other point, would arch upward from 
about 400 to 1,000 feet, according to the location, while along the trough of this valley it would 
reach an elevation barely exceeding 200 feet. On the northwest side of this trough, in general, 
the surface rises somewhat gradually, giving at most points much amplitude to the valley, but 
on the opposite side, the slope ascends rapidly to a well marked watershed that stretches across 
the State parallel to the valley. At Lake Winnebago, this diagonal valley is connected with a 
scarcely less notable one, occupied by the Rock river. Geologically, this Green-bay-Rock- 


■river valley is even more noticeable, since it lies along the trend of tlic underlying strata, and 
was in large measure i)lowed out of a soft stratum by glacial action. Where it crosses the water- 
shed, near Horicon marsh, it presents the same general features that are seen at other points, 
and in an almost equally conspicuous degree. Except in the southern part of the state, this 
valley is confined on the east by an abrupt ascent, and, at many points, by a precipitous, rocky 
acclivity, known as "The Ledge " — which is the projecting edge of the strata of the Niagara 
limestone. On the watershed referred to — between tlie St. Lawrence and Mississippi basins — 
this ledge is as conspicuous and continuous as at other points, so that we have here again the 
phenomenon of a valley formed by excavation, running up over an elevation of 300 feet, and 
connecting two great systems of drainage. 

On the east side of this valley, as already indicated, there is a sharp ascent of 200 feet, 
on an average, from the crest of which the surface slopes gently down to Lake Michigan. The 
uniformity of this slope is broken by an extended line of drift hills, lying obliquely along it and 
extending from Kewaunee county southward to the Illinois line and known as the Kettle range. 
A less conspicuous range of similar character branches off from this in the northwest corner ot 
Walworth county and passes across the Rock river valley, where it curves northward, passing 
west of Madison, crossing the great bend in the Wisconsin river, and bearing northeastward 
into Oconto county, where it swings round to the westward and crosses the northern part of the 
state. As a general topographical feature it is not conspicuous and is rather to be conceived as 
a peculiar chain of drift hills winding over the surface of the state, merely interrupting in some 
degree the regularity of its slopes There will be occasion to return to this feature in our 
discussion of the drift. It will be observed that the southeastward slope is interrupted by 
valleys running across it, rudely parallel to Lake Michigan, and directing its drainage northward 
and southward, instead of directing it down the slope into the lake. 

The Mississippi slope presents several conspicuous ridges and valleys, but their trend is 
toward the great river, and they are all due, essentially, to the erosion of the streams that 
channel the slope. One of these ridges constitutes the divide south of the AVisconsin river, 
already referred to. .\nother of these, conspicuous by reason of its narrowness and sharpness, 
lies between the Kickapoo and the Mississippi, and extends' through Crawford, Vernon and 
Monroe counties. Still another is formed by the quartzite ranges of Sauk county and others 
of less prominence give a highly diversified character to the slope. 

Scattered over the surface of the state are prominent hills, some swelling upward into rounded 
domes, some rising symmetrically into conical peaks, some ascending precipitously into castel- 
lated towers, and some reaching prominence without regard to beauty of form or convenience of 
description. A part of these hills were formed by the removal by erosion of the surrounding 
strata, and a part by the heaping up of drift material by the glacial forces. In the former case, 
they are composed of rock; in the latter, of clay, sand, gravel and bowlders. The two forms 
are often combined. The highest peak in the southwestern part of the state is the West 
Blue mound, which is 1,151 feet above Lake Michigan; in the eastern part, Lapham's peak, 824 
feet, and in the central part. Rib hill, 1263 feet. The crest of Penokee range in the northern 
part of the state rises 1,000 feet, and upwards, above Lake Michigan. 

The drainage systems correspond in general to these topograpical features, though several 
minor eccentricities are to be observed. The streams of the Lake Superior system plunge 
rapidly down their steep sloi)es, forming numerous falls, some of them possessing great beauty, 
prominent among which are those of the Montreal river. On the southern slope, the rivers, in the 
upper portion of their courses, likewise descend rapidly, though less so, producing a succession 
of rapids and cascades, and an occasional cataract. In the lower part of their courses, the 


descent becomes much more gentle and many of them are navigable to a greater or less extent. 
The rivers west of the Wisconsin pursue an essentially direct course to the Mississippi, 
attended of course with minor flexures. The Wisconsin river lies, for the greater part of its 
course, upon the north and south arch of the state, but on encountering the diagonal valley 
above mentioned it turns southwestward to the " Father of Waters." The streams east of the 
Wisconsin flow southerly and southeasterly until they likewise encounter this valley when they 
turn in the opposite direction and discharge northeasterly into Lake Michigan, through Green 
bay. Between the Green-bay-Rock-river valley and Lake Michigan, the drainage is again in 
the normal southeasterly direction. In the southern part of the state, the rivers flow in a gen- 
eral southerly direction, but, beyond the state, turn westward toward the Mississippi. 

If the courses of the streams be studied in detail, many exceedingly interesting and instruc- 
tive features wU be observed, due chiefly to peculiarities of geological structure, some of which 
will be apparent by inspecting the accompanying geological map. Our space, however, 
forbids our entering upon the subject here. 

The position of the watershed between the great basins of the Mississippi and the St. Law- 
rence is somewhat peculiar. On the Illinois line, it lies only three and one half miles from Lake 
Michigan and about i6o feet above its surface. As traced northward from this point, it retires 
from the lake and ascends in elevation till it approaches the vicinity of Lake Winnebago, when 
it recurves upon itself and descends to the portage between the Fox and the Wisconsin rivers, 
whence it pursues a northerly course to the heights of Michigan, vvhen it turns westward and 
passes in an undulating course across the northern part of the state. It will be observed that 
much the greater area of the state is drained by the Mississippi system. 

The relationship which the drainage channels have been observed to sustain to the topo- 
graphical features is partly that of cause and partly that of effect. The general arching of the 
surface, giving rise to the main slopes, is due to deep-seated geological causes that produce an 
upward swelling of the center of the state. This determined the general drainage systems. On 
the other hand, the streams, acting upon strata of varying hardness, and presenting different atti- 
tudes, wore away the surface unequally and cut for themselves anomalous channels, leaving 
corresponding divides between, which gave origin to the minor irregularities that diversify the 
surface. In addition to this, the glacier — that great ice stream, the father of the drift — planed 
and plowed tlie surface and heaped up its debris upon it, modifying both the surface and drainage 
features Looked at from a causal standpoint, we see the results of internal forces elevating, and 
external as;encies cutting down, or, in a word, the face of the state is the growth of geologic ages 
furrowed bv the teardrops of tlie skies. 


In harmony with the historical character of this atlas, it may be most acceptable to weave 

our brief sketch of the geological structure of the state into the form of a narrative of its growth. 



The physical history of Wisconsin can be traced back with certainty to a state of complete 
submergence beneath the waters of the ancient ocean, by which the material of our oldest and 
deepest strata were deposited. Let an extensive but shallow sea, covering the whole of the 
present territory of the state, be pictured to the mind, and let it be imagined to be depositing 


mud and sand, as at the present day. and we have before us the first authentic stage of the history 
under consideration. Back of that, the history is lost in the mists of geologic antiquity. The 
thickness of the sediments that accumulated in that early period was immense, being measured 
by thousands of feet. These sediments occupied of course an essentially horizontal position, and 
were, doubtless, in a large degree hardened into beds of impure sandstone, shale, and other sedi- 
mentary rock. But in the progress of time an enormous pressure, attended by heat, was brought 
to bear upon them laterally, or edgewise, by which they were folded and crumpled, and forced 
up out of the water, giving rise to an island, the nucleus of Wisconsin. The force which pro- 
duced this upheaval is believed to have arisen from the cooling and consequent contraction of 
the globe. The foldings may be imaged as the wrinkles of a shrinking earth. But the contor- 
tion of the beds was a scarcely more wonderful result than the change in the character of tlie 
rock which seems to have taken place simultaneously with the folding, indeed, as the result of the 
heat and pressure attending it. The sediments, that seem to have previously taken the form of 
impure sandstone and shale for the most part, underwent a change, in which re-arrangement and 
crystalization of the ingredients played a conspicuous part. By this metamorphism, granite, gneiss, 
mica schist, syenite, hornblende rocks, chloritic schists and other crystalline rocks were formed. 
These constitute the Laurentian formation and belong to the most ancient period yet distinctly 
recognized in geology, although there were undoubtedly more ancient rocks. They are therefore 
very fittingly termed Archaean — -ancient — rocks (formerly .'Vzoic.) No remains of life have been 
found in this formation in Wisconsin, but from the nature of rocks elsewhere, believed to be of the 
same age, it is probable that the lowest forms of life existed at this time. It is not strange that 
the great changes through which the rocks have passed should have so nearly obliterated all 
traces of them. The original extent of this Laurentian island can not now be accurately ascer- 
tained, but it will be sufficiently near the truth for our present purposes to consider the formation 
as it is now exposed, and as it is represented on the maps of the geological survey, as showing 
approximately the original extent. This will make it include a large area in the north-central 
portion of the state and a portion of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. All the rest of the state 
was beneath the ocean, and the same may be said of the greater portion of the United States 
The height of this island was doubtless considerable, as it has since been very much cut down by 
denuding agencies. The strata, as now exposed, mostly stand in highly inclined attitudes and 
present their worn edges to view. The tops of the folds, of which they are the remnants, seem 
to have been cut away, and we have the nearly vertical sides remaining. 


As soon as the Laurentian island had been elevated, the waves of the almost shoreless 
ccean began to beat against it, the elements to disintegrate it, and the rains of the then tropical 
climate to wash it; and the sand, clay and other debris, thus formed, were deposited beneath the 
waters around its base, giving rise to a new sedimentary formation. There is no evidence that 
there was any vegetation on the island : the air and water were, doubtless, heavily charged with 
carbonic acid, an efficient agent of disintegration : the climate was warm and doubtless very 
moist — circumstances which combined to hasten the erosion of the island and increase the 
d-jposition in the surrounding sea. In addition to these agencies, we judge from the large amount 
of carbonaceous matter contained in some of the beds, that there must have been an abundance 
of marine vegetation, and, from the limestone beds that accumulated, it is probable that there 
was marine animal life also, since in later ages that was the chief source of limestone strata. 
The joint accumulations from these several sources gave rise to a series of shales, sandstones 
and limestones, whose combined thickness was several thousand feet. 


At length the process of upheaval and metamorphism that closed the Laurentian period 
was repeated, and these sandstones became quartzites; the limestones were crystalized, the 
shales were changed to slates or schists, and intermediate grades of sediments became diorites, 
quartz- porphyries and other forms of crystalline rocks. The carbonaceous matter was changed 
in part to graphite. There were also associated with these deposits extensive beds of iron ore, 
which we now find chiefly in the form of magnetite, hematite and specular ore. These constitute 
the Huronian rocks. From the amount of iron ore they contain, they are also fittingly termed 
the iron-bearing series. As in the preceding case, the strata were contorted, flexed and folded, 
and the whole island was further elevated, carrying with it these circumjacent strata, by whi< h 
its extent was much enlarged. The area of the island after receiving this increment was con- 
siderably greater than the surface represented as Laurentian and Huronian on the accompanying 
map, since it was subsequently covered to a considerable extent by later formations. Penokee 
range, in Ashland county, is the most conspicuous development of the Huronian rocks in the 
state. The upturned edge of the formation forms a bold rampart, extending across the country 
for sixty miles, making the nearest approach to a mountain range to be found within the state. 
A belt of magnetic schist may be traced nearly its entire length. In the northern part of 
Oconto county , there is also an important development of this formation, being an extension 
of the Menomonee iron-bearing series. A third area is found in Barron county, which includes 
deposits of pipestone. In the south central part of the stale there are a considerable number 
of small areas and isolated outliers of quartzite and quartz-porphyry, that, without much doubt, 
belong to this series. The most conspicuous of these are the Baraboo quartzite ranges, in 
Sauk and Columbia counties, and from thence a chain of detached outliers extends northeasterly 
through several counties. The most southerly exposure of the formation is near Lake Mills, in 
Jefferson county. 


Previous to the upheaval of the Huronian strata, there occurred in the Lake Superior region 
events of peculiar and striking interest. If we may not speak with absolute assurance, we may 
at least say with reasonable probability, that the crust of the earth was fissured in that region, 
and that there issued from beneath an immense mass of molten rock, that spread itself over an 
area of more than three hundred miles in length and one hundred miles in width. The action 
was not confined to a single overflow, but eruption followed eruption, sometimes apparently in 
quick succession, sometimes evidently at long intervals. Each outpouring, when solidified, 
formed a stratum of trap rock, and where these followed each other without any intervening 
deposit, a series of trappean beds were formed. In some cases, however, an interval occurred, 
during which the waves, acting upon the rock previously formed, produced a bed of sand, gravel 
and clay, which afterward solidified into sandstone, conglomerate and shale. The history of 
these beds is lithographed on their surface in beautiful ripple-marks and other evidences of wave- 
action. After the cessation of the igneous eruptions, there accumulated a vast thickness of 
sandstone, shale and conglomerate, so that the whole series is literally miles in thickness. 

The eruptive portions have been spoken of as traps, for convenience; but they do not now 
possess the usual characteristics of igneous rocks, and appear to have undergone a chemical 
metamorphism by which the mineral ingredients have been changed, the leading ones now being 
an iron chlorite and a feldspar, with which are associated, as accessory minerals, quartz, eijidote, 
prenite, calcitc, laumontite, analcite, datolite, magnetite, native copper and silver, and, more 
rarely, other minerals. The rock, as a whole, is now known as a melaphyr. The upper portion 
of each bed is usually characterized by almond-sized cells filled with the minerals above men- 
tioned, giving to the rock an amygdaloidal nature. The native copper was not injected in a 


molten state, as has very generally been supposed, but was deposited by chemical means aftei 
the beds were formed and after a portion of the chemical change of the minerals above mentioned 
had been accomplished. The same is true of the silver. The copper occurs in all the different 
forms of rock — the melaphyrs, amygdaloids, sandstones, shales and conglomerates, but most 
abundantly in the amygdaloids and certain conglomerates. 

This series e.xtends across the northern portion of the state, occupying portions of Ashland, 
Bayfield, Douglas, Burnett and Polk counties. When the Huronian rocks were elevated, they 
carried these up with them, and they partook of the folding in some measure. The copper- 
bearing range of Keweenaw Point, Michigan, extends southwestward through Ashland, Burneti' 
and Polk counties, and throughout this whole extent the beds dip north-northwesterly toward 
Lake Superior, at a high angle; but in Douglas and Bayfield counties there is a parallel range 
in which the beds incline in the opposite direction, and undoubtedly form the opposite side of a 
trough formed by a downward flexure of the strata. 


Potsdam S,\ndstone. 

After the great Archaean upheaval, there followed a long period, concerning wnich very little 
U known — a " lost interval" ia geological history. It is only certain that immense erosion of 
the Archaean strata took place, and that in time the sea advanced upon the island, eroding its 
strata and redepositing the wash and wear beneath its surface. The more resisting beds with- 
stood this advance, and formed reefs and rocky islands off the ancient shore, about whose bases 
the sands and sediments accumulated, as they did over the bottom of the surrounding ocean. 
The breakers, dashing against the rocky cliffs, threw down masses of rock, which imbedded them- 
selves in the sands, or were rolled and rounded on the beach, and at length were buried, in 
either case, to tell their own history, when they should be again disclosed by the ceaseless gnaw- 
ings of the very elements that had buried them. In addition to the accumulations of wash and 
wear that have isreviously been the main agents of rock-formations, abundant life now swarms in 
the ocean, and the sands become the great cemetery of its dead. Though the contribution of each 
little being was small, the myriad millions that the waters brought forth, yielded by their remains, 
a large contribution to the accumulating sediments. Among plants, there were sea-weeds, and 
among animals, protozoans, radiates, moUusks and articulates, all the sub-kingdoms except the 
vertebrates. Among these, the most remarkable, both in nature and number, were the trilobites, 
who have left their casts in countless multitudes in certain localities. The result of the action 
of these several agencies was the formation of extensive beds of sandstone, with interstratified 
layers of limestone and shale. These surrounded the Archaean nucleus on all sides, and reposed 
on its flanks. On the Lake Superior margin, the sea acted mainly upon the copper and iron- 
bearing series, which are highly ferruginous, and the result was the red Lake Superior sandstone. 
On the opposite side of the island, the wave-action was mainly upon quartzites, porphyries and 
granites, and resulted in light-colored sandstones. The former is confined to the immediate 
vicinity of Lake Superior; the latter occupies a broad, irregular belt bordering the Archaean 
area on the south, and, being widest in the central part of the state, is often likened to a rude 
crescent. The form and position of the area will be best apprehended by referring to the 
accompanying map. It will be understood from the foregoing description, that the strata of this 
formation lie in a nearly horizontal position, and repose unconformably upon the worn surface 
of tlie crystalline rocks. The close of this period was not marked by any great upheaval; there 


was no crumpling or metamorphism of the strata, and they have remained to the present day 
very much as they were originally deposited, save a slight arching upward in the central 
porti n of the state. The beds have been somewhat compacted by the pressure of superin- 
cumbent strata and solidified by the cementing action of calcareous and ferruginous waters, and 
by their own coherence, but the original character of the formation, as a great sand-bed, has not 
been obliterated. It still bears the ripple-marks, cross-lamination, worm-burrows, and similar 
markings that characterize a saudy beach. Its thickness is very irregular, owing to the uneven- 
ness of its Archsean bottom, and may be said to range from i,ooo feet downward. The strata 
slope gently away from the Archsan core of the state and underlie all the later formations, and 
may be reached at any point in southern Wisconsin by penetrating to a sufficient depth, which 
can be calculated with an approximate correctness. As it is a water-bearing formation, and the 
source of fine Artesian wells, this is a fact of much importance. The interbedded layers of lime- 
stone and shale, by supplying impervious strata, very much enhance its value as a source of 


Lower Magnesian Limestone. 

During the previous period, the accumulation of sandstone gave place for a time to the- 
formation of limestone, and afterward the deposit of sandstone was resumed. At its close, with- 
out any very marked disturbance of existing conditions, the formation of limestone was resumed, 
and progressed with little interruption till a thickness ranging from 50 to 250 feet was attained. 
This variation is due mainly to irregularities of the upper surface of the formation, which is 
undulating, and in some localities, may appropriately be termed billowy, the surface rising and 
falling 100 feet, in some cases, within a short distance. This, and the preceding similar deposit, 
have been spoken of as limestones simply, but they are really dolomites, or magnesian limestones, 
since they contain a large proportion of carbonate of magnesia. This rock also contains a 
notable quantity of silica, which occurs disseminated through the mass of the rock; or, variously, 
as nodules or masses of chert ; as crystals of quartz, filling or lining drusy cavities, forming 
beautiful miniature grottos; as the nucleus of oiilitic concretions, or as sand. Some argillaceous 
matter also enters into its composition, and small quantities of the ores of iron, lead and copper, 
are sometimes found, but they give little promise of value. The evidences of life are very 
scanty. Some sea-weeds, a few mollusks, and an occasional indication of other forms of life 
embrace the known list, except at a few favored localities where a somewhat ampler fauna is 
found. But it is not, therefore, safe to assume the absence of life in the depositing seas, for it 
is certain that most limestone has orignated from the remains of animals and plants that secrete 
calcareous material, and it is most consistent to believe that such was the case in the present 
instance, and that the distinct traces of life were mostly obliterated. This formation occupies an 
irregular belt skirting the Potsdam area. It was, doubtless, originally a somewhat uniform band 
swinging around the nucleus of the state already formed, but it has since been eroded by 
streams to its present jagged outline. 

St. Peter's Sanhstone. 

At the close of this limestone-making period, there appears to have been an interval of which 
we have no record, and the next chapter of the history introduces us to another era of sand 
accumulation. The work began by the leveling up of the inequalities of the surface of the Lower 
Magnesian limestone, and it ceased before that was entirely accomplished in all parts of the 
State, for a few prominences were left projecting through the sand deposits. The material laid 
down consisted of a silicious sand, of uniform, well-rounded — doubtless well-rolled — grains. This 
was evidently deposited horizontally upon the uneven limestone surface, and so rests in a sense 


unconformably upon it. Where the sandstone abuts against the sides of the limestone promi- 
nences, it is mingled with material derived by wave action from them, which tells the story of 
its formation. But aside from these and other exceptional impurities, the formation is a very 
pure sandstone, and is used for glass manufacture. At most points, the sandstone has never become 
firmly cemented and readily crumbles, so tiiat it is used for mortar, the simple handling with pick 
and shovel being sufficient to reduce it to a sand. Owing to the unevenness of its bottom, it 
varies greatly in thickness, the greatest yet observed being 212 feet, but the average is less than 
100 feet. Until recently, no organic remains had ever been found in it, and the traces now col- 
lected are very meager indeed, but they are sufficient to show the existence of marine life, and 
demonstrate that it is an oceanic deposit. The rarity of fossils is to be attributed to the porous 
nature of the rock, which is unfavorable to their preservation. This porosity, however, subserves 
a very useful purpose, as it renders this pre-eminently a water-bearing horizon, and supplies some 
of the finest Artesian fountains in the state, and is competent to furnish many more. It occupies 
but a narrow area at the surface, fringing that of the Lower Magnesian limestone on the south. 
See map. 

Trenton Limestone. 

A slight change in the oceanic conditions caused a return to limestone formation, accompa- 
nied with the deposit of considerable clayey material, which formed shale. The origin of the 
limestone is made evident by a clc^e examination of it, which shows it to be full of fragments of 
shells, corals, and other organic remains, or the impressions they have left. Countless numbers 
of the lower forms of life flourished in the seas, and left their remains to be comminuted and 
consolidated into limestone. A part of the time, the accumulation of clayey matter predominated, 
and so layers of shale alternate with the limestone beds, and shaly leaves and partings occur in 
the limestone layers. Unlike the calcareous strata above and below, a portion of these are true 
limestone, containing but a very small proportion ot magnesia. A sufficient amount of carbon- 
aceous matter is present in some layers to cause them to burn readily. This formation is quite 
highly metalliferous in certain portions of the lead region, containing zinc especially, and con- 
siderable lead, with less quantities of other metals. The formation abounds in fossils, many of 
them well preserved, and, from their great antiquity, they possess uncommon interest. All the 
animal sub-kingdoms, except vertebrates, are represented. The surface area of this rock borders 
the St. Peter's sandstone, but, to avoid too great complexity on the map, it is not distinguished from 
the next formation to which it is closely allied. Its thickness reaches 120 feet. 

The Galena Limestone. 

With scarcely a change of oceanic conditions, limestone deiwsit continued, so that we find 
reposing upon the surface of the Trenton limestone, 250 feet, or less, of a light gray or buff 
colored highly magnesian limestone, occurring in heavy beds, and having a sub-crystalline struc- 
ture. In the southern portion of the state, it contains but little shaly matter, but in the north- 
eastern part, it is modified by the addition of argillaceous layers and leaves, and presents a bluish 
or greenish-gray aspect. It receives its name from the sulphide of lead, — galena, of which it 
contains large (juantities, in the southwestern part of the state. Zinc ore is also abundant, and 
these minerals give to this and the underlying formation great importance in that region. Else- 
where, although these ores are present in small quantities, they have not developed economic 
importance. This limestone, it will be observed by consulting the map, occupies a large area in 
the southwestern part of the state, and a broad north and south belt in east-central Wisconsin. 
It will be seen that our island is growing apace by concentric additions, and that, as the several 
formations sweep around the central nucleus of Archaean rocks, they swing off into adjoining 
states, whose formation was somewhat more tardy than that of Wisconsin. 


Cincinnati Shales. 

A change ensued upon the formation of the Galena limestone, by virtue of which there fol- 
lowed the deposition of large quantities of clay, accompanied by some calcareous material, the 
whole reaching at some points a thickness of more than 200 feet. The sediment has never 
become more than partially indurated, and a portion of it is now only a bed of compact clay. 
Other portions hardened to shale or limestone according to the material. The shales are of 
various gray, green, blue, purple and other hues, so that where vertical cliffs are exposed, as along 
Green bay, a beautiful appearance is presented. As a whole, this is a very soft formation, and 
hence easily eroded. Owing to this fact, along the east side of the Green-bay-Rock-river val- 
ley, it has been extensively carried away, leaving the hard overlying Niagara limestone projecting 
in the bold cliffs known as " The Ledge." The prominence of the mounds in the southwestern 
part of the state are due to a like cause. Certain portions of this formation abound in astonish- 
ing numbers of well preserved fossils, among which corals, bryozoans, and brachiopods, pre- 
dominate, the first named being especially abundant. A little intelligent attention to these might 
have saved a considerable waste of time and means in an idle search for coal, to which a slight 
resemblance to some of the shales of the coal measures has led. This formation underlies the 
mounds of the lead region, and forms a narrow belt on the eastern margin of the Green-bay-Rock- 
river valley. This was the closing period of the Lower Silurian Age. 

Clinton Iron Ore. 

On the surface of the shales just described, there were accumulated, here and there, beds of pecu- 
liar lenticular iron ore. It is probable that it was deposited in detached basins, but the evidence 
of this is not conclusive. In our own state, this is chiefly known as Iron Ridge ore, from the 
remarkable development it attains at that point. It is made up of little concretions, which from 
their size and color are fancied to resemble flax seed, and hence the name " seed ore," or the 
roe of fish, and hence oolitic ore. "Shot ore" is also a common term. This ii a soft ore occur- 
ring in regular horizontal beds which are quarried with more ease than ordinary limestone. This 
deposit attains, at Iron Ridge, the unusual thickness of twenty-five feet, and affords a readily 
accessible supply of ore, adequate to all demands for a long time to come. Similar, but much 
less extensive beds, occur at Hartford, and near Depere, besides some feeble deposits elsewhere. 
Large quantities of ore from Iron Ridge have been shipped to various points in this and neigh- 
boring States for reduction, in addition to that smelted in the vicinity of the mines. 

Niagara Limestone. 

Following the period of iron deposit, there ensued the greatest limestone-forming era in the 
history of Wisconsin. During its progress a series of beds, summing up, at their points of great- 
est thickness, scarcely less than eight hundred feet, were laid down. The process of formation 
was essentially that already described, the accumulation of the calcareous secretions of marine 
life. Toward the close of the period, reefs appeared, that closely resemble the coral reefs of the 
present seas, and doubtless have a similar history. Corals form a very prominent element in the 
life of this period, and with them were associated numbers of moUusks, one of which 
{Pentamerus oblongus) sometimes occurs in beds not unlike certain bivalves of to-day, and may 
be said to have been the oyster of the Silurian seas. At certain points, those wonderful animals, 
the stone lilies {Crinoids), grew in remarkable abundance, mounted on stems like a plant, yet 
true animals. Those unique crustaceans, the trilobites, were conspicuous in numbers and variety, 
while the gigantic cephalopods held sway over the life of the seas. In the vicinity of th.> reefs. 


there seem to have been extensive calcareous sand flats and areas over which fine calcareous mud 
settled, the former resulting in a ijure granular dolomite, the latter in a compact close-textured 
stone. The rock of the reefs is of very irregular structure. Of other portions of the formation, 
some are coarse heavy beds, some fine, even-bedded, close-grained layers, and some, again, irregu- 
lar, impure and cherty. All are highly magnesian, and some are among the purest dolomites 
known. The Niagara limestone occupies a broad belt lying adjacent to Lake Michigan. 

Lower Hei.dkrhkrg Limestone. 

On Mud creek, near Milwaukee, there is found a thin-bedded slaty limestone, that is 
believed to represent this period. It has negle::ted, however, to leave us an unequivocal record 
of its history, as fossils are extremely rare, and its stratigraphical relations and lithographical 
character are capable of more than one interpretation. Near the village of Waubeka in 
Ozaukee county, there is a similar formation, somewhat more fossiliferous, that seems to repre- 
sent the same period. The area which these occupy is very small and they play a most insignifi- 
cant part in the geology of the state. They close the record of the Silurian age in Wisconsin. 
During its progress the land had been gradually emerging from the ocean and increasing its 
amplitude by concentric belts of limestone, sandstone and shale. There had been no general 
disturbance, only those slight oscillations which changed the nature of the forming rock and 
facilitated deposition. At its close the waters retired from the borders of the state, and an 
interval supervened, during which no additions are known to have been made to its substructure. 


H.^MiLioN Cement Rock. 

After a lapse of time, during which the uppermost Silurian and the lowest Devonian strata, 
as found elsewhere, were formed, the waters again advanced slightly upon the eastern margin of 
the state and deposited a magnesian limestone mingled with silicious and almuninous material, 
forming a combination of which a portion has recently been shown to possess hydraulic 
properties of a high degree of excellence. With this deposition there dawned a new era in the 
life-history of Wisconsin. While multitudes of protozoans, radiates, moUusks and articulates 
swarmed in the previous seas, no trace of a vertebrate has been found. The Hamilton period 
witnessed the introduction of tlie highest type of the animal kingdom into the Wisconsin series. 
But even then only the lowest class was represented — the fishes. The lower orders of life, as 
before, were present, but the species were of the less ancient Devonian type. Precisely how far 
the deposit originally extended is not now known, as it has undoubtedly been much reduced by 
the eroding agencies that have acted upon it. That portion which remains, occupies a limited 
area on the lake shore immediately north of Milwaukee, extending inland half a dozen miles. 
The cement rock proper is found on the Milwaukee river just above the city. At the close of 
the Hamilton period the oceanic waters retired, and, if they ever subsequently encroached upon 
our territory, they have left us no permanent record of their intrusion. 

The history of the formation of the substructure of the state was, it will be observed, in an 
unusual degree, simple and progres;,ive. Starting with a firm core of most ancient crystalline 
rocks, leaf upon leaf of stony strata were piled around it, adding belt after belt to the margin of 
*he growing island until it extended itself far beyond the limits of our state, and coalesced with 
the forming continent. An ideal map of the state would show the Archjean nucleus surrounded 
by concentric bands of the later formations in the order of their deposition. But during all the 


vast lapse of time consumed in their growth, the elements were gnawing, carving and channeling 
the surface, and the outcropping edges of the formations were becoming more and more jagged, 
and now, after the last stratum had been added, and the whole had been lifted from the waters 
that gave it birth, there ensued perhaps a still vaster era, during which the history was simply 
that of surface erosion. The face of the state became creased with the wrinkles of age. The 
edges of her rocky wrappings became ragged with the wear of time. The remaining Devonian 
periods, the great Carboniferous age, the Mesozoic era, and the earlier Tertiary periods passed, 
leaving no other record than that of denudation. 


With the approach of the great Ice Age, a new chapter was opened. An immense sheet of 
ice moved slowly, but irresistibly, down from the north, planing down the prominences, filling up 
the valleys, polishing and grooving the strata, and heaping up its rubbish of sand, gravel, clay and 
bowlders over the face of the country. It engraved the lines of its progress on the rocks, and, by 
reading these, we learn that one prodigious tongue of ice plowed along the bed of Lake Michi- 
gan, and a smaller one pushed through the valley of Green bay and Rock river, while another 
immense ice-stream flowed southwestward through the trough of Lake Superior and onward 
into Minnesota. The diversion of the glacier through these great channels seems to have left 
the southwestern portion of the state intact, and over it we find no drift accumulations. With 
the approach of a warmer climate, the ice-streams were melted backward, leaving their debris 
heaped promiscuously over the surface, giving it a new configuration. In the midst of this 
retreat, a series of halts and advances seem to have taken place in close succession, by which the 
drift was pushed up into ridges and hills along the foot of the ice, after which a more rapid 
retreat ensued. The effect of this action was to produce that remarkable chain of drift hills and 
ridges, known as the Kettle range, which we have already described as winding over the 
surface of the state in a very peculiar manner. It is a great historic rampart, recording the 
position of the edge of the glacier at a certain stage of its retreat, and doubtless at the same time 
noting a great climatic or dynamic change. 

The melting of the glacier gave rise to large quantities of water, and hence to numerous 
torrents, as well as lakes. There occurred about this time a depression of the land to the north- 
ward, which was perhaps the cause, in part or in whole, of the retreat of the ice. This gave 
origin to the great lakes. The waters advanced somewhat upon the land and deposited the red 
clay that borders Lakes Michigan and Superior and occupies the Green bay valley as far up as 
the vicinity of Fond du Lac. After several oscillations, the lakes settled down into their present 
positions. Wherever the glacier plowed over the land, it left an irregular sheet of commingled 
clay, sand, gravel and bowlders spread unevenly over the surface. The depressions formed by 
its irregularities soon filled with water and gave origin to numerous lakelets. Probably not one 
of the thousands of Wisconsin lakes had an existence before the glacial period. Wherever the 
great lakes advanced upon the land, they leveled its surface and left their record in lacustine 
clays and sandy beach lines. 

With the retreat of the glacier, vegetation covered the surface, and by its aid and the action 
of the elements our fertile drift soils, among the last and best of Wisconsin's formations, were 
produced. And the work still goes on- 

Beloit, Aug. 15, 1877. 


By Prof. H. H. OLDENHAGE. 

The climate of a country, or that peculiar state of the atmosphere in regard to heat and 
moisture which prevails in any given place, and which directly affects the growth of plants and 
animals, is determined by the following causes: ist. Distance from the equator. 2d. Distance 
from the sea. 3d. Height above the sea. 4th. Prevailing winds; and 5th. Local influences, 
such as soil, vegetation, and proximity to lakes and mountains. 

Of these causes, the first, distance from the equator, is by far the most important. The 
warmest climates are necessarily those of tropical regions where the sun's rays are vertical. But 
in proceeding from the equator toward the poles, less and less heat continues to be received by 
the same extent of surface, because the rays fall more and more obliquely, and the same amount 
of heat-rays therefore spread over an increasing breadth of surface ; while, however, with the 
increase of obliquity, more and more heat is absorbed by the atmosphere, as the amount of air 
to be penetrated is greater. If the earth's surface were either wholly land or water, and its 
atmosphere motionless, the gradations of climate would run parallel with the latitudes from the 
equator to the poles. But owing to the irregular distribution of land and water, and the prevail- 
ing winds, such an arrangement is impossible, and the determination of the real climate of a given 
region, and its causes, is one of the most difficult problems of science. 

On the second of these causes, distance from the sea, depends the difference between oce- 
anic and continental climates. Water is more slowly lieated and cooled than land; the climates 
of the sea and the adjacent land are therefore much more equable and moist than those of the 

A decrease of temperature is noticeable in ascending high mountains. The rate at which 
the temperature falls with the height above the sea is a very variable quantity, and is influenced 
by a variety of causes, such as latitude, situation, moisture, or dryness, hour of the day and season 
of the year. As a rough approximation, however, the fall of 1° of the thermometer for every 
300 feet is usually adopted. 

Air in contact with any part of the earth's surface, tends to acquire the temperature of that 
surface. Hence, winds from the north are cold ; those from the south are warm. Winds from 
the sea are moist, and winds from the land are usually dry. Prevailing winds are the result of 
the relative distribution of atmospheric pressure blowing //c/w places where the pressure is high- 
est, toward places where it is lowest. As climate practically depends on the temperature and 
moisture of the air, and as these again depend on the prevailing winds which come charged with 
the temperature and moisture of the regions they have traversed, it is evident that charts show- 
ing the mean pressure of the atmosphere give us the key to the climates of the different regions 
of the world. The effect of prevailing winds is seen in the moist and equable climate of West- 
ern Europe, especially Great Britain, owing to the warm and moist southwest winds; and in the 
extremes of the eastern part of North America, due to the warm and moist winds prevailing in 
summer and the Arctic blasts of winter. 


Among local influences which modify climate, the nature of the soil is one of tlie,most 
important. As water absorbs much heat, wet, marshy ground usually lowers the mean tempera- 
ture. A sandy waste presents the greatest extremes. The extremes of temperature are also modi- 
fied by extensive forests, which prevent the soil from being as much warmed and cooled as it 
would be if bare. Evaporation goes on more slowly under the trees, since the soil is screened 
from the sun. And as the air among the trees is little agitated by the wind, the vapor is left to 
accumulate, and hence the humidity of the air is increased. Climate is modified in a similar man- 
ner by lakes and other large surfaces of water. During summer the water cools the air and 
reduces the temperature cf the locality. In winter, on the other hand, the opposite effect is pro- 
duced. The surface water which is cooled sinks to lower levels; the warmer water rising to the 
surface, radiates heat into the air and thus raises the temperature of ihc neighboring region. 
This influence is well illustrated, on a great scale, in our own state by Lake Michigan. 

It is, lastly, of importance whether a given tract of country is diversified by hills, valleys and 
mountains. Winds with their warm vapor strike the sides of mountains and are forced up into 
higher levels of the atmosphere, where the vapor is condensed into clouds. Air coming in con- 
tact, during the night or in winter, with the cooled declivities of hills and rising grounds becomes 
cooled and consequently denser and sinks to the low-lying grounds, displacing the warmer and 
lighter air. Hence, frosts often occur at these places, when no trace of them can be found at 
higher levels. For the same reason the cold of winter is generally more intense in ravines and 
valleys than on hill tops and high grounds, the valleys being a receptacle for the cold-air currents 
which descend from all sides. These currents give rise to gusts and blasts of cold wind, which 
are simply the out-rush of cold air from such basins. This is a subject of great practical impor- 
tance to fruit-growers. 

In order to understand the principal features of the climate of Wisconsin, and the conditions 
on which these depend, it is necessary to consider the general climatology of the eastern United 
States. The chief characteristic of this area as a whole is, that it is subject to great extremes — to 
all those variations of temperature which prevail from the tropical to the Arctic regions. This 
is principally due to the topographical conditions of our continent. The Rocky mountains con- 
densing the moisture of the warm winds from the Pacific and preventing them from reaching far 
inland, separate the climate of the Mississippi valley widely from that of the Pacific slope. Between 
the Gulf of Mexico and the Arctic sea there is no elevation to exceed 2,000 feet to arrest the 
flow of the hot southerly winds of summer, or the cold northerly winds of winter. From this 
results a variation of temperature hardly equaled in any part of the world. 

In determining the climates of the United States, western Europe is usually taken as the 
basis of comparison. The contrast between these regions is indeed very great. New York is in 
the same latitude with Madrid, Naples and Constantinople. Quebec is not so far north as Paris. 
London and Labrador are equi-distant from the equator ; but while England, with her mild, moist 
climate, produces an abundance of vegetation, in Labrador all cultivation ceases. In the latitude 
of Stockholm and St. Petersburg, at the 60th parallel, we find in eastern North America vast ice- 
fields which seldom melt. The moist and equable climate of western Europe in high latitudes 
is due to the Gulf Stream and the southwest winds of the Atlantic, which spread their warmth 
and moisture over the western coast. Comparison, however, shows that the climate of the Pacific 
coast of North America is quite as mild as that of western Europe ; and this is due to the same 
kind of influences, namely, to the warm, moist winds and the currents of the Pacific. And to con- 
tinue the comparisoii still further, in proceeding on both continents from west to east, or from 
ocean into the interior, we find a general resemblance of climatic conditions, modified greatly, it 
is true, by local influences. 


rhe extreme summer climate of the eastern United States is owing to the southerly and 
southwesterly winds, which blow with great regularity during this season, and, after traversing 
great areas of tropical seas, bear the warmth and moisture of these seas far inland, and give this 
region the peculiar semi-tropical character of its summers. The average temperature of summer 
varies between 80° for the Gulf states, and 60° for the extreme north. While in the Gulf states 
the thermometer often rises to 100°, in the latitude of Wisconsin this occurs very seldom. During 
winter the prevailing winds are from the northwest. These cold blasts from the Arctic sea are 
deflected by the Rocky mountains, sweep down unopposed into lower latitudes, and produce all 
the rigors of an arctic winter. The mean temperature for this season varies between 60° for the 
Gulf coast and 15° for the extreme northern part of Wisconsin. In the northern part of the 
valley the cold is sometimes so intense that the thermometer sinks to the freezing point of 

The extreme of heat and cold would give a continental climate if this extreme were not accom- 
panied by a profusion of rain. The southerly winds, laden with moisture, distribute this moist- 
ure with great regularity over the valley. The amount of rainfall, greater in summer than in 
winter, varies, from the Gulf of Mexico to Wisconsin, from 63 inches to 30 inches. On the At- 
lantic coast, where the distribution is more equal throughout the year on account of its proximity 
to the ocean, the amount varies, from Florida to Maine, from 63 to 40 inches. The atmospheric 
movements on which, to a great extent, the climatic conditions of the eastern United States 
depend, may be summed up as follows : 

"i. That the northeast trades, deflected in their course to south and southeast winds in 
their passage through the Carribean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, are the warm and moist winds 
which communicate to the Mississippi valley and the Atlantic slope their fertility. 

"2. That the prevalence of these winds from May to October communicates to this region 
a sub-tropical climate. 

"3. That in the region bordering on the Gulf of Mexico, the atmospheric disturbances are 
propagated from south to north ; but in the northern and middle states, owing to a prevailing 
upper current, from west to east. 

" 4. That while this upper current is cool and dry, and we have the apparent anomaly of 
rain storms traveling from west to east, at the same time the moisture supplying them comes frorr\ 
the south. , 

"5. That, in the winter, the south and southeast winds rise into the upper current, while 
the west and northwest winds descend and blow as surface winds, accompanied by an extraor- 
dinary depression of temperature, creating, as it were, an almost arctic climate. 

" 6. That the propagation of the cold winds from west to east is due to the existence of a. 
warmer and lighter air to the eastward. 

"7. That in summer the westerly currents seldom blow with violence, because, in passing 
over the heated plains, they acquire nearly the same temperature as the southerly currents, but in 
winter the conditions are reversed." 

The line of conflict of these aerial currents, produced by unequal atmospheric pressure, 
shift so rapidly that the greatest changes of temperature, moisture, and wind, are experienced 
within a few hours, these changes usually affecting areas of great extent. In the old world, on 
the other hand, the mountain systems, generally running from east to west, offer an impediment, 
especially to the polar currents, and the weather is therefore not so changeable. 

Wisconsin, situated in the upper and central part of the Mississippi valley, is subject to the 
same general climatic conditions which give this whole area its peculiar climate. 

The highest mean summer temperature is 72" Fahrenheit in the southwestern part of the 


State, and the lowest 64° at Bayfield, Lake Superior. During the months of June, July and 
August, the thermometer often rises as hig's as 90°, seldom to 100". In 1874 the mercury reached 
this high point twice at LaCrosse, and three times at Dubuque, Iowa. There are usually two or 
three of these " heated terms " during the summer, terminated by abrupt changes of temperature. 

The isotherm of 70° (an isotherm being a line connecting places having the same mean tem- 
perature) enters this state from the west, in the northern part of Grant county, touches Madison, takes 
a southerly direction through Walworth county, passes through southern Michigan, Cleveland, and 
Pittsburg, reaching the Atlantic ocean a little north of New York city. From this it is seen that 
southern Wisconsin, southern and central Michigan, northern Ohio, central Pennsylvania, and 
southern New York have nearly the same summer temperature. Northwestward this line runs 
through southern Minnesota and along the Missouri to the foot of the mountains. Eastern Ore- 
gon, at 47° 30' north latitude, has the same average summer temperature ; the line then returns 
and touches the Pacific coast at San Diego. 

The remarkable manner in which so large a body of water as Lake Michigan modifies the 
temperature has been carefully determined, so far as it relates to Wisconsin, by the late Dr. Lap- 
ham, of Milwaukee. It is seen by the map that the average summer temperature of Racine is 
the same as that of St. Paul. The weather map for July, 1875, in the signal service report for 
1876, shows that the mean temperature for July was the same in Rock county, in the souihern 
part of the state, as that of Breckenridge, Minn., north of St. Paul. The moderating effect of 
the lake during hot weather is felt in the adjacent region during both day and night. 

Countries in the higher latitudes having an extreme summer temperature are usually charac- 
terized by a small amount of rain-fall. The Mississippi valley, however, is directly exposed in 
spring and summer to the warm and moist winds from the south, and as these winds condense 
their moisture by coming in contact with colder upper currents from the north and west, it has a 
profusion of rain which deprives the climate largely of its continental features. As already 
stated, the average amount of rain-fall in Wisconsin is about 30 inches annually. Of this amount 
about one-eighth is precipitated in winter, three-eighths in summer, and the rest is equally dis- 
tributed between spring and autumn — in other words, rain is abundant at the time of the year 
when it is most needed. In Wisconsin the rainfall is greatest in the southwestern part of the 
state; the least on and along the shore of Lake Michigan. This shows that the humidity of the 
air of a given area can be greater, and the rainfall less, than that of some other. 

In comparison with western Europe, even where the mean temperature is higher than in the 
Mississippi valley, the most striking fact in the climatic conditions of the United States is the 
great range of plants of tropical or sub-tropical origin, such as Indian corn, tobacco, etc. Tlie 
conditions on which the character of the vegetation depends are temperature and moisture, and 
the mechanical and chemical composition of the soil. 

"The basis of this great capacity (the great range of plants) is the high curve of heat and 
moisture for the summer, and the fact that the measure of heat and of rain are almost or quite 
tropical for a period in duration from one to five months, in the range from Quebec to the coast 
of the Gulf." Indian corn attains its full perfection between the summer isotherms 72'' and 77°, 
in Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, and Kansas; but it may be grown up to the line of 65", which includes 
the whole of Wisconsin. The successful cultivation of this important staple is due to the intense 
heat of summer and a virgin soil rich in nitrogen. 

While Milwaukee and central Wisconsin have a mean annual temperature of 45°, that of 
southern Ireland and central England is 50°; the line of 72°, the average temperature for July, 
runs from Walworth county to St. Paul, while during the same month Ireland and England have 
a mean temperature of only 60°. In Wisconsin the thermometer rises as high as 90"^ and above. 


■while the range above the mean in England is very small. It is the tropical element of our sum- 
mers, then, that causes the grape, the corn, etc., to ripen, while England, with a higher mean 
temperature, is unable to mature them successfully. Ireland, where southern plants may remain 
■out-doors, unfrosted, the whole winter, can not mature those fruits and grasses which ripen in 
Wisconsin. In England a depression of 2° below the mean of 60° will greatly reduce the quan- 
tity, or prevent the ripening of wheat altogether, 60'' being essential to a good crop. Wheat, re- 
quiring a lower temperature than corn, is better adapted to the climate of Wisconsin. This grain 
may be grown as far north as Hudson bay. 

Autumn, including September, October and November, is of short duration in Wisconsin. 
North of the 42d parallel, or the southern boundary line of the state, November belongs properly 
to the winter months, its mean temperature being about 32°. The decrease of heat from August to 
September is generally from 8° to 9^; 11° from September to October, and 14° from October to 
November. The average temperature for these three months is about 45°. A beautiful season, 
commonly known as Indian summer, frequently occurs in the latter part of October and in No- 
vember. This period is characterized by a mild temperature and a hazy, calm atmosphere. 
According to Loomis, this appears to be due to "an uncommonly tranquil condition of the atmos- 
phere, during which the air becomes filled with dust and smoke arising from numerous fires, by 
which its transparency is greatly impaired." This phenomenon extends as far north as Lake 
Superior, but it is more conspicuous and jirotracted in Kansas and Missouri, and is not observed 
in the southern states. 

Destructive frosts generally occur in September, and sometimes in August. " A. temperature 
of 36" to 40° at sunrise is usually attended with frosts destructive to vegetation, the position of 
the thermometer being usually such as to represent less than the actual refrigeration at the open 
surface." In 1875, during October, at Milwaukee, the mercury fell seven times below the freez- 
ing point, and twice below zero in November, the lowest being 14°. 

The winters are generally long and severe, but occasionally mild and almost without snow. 
The mean winter temperature varies between 23" in the southeastern part of the state, and 16" at 
.\shland, m the northern. For this season the extremes are great. The line of 20" is of im- 
portance, as it marks the average temperature which is fatal to the growth of all the tender trees, 
such as the pear and the peach. In the winter of 1875 and 1876, the mean temperature for De- 
cember, January and February, in the upper lake region, was about 4° above the average mean 
for many years, while during the previous winter the average temperature for January and Feb- 
ruary was about 12° below the mean for many years, showing a great difference between cold and 
mild winters. In the same winter, i875-'76, at Milwaukee, the thermometer fell only six times 
below zero, the lowest being 12°, while during the preceding winter the mercury sank thirty-six 
times below zero, the lowest being 23". In the northern and northwestern part of the state the 
temperature sometimes falls to the freezing point of mercury. During the exceptionally cold 
Winter of 1872-3, at La Crosse, the thermometer sank nearly fifty times below zero; on Decem- 
ber 24, it indicated 37° below, and on January 18, 43° below zero, averaging about 12° below 
the usual mean for those months. The moderating effect of Lake Michigan can be seen 
by observing how the lines indicating the mean winter temperature curve northward as they 
approach the lake. Milwaukee, Sheboygan, Manitowoc, Two Rivers, and the Grand Traverse 
region of Michigan, have the same average wintei temperature. The same is true regarding 
Galena, 111., Beloil, and Kewaunee. A similar influence is noticed in all parts of the state. Dr. 
Lapham concludes that this is not wholly due to the presence of Lake Michigan, but that the 
mountain range which extends from a little west of Lake Superior to the coast of Labrador (from 
1,100 to 2,240 feet high) protects the lake region in no inconsiderable degree from the excessive 
cold of winter. 


According to the same authority, the time at which the Milwaukee river was closed wi h ice,, 
for a period of nine years, varied between November 15 and December i ; the time at which it 
became free from ice, between March 3 and April 13. In the lake district, snow and rain are 
interspersed through all the winter months, rain being sometimes as profuse as at any other sea- 
son. In the northwestern part the winter is more rigid and dry. Northern New York and the 
New England states usually have snow lying on the ground the whole winter, but in the southern 
lake district it rarely remains so long. In i842-'43, however, sleighing commenced about the 
middle of November, and lasted till about the same time in April — five months. 

The average temperature for the three months of spring, March, April and May, from Wal- 
worth county to St. Paul, is about 45°. In central Wisconsin the mean for March is about 27°, 
which is an increase of nearly 7° from February. The lowest temperature of this montli in 
1876 was 40° above zero. April shows an average increase of about 9° over March. In 1876 
the line of 45" for this month passed from LaCrosse to Evanston, 111., touching Lake Erie at 
Toledo, showing that the interior west of Lake Michigan is warmer than the lake region. The 
change from winter to spring is more sudden in the interior than in the vicinity of the lakes. 
"In the town of Lisbon, fifteen miles from Lake Michigan," says Dr. Lapham, " early spring 
flowers show themselves about ten days earlier than on the lake. In spring vegetation, in places 
remote from the lakes, shoots up in a very short time, and flowers show their petals, while on the 
lake shore the cool air retards them and brings them more gradually into existence." The in- 
crease from April to May is about 15*^. In May, 1876, Pembina and Milwaukee had nearly the, 
same mean temperature, about 55°. 

The extremes of our climate and the sudden changes of temperature no doubt have a 
marked influence, both physically and mentally, on the American people. And though a more 
equable climate may be more conducive to perfect health, the great range of our climate from 
arctic to tropical, and the consequent variety and abundance of vegetable products, combine to 
make the Mississippi valley perhaps one of the most favorable areas in the world for the develop- 
ment of a strong and wealthy nation. 

During the months of summer, in the interior of the eastern United States, at least three- 
fourths of the rain-fall is in showers usually accompanied by electrical discharges and limited to 
small areas. But in autumn, winter, and spring nearly the whole precipitation takes place in 
general storms extending over areas of 300, 500 and sometimes over 1,000 miles in diameter, and 
generally lasting two or three days. An area of low atmospheric pressure causes the wind to blow 
toward that area from all sides, and when the depression is sudden and great, it is accompanied 
by much rain or snow. On account of the earth's rotation, the wind blowing toward this region 
of low pressure is deflected to the right, causing the air to circulate around the center with a 
motion spirally inward. In our latitude the storm commences with east winds. When the storm 
center, or area of lowest barometer, is to the south of us, the wind gradually veers, as the storm 
passes from west to east with the upper current, round to the northwest by the north point. 
On the south side of the storm center, the wind veers from southeast to southwest, by the south 
point. The phenomena attending such a storm when we are in or near the part of its center are 
usually as follows : After the sky has become overcast with clouds, the wind from the northeast 
generally begins to rise and blows in the opposing direction to the march of the storm. The 
clouds which are now moving over us, discharge rain or snow according to circumstances. The 
barometer continues to fall, and the rain or snow is brought obliquely down from the northern 
quarter by the prevailing wind. After a while the wind changes slightly in direction and then 
ceases. The thermometer rises and the barometer has reached its lowest point. This is the center 
of the storm. After the calm the wind has changed its direction to northwest or west. The 


wind blows again, usually more violently than before, accompanied by rain or snow, which is now 
generally of short duration. The sky clears, and the storm is suddenly succeeded by a tempera, 
ture 10 or 20 degrees below the mean. Most of the rain and snow falls with the east winds, or 
before the center passes a given point. The path of these storms is from west to east, or nearly 
so, and only seldom in other directions. These autumn, winter, and spring rains are generally 
first noticed on the western plains, but may originate at any point along their path, and move 
eastward with an average velocity of about 20 miles an hour in summer and 30 miles in winter, 
but sometimes attaining a velocity of over 50 miles, doing great damage on the lakes. In pre- 
dicting these storms, the signal service of the army is of incalculable practical benefit, as well 
as in collecting data for scientific conclusions. 

A subject of the greatest importance to every inhabitant of Wisconsin is the influence of 
forests on climate and the effects of disrobing a county of its trees. The general influence of 
forests in modifying the extremes of temperature, retarding evaporation and the increased 
humidity of the air, has already been mentioned. That clearing the land of trees increases the 
temperature of the ground in summer, is so readily noticed that it is scarcely necessary to men- 
tion it ; while in winter the sensible cold is never so extreme in woods as on an open surface 
exposed to the full force of the winds. " The lumbermen in Canada and the northern United 
States labor in the woods without inconvenience; when the mercury stands many degrees below 
zero, while in the open grounds, with only a moderate breeze, the same temperature is almost 
insupportable." " In the state of Michigan it has been found that the winters have greatly 
increased in severity within the last forty years, and that this increased severity seems to move 
along even-paced with the destruction of the forests. Thirty years ago the peach was one of the 
most abundant fruits of that State; at that time frost, injurious to corn at anytime from May to 
October, was a thing unknown. Now the peach is an uncertain crop, and frost often injures the 
corn.'' The precise influence of forests on temperature may not at present admit of definite solu- 
tion, yet the mechanical screen which they furnish to the soil often far to the leeward of them, 
is sufficiently established, and this alone is enough to encourage extensive planting wherever this 
protection is wanting. 

With regard to the quantity of rain-fall, "we can not positively affirm that the total annual 
quantity of rain is even locally diminished or mcreased by the destruction of the woods, though 
both theoretical considerations and the balance of testimony strongly favor the opinion that more 
rain falls in wooded than in open countries. One important conclusion, at least, upon the 
meteorological influence of forests is certain and undisputed: the proposition, namely, that, 
within their own limits, and near their own borders, they maintain a more uniform degree of 
humidity in the atmosphere than is observed in cleared grounds. Scarcely less can it be 
questioned that they tend to promote the frequency of showers, and, if they do not augment the 
amount of precipitation, they probably equalize its distribution through the different seasons." 

There is abundant and undoubted evidence that the amount of water existing on the surface 
in lakes and rivers, in many parts of the world, is constantly diminishing. In Germany, observa- 
tions of the Rhine, Oder, Danube, and the Elbe, in the latter case going back for a period of 142 
years, demonstrate beyond doubt, that each of these rivers has much deci'eased in volume, and 
there is reason to fear that they will eventually disappear from the list of navigable rivers. 

" The ' Blue-Grass ' region of Kentucky, once the pride of the West, has now districts of 
such barren and arid nature that their stock farmers are moving toward the Cumberland mount- 
ains, because the creeks and old springs dried up, and their wells became too low to furnish 
water for their cattle." In our own state "such has been the change in the flow of the Milwau- 
thearts; makes good firewood ; should be planted along all the roads and streets, near every 
dwelling, and on all public grounds. 


kee river, even while the area from which it receives its supply is but partially cleared, that the 
proprietorr of" most of the mills and factories have found it necessary to resort to the use of 
steam, at a largely increased yearly cost, to supply the deficiency of water-power in dry seasons 
of the year." "What has happened to th€ Milwaukee river, has happened to all the other water 
courses in the state from whose banks the forest has been removed ; and many farmers who- 
selected land uqon which there was a living brook of clear, pure water, now find these brooks, 
dried up during a considerable portion of the year.'' 

DJstricts stripped of their forest are said to be more exposed than before to loss of harvests, 
droirg. ts, and frost. " Hurricanes, before unknown, sweep unopposed over the regions thus 
denuded, carrying terror and devastation in their track." Earts of Asia Minor, North Africa, 
and other countries bordering on the Mediterranean, now almost deserts, were once densely 
populated and the granaries of the world. And there is good reason to believe " that it is the 
destruction of the forests which has produced this devastation." From such facts Wisconsin, 
already largely robbed of its forests, should take warning before it is too late. 


Bv P. R. HOY, M.D. 

It is not the purpose of this article to give a botanical description, but merely brief notes on 
the economical value of the woods, and the fitness of the various indigenous trees, shrubs and 
vines for the purpose of ornament. 

White Oak — Quercus Alba. — This noble tree is the largest and most important of the 
American oaks. The excellent properties of the wood render it eminently valuable for a great 
variety of uses. Wherever strength and durability are required, the white oak stands in the first 
rank. It is employed in making wagons, coaches and sleds ; staves and hoops of the best quality 
for barrels and casks are obtained from this tree; it is extensively used in architecture, ship- 
building, etc.; vast quantities are used for fencmg ; the bark is employed in tanning. The domes- 
tic consumption of this tree is so great that it is of the first importance to preserve the young 
trees wherever it is practicable, and to make young plantations where the tree is not found. The 
white oak is a graceful, ornamental tree, and worthy of particular attention as such ; found abun- 
dantly in most of the timbered districts. 

Burr Oak^(2. Macrocarpa. — This is perhaps the most ornamental of our oaks. Nothing 
can exceed the graceful beauty of these trees, whennot crowded or cramped in their growth, but 
left free to follow the laws of their development. Who has not admired these trees in our exten- 
sive burr oak openings.' The large leaves are a dark green above and a bright silvery while 
beneath, which gives the tree a singularly fine appearance when agitated by the wind. The wood 
is tough, close-grained, and more durable than the white oak, especially when exposed to frequent 
changes of moisture and drying; did the tree grow to the same size, it would be preferred for 
most uses. Abundant, and richly worthy of cultivation, both for utility and crnament. 

Swamp White Oak— (2- Bicolor. — -Is a valuable and ornamental tree, not quite so large or 
as common as the burr oak. The wood is close-grained, durable, splits freely, and is well worthy 
of cultivation in wet, swampy grounds, where it will thrive. 

Post Oak — Q. Obtusiloha. — Is a scraggy, small tree, found sparingly in this state. The tim- 
ber is durable, and makes good fuel. Not worthy of cultivation. 


Swamp Chestnut Oav: — Q. Prinus. — This species of chestnut oak is a large, gracefi.ii tree, 
wood rather open-grained, yet valuable for most purposes to which the oaks are applied ; makes 
the best fuel of any of this family. A rare tree, found at Janesville and Brown's lake, near Bur- 
lington. Worthy of cultivation. 

Red Oak — Q. Rubra. — The red oak is a well-known, common, large tree. The wood is 
coarse-grained, and the least durable of the oaks, nearly worthless for fuel, and scarcely worthy 
of cultivation, even for ornament. 

Pin Oak — Q. Palustris. — This is one of the most common trees in many sections of the 
state. The wood is of little value except for fuel. The tree is quite ornamental, and should be 
sparingly cultivated for this purpose. 

Shingle Oak — Q. Imbricaria. — Is a tree of medium size, found sparingly as far north as 
Wisconsin. It is ornamental, and the wood is used for shingles and staves. 

Scarlet Oak — Q. Coccinca. — This is an ornamental tree, especially in autumn, when its 
leaves turn scarlet, hence the name. Wood of little value ; common. 

Sugar Maple — Acer Saaharium. — This well-known and noble tree is found growing abun- 
dantly in many sections of the state. The wood is close-grained and susceptible of a beautiful 
polish, which renders it valuable for many kinds of furniture, more especially the varieties known 
as bird's-eye and curled maples. The wood lacks the durability of the oak ; consequently is not 
valuable for purposes where it will be exposed to the weather. For fuel it ranks next to hickory. 
The sugar manufactured from this tree affords no inconsiderable resource for the comfort and 
even wealth of many sections of the northern states, especially those newly settled, where it 
would be difficult and expensive to procure their supply from a distance. As an ornamental tree 
it stands almost at the head of the catalogue. The foliage is beautiful, compact, and free from 
the attacks of insects. It puts forth its yellow blossoms early, and in the autumn the leaves 
change in color and show the most beautiful tints of red and yellow long before they fall. Worthy 
of especial attention for fuel and ornament, and well adapted to street-planting. 

Red Maple — A. Rubrum. — Is another fine maple of more rapid growth than the foregoing 
species. With wood rather lighter, but quite as valuable for cabinet-work — for fuel not quite so 
good. The young trees bear transplanting even better than other maples. Though highly orna- 
mental, this tree hardly equals the first-named species. It puts forth, in early spring, its scarlet 
blossoms before a leaf has yet appeared. Well adapted to street-planting. 

Mountain Maple — A. Spicatum. — Is a small branching tree, or rather shrub, found grow- 
ing in clumps. Not worthy of much attention. 

Silver Maple — A. Dasycarpum. — This is a common tree growing on the banks of streams, 
especially in the western part of the state, grown largely for ornament, yet for the purpose it is 
the least valuable of the maples. The branches are long and straggling, and so brittle that they 
are liable to be injured by winds. 

Box Maple — Negundo Aceroides. — This tree is frequently called box elder. It is of a rapid 
growth and quite ornamental. The wood is not much used in the arts, but is good fuel. Should 
be cultivated. It grows on Sugar and Rock rivers. 

White Elm — Ulmtis Americana. — This large and graceful tree stands confessedly at the 
head of the list of ornamental deciduous trees. Its wide-spreading branches and long, pendu- 
lous branchlets form a beautiful and conspicuous head. It grows rapidly, is free from disease 
and the destructive attacks of insects, will thrive on most soils, and for planting along streets, in 
public grounds or lawns, is unsurpassed by any American tree. The wood is but little used in 


Slippery Elm — t^. Fulva. — -This smaller and less ornamental species is also common. The 
wood, however, is much more valuable than the white elm, being durable and splitting readily. 
It makes excellent rails, and is much used for the framework of buildings ; valuable for fuel ; 
should be cultivated. 

Wild Bl.\ck Cherry — Cerasus Serotina. — This large and beautiful species of cherry is one 
of the most valuable of American trees. The wood is compact, fine-grained, and of a brilliant 
reddish color, not liable to warp, or shrink and swell with atmospheric changes ; extensively em- 
ployed by cabinet-makers for every species of furnishing. It is exceedingly durable, hence is 
valuable for fencing, building, etc. Richly deserves a place in the lawn or timber plantation. 

Bird Cherry — C. Pennsylvanica. — Is a small northern species, common in the state and 
worthy of cultivation for ornament. 

Choke Cherry — C. Virginiana. — This diminutive tree is of little value, not worth the trouble 
■of cultivation. 

Wild Plum — Pruuus Americana. — The common wild plum when in full bloom is one of the 
most ornamental of small flowering trees, and as such should not be neglected. The fruit is 
rather agreeable, but not to be compared to fine cultivated varieties, which may be engrafted on 
the wdld stock to the very best advantage. It is best to select small trees, and work them on the 
Toots. The girafts should be inserted about the middle of April. 

Hackberry — CeltisOccidetitalis. — This is an ornamental tree of medium size ; wood hard, 
close-grained and elastic ; makes the best of hoops, whip-stalks, and thills for carriages. The 
Indians formerly made great use of the hackbeiry wood for their bows. A tree worthy of a lim- 
ited share of attention. 

American Linden or Basswood — Tiiia Americana. — Is one of the finest ornamental trees for 
public grounds, parks, etc., but will not thrive where the roots are exposed to bruises ; for this 
reason it is not adapted to planting along the streets of populous towns. The wood is light and 
tough, susceptible of being bent to almost any curve ; durable if kept from the weather ; takes 
paint well, and is considerably used in the arts; for fuel it is of little value. This tree will 
flourish in almost any moderately rich, damp soil ; bears transplanting well ; can be propagated 
readily from layers. 

White Thorn — Crataegus Coccinea, and Dotted Thorn — C. Pufictata. — These two species 
of thorn are found everywhere on the rich bottom lands. When in bloom they are beautiful, and 
should be cultivated for ornament. The wood is remarkably compact and hard, and were it not 
for the small size of the tree, would be valuable. 

Crab Apple — Pyrits Coronaria. — This common small tree is attractive when covered with 
its highly fragrant rose-colored blossoms. Wood hnrd, fine, compact grain, but tlie tree is too 
small for the wood to be of much practical value. Well worthy of a place in extensive grounds. 

Mountain Ash — P. Americana. — This popular ornament to our yards is found growing in 
the northern part of the state and as far south as 43°. The wood is useless. 

White Ash — Fraxinus Acuminata. — Is a large, interesting tree, which combines utility with 
beauty in an eminent degree. The wood possesses strength, suppleness and elasticity, which 
renders it valuable for a great variety of uses. It is extensively employed in carriage manufact- 
uring; for various agricultural implements ; is esteemed superior to any other wood for oars; 
excellent for fuel. The white ash grows rapidly, and in open ground forms one of the most 
lovely trees that is to be found. The foliage is clean and handsome, and in autumn turns from 
its bright green to a violet purple hue, which adds materially to the beauty of our autumnal syl- 
van scenery. It is richly deserving our especial care and protection, and will amply repay all 
labor and expense bestowed on its cultivation. 


Black Ash — F Sainbucifolia. — This is another tall, graceful and well-known species of ash. 
The wood is used for making baskets, hoops, etc. ; when thoroughly dry, affords a good article of 
fuel. Deserves to be cultivated in low, rich, swampy situations, where more useful trees will not 

Black Walnut — Juglans Nigra. — This giant of the rich alluvial bottom lands claims 
special attention for its valuable timber. It is among the most durable and beautiful of Ameri- 
can woods ; susceptible of a fine polish ; not liable to shrink and swell by heat and moisture. 
It is extensively employed by the cabinet-makers for every variety of furniture. Walnut forks, 
are frequently found which rival in richness and beauty the far-famed mahogany. This tree, 
in favorable situations, grows rapidly; is highly ornamental, and produces annually an abundant 
crop of nuts. 

Butternut — /. Cinerea. — This species of walnut is not as valuable as the above, yet for its 
beauty, and the durability of its wood, it should claim a small portion of attention. The wood 
is rather soft for most purposes to which it otherwise might be applied. When grown near 
streams, or on moist side-hills, it produces regularly an ample crop of excellent nuts. It grows 

Shell-Bark Hickory — Carya Alba. — This, the largest and finest of American hickories, 
grows abundantly throughout the state. Hickory wood possesses probably the greatest strength 
and tenacity of any of our indigenous trees, and is used for a variety of purposes , but, 
unfortunately, it is liable to be eaten by worms, and lacks durability. For fuel, the shell-bark 
hickory stands unrivaled. The tree is ornamental and produces every alternate year an ample 
crop of the best of nuts. 

Shag-Bark Hickory — C. Indata. — Is a magnificent tree, the wood of which is nearly as 
valuable as the above. The nuts are large, thick-shelled and coarse, not to be compared to the 
C. alba. A rare tree in Wisconsin ; abundant further south. 

Pignut Hickory — C. Glabra. — This species possesses all the bad and but few of the good 
qualities of the shell-bark. The nuts are smaller and not so good. The tree should be pre- 
served and cultivated in common with the shell-bark. Not abundant. 

BiTTERNUT — C. Amara. — Is an abundant tree, valuable for fuel, but lacking the strength and 
elasticity of the preceding species. It is, however, quite as ornamental as any of the hickories. 

Red Beech — Fagus Ferruginea. — This is a common tree, with brilliant, shining light-green 
leaves, and long, flexible branches. It is highly ornamental, and should be cultivated for this 
purpose, as well as for its useful wood, which is tough, close-grained and compact. It is much 
jsed for plane-stocks, tool handles, etc., and as an article of fuel is nearly equal to maple. 

Water BKKCH^Caipini/s Americana. — Is a small tree, called hornbeam by many. The 
wood is exceedingly hard and compact, but the small size of the tree renders it almost 

Iron Wood — Ostrya Virginica. — This small tree is found disseminated throughout most of 
our woodlands. It is, to a considerable degree, ornamental, but of remarkably slow growth. The 
wood possesses valuable properties, being heavy and strong, as the name would indicate ; yet, 
from its small size, it is of but little use. 

Balsam Poplar — Populus Candicans. — This tree is of medium size, and is known by sev- 
eral names : Wild balm of Gilead, cotton wood, etc. It grows in moist, sandy soil, on river bot- 
toms. It has broad, heart-shaped leaves, which turn a fine yellow after the autumn frosts. It 
grows more rapidly than any other of our trees ; can be transplanted with entire success when 
eight or nine inches in diameter, and makes a beatiful shade tree — the most ornamental of pop- 
lars. The wood is soft, spongy^ and nearly useless. 


(QUAKING Aspen — P. Tremuloides. — Is a well-known, small tree. It is rather ornamental, 
but scarcely svorth cultivating. 

Large Aspen — P. Gratidicienta/a.- — Is the largest of our poplars. It frequently grous to 
the height of sixty or seventy feet, with a di-^meter of two and one-half feet. The wood is soft, 
easily split, and used for frame buildings. It is the most durable of our poplars. 

Cotton Wood — P. Moiwlifera. — This is the largest of all the poplars ; abundant on the 
Mississippi river. Used largely for fuel on the steamboats. The timber is of but little use in 
the arts. 

Sycamore or Buttonwood — Platanus Occidentalis. — This, the largest and most majestic 
of our trees, is found growing only on the rich alluvial river bottoms. The tree is readily 
known, even at a considerable distance, by its whitish smooth branches. The foliage is large 
and beautiful, and the tree one of the most ornamental known. The wood speedily decays, and 
when sawed into lumber warps badly; on these accounts it is but little used, although susceptible 
of a fine finish. As an article of fuel it is of inferior merit. 

Canoe Bikch — Betula Papyracea. — Is a rather elegant and interesting tree. It grows abund- 
antly in nearly every part of the state. The wood is of a fine glossy grain, susceptible cf a good 
finish, but lacks durability and strength, and, therefore, is but little used in the mechanical arts. 
For fuel it is justly prized. It bears transplanting without difficulty. The Indians manufacture 
their celebrated bark canoes from the bark of this tree. 

Cherry Birch — B. Lenta. — Tais is a rather large, handsome tree, growing along streams. 
Leaves and bark fragrant. Wood, fine-grained, rose-colored ; used largely by the cabinet- 

Yellow Birch — B. Lutea. — This beautiful tree occasionally attains a large size. It is 
highly ornamental, and is of value for fuel; but is less prized than the preceding species for cab- 
inet work. 

Kentucky Coffee Tree — <7y/«n<'ir/a:(/«x Ca«a(/(f««.f.— This singularly beautiful tree is only 
found sparingly, and on rich alluvial lands. I met with it growing near the Peccatonica, in 
Green county. The wood is fine-grained, and of a rosy hue ; is e.^eedingly durable, and well 
worth cultivating. 

June Berry — Ainelanchier Canadensis. — Is a small tree which adds materially to the beauty 
of our woods in early spring, at which time it is in full bloom. The wood is of no particular 
value, and the tree interesting only when covered with its white blossoms. 

White Pine — Pinus St>o}us. — This is the largest and most valuable of our indigenous pines. 
The wood IS soft, free from resin, and works easily. It is extensively employed in the mechan- 
ical arts. It is found in great profusion in the northern parts of the state. This species is 
readily known by the leaves being \Xi fives. It is highly ornamental, but in common with all 
pines, will hardly bear transplanting. Only small plants should be moved. 

Norway or Red Pine — P. Resinosa, and Yellow Pine — P. Mitts. — These are two large 
trees, but little inferior in size to the white pine. The wood contains more resin, and is conse- 
quently more durable. The leaves of both these species are in ttvos. Vast quantities of lumber 
are yearly manufactured from these two varieties and the white pine. The extensive pineries 
of the state are rapidly diminishing. 

Shrub Pine — P. Banksiana.—ls a small, low tree ; only worthy of notice here for the orna- 
mental shade it produces. It is found in the northern sections of the state. 

Balsam Fir — Abies Balsamea. — This beautiful evergreen is multiplied to a great extent on 
the shores of Lake Superior, where it grows forty or fifty feet in height. The wood is of but 


little value The balsam of fir, or Canadian balsam, is obtained from this tree. 

Double Spruce — A. Nigra. — This grows in the same localities with the balsam fir, and 
assumes the same pyramidal form, but is considerably larger. The wood is light and possesses 
considerable strength and elasticity, which renders it one of the best materials for yard's and top- 
masts for shippmg. It is extensively cultivated for ornament. 

Hemlock — A. Canadensis. — The hemlock is the largest of the genus. It is gracefully orna- 
mental, but the wood is of little value. The baik is extensively employed in tanning. 

Tamarack — Larix Americana. — This beautiful tree grows abundantly in swampy situations 
throughout the state. It is not quite an evergreen It drops its leaves in winter, but quickly 
recovers them in early spring. The wood is remarkably durable and valuable for a varietv of 
uses. The tree grows rapidly, and can be successfully cultivated in peaty situations, where other 
trees would not thrive. 

Arbor \\TJE—T/!t/ja Occideutalis. — This tree is called the white or flat cedar. It grows 
abundantly in many parts of the state. The wood is durable, furnishing better fence posts than 
any other tree, excepting the red cedar. Shingles and staves of a superior quality are obtained 
from these trees. A beautiful evergreen hedge is made from the young plants, which bear trans- 
planting better than most evergreens. It will grow on most soils if sufficiently damp. 

Red Ced.'VR — Juniperus Virginiana. — Is a well known tree that furnishes those celebrated 
fence posts that " last forever." The wood is highly fragrant, of a rich red color, and fine 
grained ; hence it is valuable for a variety of uses. It should be extensively cultivated. 

Dwarf Juniper — J. Sabina. — This is a low trailing shrub. Is considerably prized foi 
ornament. Especially worthy of cultivation in large grounds. 

Sassafras — Sassafras officinale. — Is a small tree of fine appearance, with fragrant leaves 
bark. Grows in Kenosha county. Should be cultivated. 

Willows. — There are many species of willows growing in every part of the state, several of 
which are worthy of cultivation near streams and ponds. 

White Willow — Salix alba. — Is a fine tree, often reaching sixty feet in height. The wood 
is soft, and makes the best charcoal for the manufacture of gun-powder. Grows rapidly. 

Black Willow — S. Nigra. — This is also a fine tree, but not quite so large as the foregoing. 
It is used for similar purposes. 

There are many shrubs and vines indigenous to the state worthy of note. I shall, however, 
call attention to only a few of the best. 

Dogwoods. — There are several species found in our forests and thickets. All are ornamen- 
tal when covered with a profusion of white blossoms. I would especially recommend: corus 
sericea, C. stoloni/era, C. paniculata, and C. alternifolia. All these will repay the labor of trans- 
planting to ornamental grounds. 

Viburnums. — These are very beautiful. W&hxve viburnum lenlago, V. pruni/olium, V. nudum. 
V. deniatum, V. pubcscens, V, aceri/oliuin, V. pauciflorum, and V. opulus. The last is known as 
the cranberry tree, and is a most beautiful shrub when in bloom, and also when covered with its 
red, acid fruit. The common snow-ball tree is a cultivated variety of the V. opulus. 

Witch Hazel — Hamamelis Virginica. — Is an interesting, tall shrub that flowers late in: 
autumn, when the leaves are falling, and matures the fruit the next summer. It deserves more 
attention than it receives. 

Burning Bush — Euonymus atropurpureus. — This fine shrub is called the American straw- 
berry, and is exceedingly beautiful when covered with its load of crimson fruit, which remains 
during winter. 


Sumach — Rhus typhina. — Is a tall shrub, 11 known, but seldom cultivated. When well 
grown it is ornamental and well adapted for planting in clumps. 

Hop Tree — Ptclca trifoliata. — This is a showy shrub with shining leaves, which should be 
cultivated. Common in rich, alluvial ground. 

Bladder Nut — Staphyha irifolia. — Is a fine, upright, showy shrub, found sparingly all over 
the state. Is ornamental, with greenish striped branches and showy leaves. 


Virginia Creeper — Ampelopsis quinquefolia. — This is a noble vine, climbing extensively by 
disc-bearing tendrils, so well known as to require no eulogy. Especially beautiful in its fall 

Bitter Sweet — Celastrus scandens. — Is a stout twining vine, which would be an ornament to 
any grounds. In the fall and early winter it is noticeable for its bright fruit. Common. 

Yellow Honeysuckle — Lonicera flava. — Is a fine native vine, which is found climbing over 
tall shrubs and trees. Ornamental. There are several other species of honeysuckle; none, how- 
ever, worthy of special mention. 

Frost Grape — Vitce cordifolia. — This tall-growing vine has deliciously sweet blossoms, 
which perfume the air for a great distance around. For use as a screen, this hardy species will 
be found highly satisfactory. 


By p. R. hoy, M.D. 

Fish are cold blooded aquatic vertebrates, having fins as organs of progression. They have 
a two-chambered heart; their bodies are mostly covered with scales, yet a few are entirely naked, 
like catfish and eels; others again are covered with curious plates, such as the sturgeon. Fish 
inhabit both salt and fresh water. It is admitted by all authority that fresh-water fish are more 
universally edible than those inhabiting the ocean. Marine fish are said to be more highly 
flavored than those inhabiting fresh waters ; an assertion I am by no means prepared to admit. 
As a rule, fish are better the colder and purer the water in which they are found, and where can 
you find those conditions more favorable than in the cold depths of our great lakes .'' We have 
tasted, under the inost favorable conditions, about every one of the celebrated salt-water fish, and 
can say that whoever eats a whitefish just taken from the pure, cold water of Lake Michigan will 
have no reason to be envious of the dwellers by the sea. 

Fish are inconceivably prolific ; a single female deposits at one spawn from one thousand to 
one million eggs, varying according to species. 

Fish afford a valuable article of food for man, being highly nutritious and easy of digestion ; 
they abound in phosphates, hence are valuable as affording nutrition to the osseous and nervous sys- 
tem, hence they have been termed, not inappropriately, brain food — certainly a very desirable article 
of diet for some people. They are more savory, nutritious and easy of digestion when just taken 
from the water ; in fact, the sooner they are cooked after being caught the better. No fish should 
be more than a few hours from its watery element before being placed upon the table. For con- 
venience, I will group our fish into families as a basis for what I shall offer. Our bony fish, 


having spine rays and covered with comb-like scales, belong to the perch family — a valuable 
family ; all take the hook, are gamey, and spawn in the summer. 

The yellow perch and at least four species of black or striped bass have a wide range, being 
found in all the rivers and lakes in the state. There is a large species of fish known as Wall- 
eyed pike {Leucoperca amerkatia) belonging to this family, which is found sparingly in most of our 
rivers and lakes. The pike is an active and most rapacious animal, devouring fish of consider- 
able size. The flesh is firm and of good flavor. It would probably be economical to propagate 
it to a moderate extent. 

The six-spined bass {Pomoxys hexacanthus, Agas.) is one of the most desirable of the spine- 
rayed fish found in the State. The flesh is fine flavored, and as the fish is hardy and takes the 
hook with avidity, it should be protected during the spawning season and artificially propagated. 
I have examined the stomachs of a large number of these fish and in every instance found small 
crawfish, furnishing an additional evidence in its favor. Prof. J. P. Kirtland, the veteran ichthy- 
ologist of Ohio, says that this so-callea " grass bass" is the fish for the million. 

The white bass {Jiocciis chrysops) is a species rather rare even in the larger bodies of water, 
but ought to be introduced into every small lake in the State, where I am certain they would 
flourish. It is an excellent fish, possessing many of the good qualities and as few of the bad as 
any that belong to the family. There is another branch of this family, the sunfish, Fomotis, 
which numbers at least six species found in Wisconsin. Tliey are beautiful fish, and afford 
abundant sport for the boys ; none of them, however, are worth domesticating (unless it be in the 
aquarium) as there are so many better. 

The carp family {Cyprinida) are soft finned fish without maxillary teeth. They include by 
far the 'greater number of fresh-water fish. Some specimens are not more than one inch, while 
others are nearly two feet in length. Our chubs, silversides and suckers are the principal mem- 
bers of this family. Dace are good pan-fish, yet their small size is objectionable; they are the 
children's game fish. The Cypriitidie all spawn in the spring, and might be profitably propa- 
gated as food for the larger and more valuable fish. 

There are six or seven species of suckers found in our lakes and rivers. The red horse, 
found every where, and at least one species of the buffalo, inhabiting the Mississippi and its trib- 
utaries, are the best of Ihe genus Catastomus. Suckers are bony, and apt to taste suspiciously of 
mud ; they are only to be tolerated in the absence of better. The carp {Cypreniiis carpo) has been 
successfully introduced into the Hudsonriver. 

The trout family {Salmonida) are soft-finned fish with an extra dorsal adipose fin without 
rays. They inhabit northern countries, spawning in the latter part of fall and winter. Their 
flesh is universally esteemed. The trout family embrace by far the most valuable of our fish, 
including, as it does, trout and whitefish. The famous speckled trout {Saliiio fontinalis) \s a 
small and beautiful species which is found in nearly every stream in the northern half of the 
State. Wherever there is a spring run or lake, the temperature of which does not rise higher than 
sixty-five or seventy in the summer, there trout can be propagated in abundance. The great 
salmon trout {Sal. amethystus) of the great lakes is a magnificent fish weighing from ten to sixty 
pounds. 'Y\\^ Siicowit salmo siscowit o{ Lake Superior is about the same size, but not quite so 
good a fish, being too fat and oily. They will, no doubt, flourish in the larger of the inland 

The genus Coregonus includes the true whitefish, or lake shad. In this genus, as now 
restricted, the nose is square and the under jaw short, and when first caught they have the 
fragrance of fresh cucumbers. There are at least three species found in Lake Michigan. In my 


opinion these fish are more delicately flavored than the celebrated Potomac shad ; but I doubt 
whether they will thrive in the small lakes, owing to the absence of the small Crustacea on which 
they subsist. The closely allied genus Argyi-oso>?ius includes seven known species inhabiting the 
larger lakes, and one, the Argyrosomus stsco, which is found in several of the lesser lakes. The 
larger species are but little inferior to the true whitefish, with which they are commonly 
confounded. The nose is pointed, the under jaw long, and they take the hook at certain seasons 
with activity. They eat small fish as well as insects and crustaceans. 

Of the pickerel family, we have three or four closely allied species of the genus Esox, armed 
with prodigious jaws filled with cruel teeth. They lie motionles eady to dart, swift as an 
arrow, upon their prey. They are the sharks of the fresh water. The pickerel are so rapacious 
that they spare not their own species. Sometimes they attempt to swallow a fish nearly as large 
as themselves, and perish in consequence. Their flesh is moderately good, and as they are game 
to the backbone, it might be desirable to propagate them to a moderate extent under peculiar 

The catfish (Si/uridcE) have soft fins, protected by sharp spines, and curious fleshy barbels 
floating from their lips, without scales, covered only with a slimy coat of mucus. The 
genus Pimlodus are scavengers among fish, as vultures among birds. They are filthy in habit 
and food. There is one interesting trait of the catfish — the vigilant and watchful motherly 
care of the young by the male. He defends them with great spirit, and herds them together 
when they straggle. Even the mother is driven far off; for he knows full well that she would 
not scruple to make a full meal off her little black tadpole-like progeny. There are four species 
■known to inhabit this State — one peculiar to the great lakes, and two found in the numerous 
affluents of the Mississippi. One of these, the great yellow catfish, sometimes weighs over one 
hundred pounds. When in good condition, stuffed and well baked, they are a fair table fish. 
The small bull-head is universally distributed. 

The sturgeons are large sluggish fish, covered with plates instead of scales. There 
are at least three species of the genus Acipenser found in the waters of Wisconsin. Being so 
large and without bones, they afford a sufficiently cheap article of food ; unfortunately, however, 
the quality is decidedly bad. Sturgeons deposit an enormous quantity of eggs ; the roe not 
unfrequently weighs one fourth as much as the entire body, and numbers, it is said, many 
millions. The principal commercial value of sturgeons is found in the roe and swimming 
bladder. The much prized caviare is manufactured from the former, and from the latter the best 
of isinglass is obtained. 

The gar-pikes {Lepidosteus) are represented by at least three species of this singular fish. 
They have long serpentine bodies, with jaws prolonged into a regular bill, which is well provided 
with teeth. The scales are composed of bone covered on the outside with enamel, like teeth. 
The alligator gar, confined to the depths of the Mississippi, is a large fish, and the more common 
•species, Lcpidostcus dison, attains to a considerable size. The Lepidosteous, now only found in 
North America, once had representatives all over the globe. Fossils of the same family of which 
the gar-pike is the type, have been found all over Europe, in the oldest fossiliferous beds, in the 
strata of the age of coal, in the new red sandstone, in oolitic deposits, and in the chalk and 
tertiary formations- — being one of the many living evidences that North America was the first 
■country above the water. For all practical purposes, we should not regret to have the gar-pikes 
follow in the footsteps of their aged and illustrious predecessors. They could well be spared. 

There is a fish (^Lota maculosc) which belongs to the cod-fish family, called by the fishermen 
ihe "lawyers," for what reason I am not able to say — at any rate, the fish is worthless. There 
are a great number of small fish, interesting only to the naturalist, which I shall omit to men- 


lion here. 

Fish of the northern countries are the most valuable, for the reason that the water is colder 
and purer. Wisconsin, situated between forty-two thirty, and forty-seven degrees of latitude, 
bounded on the east and north by the largest lakes in the world, on the west by the "Great river," 
traversed by numerous fine and rapid streams, and sprinkled all over with beautiful and pictu- 
resque lakes, has physical conditions certainly the most favorable, perhaps of any State, for an 
abundant and never-failing supply of the best fish. Few persons have any idea of the importance 
of the fisheries of" Lake Michigan. It is difficult to collect adequate data to form a correct 
knowledge of the capital invested and the amount of fish taken; enough, however, has been 
ascertained to enable me to state that at Milwaukee alone $100,000 are invested, and not less 
than two hundred and eighty tons of dressed fish taken annually. At Racine, during the entire 
season of nine months, there are, on an average, one thousand pounds of whitefish and trout, 
each, caught and sold daily, amounting to not less than $16,000. It is well known that, since the 
adoption of the gill-net system, the fishermen are enabled to pursue their calling ten months of 
the year. 

When the fish retire to the deep water, they are followed with miles of nets, and the poor 
fish are entangled on every side. There is a marked falling off in the number and size of white- 
fish and trout taken, when compared with early years. When fish were only captured with seines, 
they had abundant chance to escape and multiply so as to keep an even balance in number. 
Only by artificial propagation and well enforced laws protecting them during the spawning 
season, can we hope now to restore the balance. In order to give some idea of the valuable 
labors of the state fish commissioners, I will state briefly that they have purchased for the 
state a piece of property, situated three miles from Madison, known as the Nine Springs, 
including forty acres of land, on which they have erected a dwelling-house, barn and hatchery, 
also constructed several ponds, in which can be seen many valuable fish in the enjoyment of 
perfect health and vigor. As equipped, it is, undoubtedly, one of the best, if not the best, hatchery 
in the states. In this permanent establishment the commission design to hatch and distribute 
to the small lakes and rivers of the interior the most valuable of our indigenous fish, such as 
bass, pike, trout, etc., etc., as well as many valuable foreign varieties. During the past season, 
many fish have been distributed from this state hatchery. At the Milwaukee Water Works, the 
commission have equipped a hatchery on a large scale, using the water as pumped directly from 
the lake. During tlie past season there was a prodigious multitude of young trout and whitefish 
distributed from this point. The success of Superintendent Welcher in hatching whitefish at 
Milwaukee has been the best yet gained, nearly ninety per cent, of the eggs "laid down" 
being hatched. Pisciculturists will appreciate this wonderful success, as they well know how 
difficult it is to manage the spawn of the whitefish. 

I append the following statistics of the number of fish hatched and distributed from the 
Milwaukee hatchery : 

Total number of fish hatched, 8,000,000 — whitefish, 6,300,000; salmon trout, 1,700,000. 

They were distributed as follows, in the month of May, 1877 ; Whitefish planted in Lake 
Michigan, at Racine, 1,000,000; at Milwaukee, 3,260,000; between Manitowoc and Two Rivers 
1.000,000; in Green bay, 1,000,000; in Elkhart lake, 40,000. 

Salmon trout were turned out as follows : Lake Michigan, near Milwaukee, 600,000 ; 
Brown's lake, Racine county, 40,000 ; Delavan lake, Walworth county, 40,000 ; Troy lake, Wal- 
worth county, 40,000 ; Pleasant lake, Walworth county, 40,000 ; Lansdale lake, Walworth 
county, 40,000; Ella lake, Milwaukee county, 16,000; Cedar lake, Washington county, 40,000; 
Elkhart lake, Sheboygan county, 40,000; Clear lake, Rock county, 40,000; Ripley lake, 


Jefferson county, 40,000; Mendota lake, Dane county, 100,000; Fox lake, Dodge county, 
40,000 ; Swan and Silver lakes, Columbia county, 40,000 ; Little Green lake. Green Lake 
county, 40,000; Big Green lake, Green Lake county, 100,000; Bass lake, St. Croix county, 
40,000; Twin lakes, St. Croix county, 40,000; Long lake, (,'hippewa county, 40,000; Oconomo- 
woc lake, Waukesha county, 100,000; Pine lake, Waukesha county, 40,000; Pewaukee lake, 
Waukesha county, 100,000; North lake, Waukesha county, 40,000 ; Nagawicka lake, Waukesha 
county, 40,000; Okanche lake, Waukesha county, 40,000. 


Fifty years ago, the territory now included in the state of Wisconsin, was nearly in a state 
of nature, all the large wild animals were then abundant. Now, all has changed. The ax and 
plow, gun and dog, railway and telegraph, have metamorphosed the face of nature. Most of 
the large quadrupeds have been either exterminated, or have hid themselves away in the wilder- 
ness. In a short time, all of these will have disappeared from the state. The date and order 
in which animals become extinct within the boundaries of the state, is a subject of great interest. 
There was a time when the antelope, the woodland caribou, the buffalo, and the wild turkey, 
were abundant, but are now no longer to be found. 

The Antelope, Antilocarpa Americana, now confined to the Western plains, did, two hun- 
dred years ago, inhabit Wisconsin as far east as Michigan. In October, 1679, Father Hennepin, 
with La Salle and party, in four canoes, coasted along the Western shore of Lake Michigan. In 
Hennepin's narrative, he says; " The oldest of them " (the Indians) " came to us the next morn- 
ing with their calumet of peace, and brought some wild goats." This was somewhere north of 
Milwaukee. "Being in sore distress, we saw upon the coast a great many ravens and eagles " 
(turkey vultures), " from whence we conjectured there was some prey, and having landed upon 
that place, we found above tlie half of a fat wild goat, which the wolves had strangled. This 
provision was very acceptable to us, and the rudest of our men could not but praise the Divine 
Providence which took so particular care of us." This must have been somewhere near Racine. 
"On the i6th" (October, 1679), " we met with abundance of game. A savage we had with us. 
killed several stags (deer) and tvild goats, and our men a great many turkeys, very fat and big." 
This must have been south of Racine. These goats were undoubtedly antelopes. Schoolcraft 
mentions antelopes as occupying the Northwest territory. 

Wlien the last buffalo crossed the Mississippi is not precisely known. It is certain they 
lingered in Wisconsin in 1825. It is said there was a buffalo shot on the St. Croix river as late 
as 1832, so Wisconsin claims the last buffalo. The woodland caribou — Rangifer caribou— ^miz 
never numerous within the limits of the state. A few were seen not far from La Pointe in 1045. 
The last wild turkey in the eastern portion of the state, was in 1846. On the Mississippi, one 
was killed in 1856. I am told by Dr. Walcott, that turkeys were abundant in Wisconsin previous 
to the hard winter of 1842-3, when snow was yet two feet deep in March, with a stout crust, so^ 
that the turkeys could not get to the ground. They became so poor and weak, that they could, 
not fly, and thus became an easy prey to the wolves, foxes, wild cats, minks, etc., which exter- 
minated almost the entire race. The Doctor says he saw but one single individual the next 
winter. Elk were on Hay river in 1863, and I have little doubt a few yet remain. Moose are- 
not numerous, a few yet remain in the northwestern part of the state. I saw moose tracks on 
the Montreal river, near Lake Superior, in the summer of 1845. A few panthers may still 
inhabit the wilderness of Wisconsin. Benjamin Bones, of Racine, shot one on the headwaters of 


Black river, December, 1863. Badgers are now nearly gone, and in a few years more, the only 
badgers found within the state, will be two legged ones. Beavers are yet numerous in the 
small lakes in the northern regions. Wolverines are occasionally met with in the northern 
forests. Bears, wolves, and deer, will continue to flourish in the northern and central counties, 
where underbrush, timber, and small lakes abound. 

All large animals will soon be driven by civilization out of Wisconsin. The railroad and 
improved firearms will do the work, and thus we lose the primitive denizens of the forest and 


The facts recorded in this paper, were obtained by personal observations within fifteen 
miles of Racine, Wisconsin, latitude 42° 46' north, longitude 87° 48' west. This city is situated 
on the western shore of Lake Michigan, at the extreme southern point of the heavy lumbered 
district, the base of which rests on Lake Superior. Racine extends six miles further into the 
lake than Milwaukee, and two miles further than Kenosha. At this point the great prairie 
approaches near the lake from the west. The extreme rise of the mercury in summer, is from 
90" to 100° Fahrenheit. The isothermal line comes further north in summer, and retires further 
south in winter than it does east of the great lakes, which physical condition will sufficiently 
explain the remarkable peculiarities of its animal life, the overlapping, as it were, of two distinct 
faunas. More especially is this true of birds, that are enabled to change their locality with the 
greatest facility. Within the past thirty years, I have collected and observed over three hundred 
species of birds, nearly half of all birds found in North America. Many species, considered 
rare in other sections, are found here in the greatest abundance. A striking peculiarity of the 
ornithological fauna of this section, is that southern birds go farther north in summer, while- 
northern species go farther south in winter than they do east of the lakes. Of summer birds 
that visit us, I will ennumerate a few of the many that belong to a more southern latitude in the 
.Atlantic States. Nearly all nest with us, or, at least, did some years ago. 

Yellow-breasted chat, Icteria virdis ; mocking bird, Mimus pollyglottus ; great Carolina wren^ 
Thriothorus ludoviciamis ; prothonotary warbler, Frotonotaria citrea; summer red MvcA, Fyrangia 
(estiva; wood ibis, Tantalus loeulator. 

Among Arctic birds that visit us in winter are : 

Snowy owl, Nyctea nivca; great gray owl, Syrniiim cincnts ; hawk owl, Surnia ulula; Arctic- 
three-toed woodpecker, Picoidcs arciicus; banded three-toed woodpecker, Picoidcs hirsutus; mag- 
l)ie, Pica hiidsonica; Canada jay, Perisorius canadensis; evening grosbeak, Hesperiphona vesper- 
Una; Hudson titmouse, Parus hudsonicus; king eder, Somateria spectabilis ; black-throated diver, 
Colytnhus arcticus ; glaucus gull, Laurus glaucus. 

These examples are sufficient to indicate the rich avi fauna of Wisconsin. It is doubtful if 
there is another locality where the Canada jay and its associates visit in winter where the mock- 
ing bird nests in summer, or where the hawk owl flies silently over the spot occupied during 
the warmer days by the summer red bird and the yellow-breasted chat. But the ax has already 
leveled much of the great woods, so that there is now a great falling off in numbers of our old 
familiar feathered friends. It is now extremely doubtful if such a collection can ever again b& 
mad( within the boundaries of this state, or indeed, of any other. 


By Prof. EDWARD SEARING, State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

From the time of the earliest advent of the families of French traders into the region now 
known as Wisconsin, to the year 1818, when that region became part of Michigan territory, 
education was mostly confined to private instruction, or was sought by the children of the 
wealthier in the distant cities of Quebec, Montreal, and Detroit. The early Jesuit missionaries, 
and — subsequently to 1816, when it came under the military control of the United States — 
representatives of various other religious denominations, sought to teach the Indian tribes of 
this section. In 1823, Rev. Eleazar Williams, well known for his subsequent claim to be the 
Dauphin of France, and who was in the employ of the Episcopal Missionary Society, started a 
School of white and half-breed children on the west side of Fo.\ river, opposite " Shanty-Tovifn." 
A Catholic mission school for Indians was organized by an Italian priest near Green Bay, in 
1830. A clause of the treaty with the Winnebago Indians, in 1832, bound the United States to 
maintain a school for their children near Prairie du Chien for a period of twenty-seven years. 

The Original School Code. 

From 1818 to 1836, Wisconsin formed part of Michigan territory. In the year 1837, Michi- 
gan was admitted into the Union as a state, and Wisconsin, embracing what is now Minnesota, 
Iowa, and a considerable region still further westward, was, by act of congress approved April 
20th of the year previous, established as a separate territory. The act provided that the existing 
laws of the territory of Michigan should be extended over the new territory so far as compatible 
with the provisions of the act, subject to alteration or repeal by the new government created. 
Thus with the other statutes, the school code of Michigan became the original code of Wiscon- 
sin, and it was soon formally adopted, with almost no change, by the first territorial legislature, 
which met at Belmont. Although modified in some of its provisions almost every year, this 
imperfect code continued in force until the adoption of the state constitution in 1S48. The 
first material changes in the code were made by the territorial legislature at its second session, 
in 1837, by the passage of a bill " to regulate the sale of school lands, and to provide for organ- 
izing, regulating, and perfecting common schools." It was provided in this act that as soon as 
twenty electors should reside in a surveyed township, they should elect a board of three com- 
missioners, holding office three years, to lay off districts, to apply the proceeds of the leases of 
school lands to the payment of teachers' wages, and to call school meetings. It was also pro- 
vided that each district should elect a board of three directors, holding office one year, to locate 
school-houses, hire teachers for at least three months in the year, and levy taxes for the support 
of schools. It was further provided that a third board of five inspectors should be elected 
annually in each town to examine and license teachers and inspect the schools. Two years 
subsequently (1839) the law was revised and the family, instead of the electors, was made the 
basis of the town organization. Every town with not less than ten families was made a school 
district and required to provide a competent teacher. More populous towns were divided into 
two or more districts. The office of town commissioner was abolished, its duties with certain 
others being transferred to the inspectors. The rate-bill system of taxation, previously in 
existence, was repealed, and a tax on the whole county for building school-houses and support- 


ing schools was provided for. One or two years later the office of town commissioners was 
restored, and the duties of the inspectors were assigned to the same. Other somewhat important 
amendments were made at the same time. 

In 1840, a memorial to congress from the legislature represented that the people were 
anxious to establish a common-school system, with suitable resources for its support. From 
lack of sufficient funds many of the schools were poorly organized. The rate-bill tax or private 
subscription was often necessary to supplement the scanty results of county taxation. Until a 
state government should be organized, the fund accruing from the sale of school lands could not 
be available. Congress had made to Wisconsin, as to other new states, for educational purposes, 
a donatiBn of lands. Tliese lands embraced the sixteenth section in every township in the state, 
the 500,000 acres to which the state was entitled by the provisions of an act of congress passed 
in 1841, and any grant of lands from the United States, the purposes of which were not speci- 
fied. To obtain the benefits of this large fund was a leading object in forming the state con- 

Agitation for Free Schools. 

Shortly before the admission of the state the subject of free schools began to be quite 
widely discussed. In February, 1845, Col. M. Frank, of Kenosha, a member of the territorial 
Jegislature, introduced a bill, which became a law, authorizing the legal voters of his own town 
to vote taxes on all the assessed property for the full support of its schools. A provision of the 
act required its submission to the people of the town before it could take effect. It met with 
strenuous opposition, but after many public meetings and lectures held in the interests of public 
enlightenment, the act was ratified by a small majority in the fall of 1845, and thus the first free school 
in the state was legally organized. Subsequently, in the legislature, m the two constitutional con- 
ventions, and in educational assemblies, the question of a free-school system for the new state 
soon to be organized provoked much interest and discussion. In the constitution framed by the 
convention of 1846, was provided the basis of a free-school system similar to that in our present 
constitution. The question of establishing the office of state superintendent, more than any 
other feature of the proposed school system, elicited discussion in that body. The necessity of 
this office, and the advantages of free schools supported by taxation, were ably presented to the 
convention by Hon. Henry Barnard, of Connecticut, in an evening address. He afterward pre- 
pared, by request, a draft of a free-school system, with a state superintendent at its head, which 
was accepted and subsequently embodied in the constitution and the school law. In the second 
constitutional convention, in 184S, the same questions again received careful attention, and the 
article on education previously prepared, was, after a few changes, brought into the shape in 
which we now find it. Immediately after the ratification by the people, of the constitution pre- 
pared by the second convention, three commissioners were appointed to revise the statutes. To 
one of these, Col. Frank, the needed revision of the school laws was assigned. The work was 
acceptably performed, and the new school code of 1849, largely the same as the present one, 
■went into operation May first of that year. 

The School System under the State Government. 

In tlie state constitution was laid the broad foundation of our present school system. The 
four corner stones were: (i) The guaranteed freedom of the schools; {?.) the school fund 
•created ; (3) the system of supervision ; (4) a state university for higher instruction. The 
school fund has five distinct sources for its creation indicated in the constitution: (i) Proceeds 
from the sale of lands granted to the state by the United States for educational purposes; (2) 



all moneys accruing from forfeiture or escheat; (3) all fines collected in the several counties for 
breach of the penal laws ; (4) all moneys paid for exemption from military duty ; {5) five per cent. 
of the sale of government lands within the state. In addition to these constitutional sources of 
the school fund, another and sixth source was open from 1856 to 1870. By an act of the state 
legislature in the former year, three-fourths of the net proceeds of the sales of the svvamp and 
overflowed lands, granted to the state by congress, Sept. 28, 1850, were added to the commonj 
school fund, the other fourth going into a fund for drainage, under certain circumstances ; but if 
not paid over to any town for that purpose within two years, to become a part of the school 
fund. The following year one of these fourths was converted into the normal-school fund, 
leaving one-half for the common-school fund. In 1858, another fourth was given to the drainage 
fund, thus providing for the latter one-half the income from the sales, and leaving for the school 
fund, until the year 1865, only the remaining one-fourth. In the latter year this was transferred 
to the normal-school fund, with the provision, however, that one-fourth of the income of this, 
fund should be transferred to the common-school fund until the annual income of the latter 
fund should reach $200,000. In 1870 this provision was repealed, and the whole income of th& 
normal fund left applicable to the support of normal schools and teachers' institutes. 

At the first session of the state legislature in 1848, several acts were passed which carried 
out in some degree the educational provisions of the constitution. A law was enacted to pro- 
vide for the election, and to define the duties, of a state superintendent of public instruction. A 
district board was created, consisting of a moderator, director, and treasurer; the office of town 
superintendent was established, and provision was made for the creation of town libraries, and 
for the distribution of the school fund. The present school code of Wisconsin is substantially 
that passed by the legislature of 1848, and which went into operation May i, 1849. The most 
important change since made was the abolition of the office of town superintendent, and the- 
substitution therefor of the county superintendency. This change took effect January i, 1862. 

The School-Fund Income. 

The first annual report of the state superintendent, for the year 1849, gives the income of 
the school fund for that year as $588, or eight and three-tenth mills per child. Milwaukee 
county received the largest amount, $69.63, and St. Croix county the smallest, twenty-four cents. 
The average in the state was forty-seven cents per district. The following table will show at a 
glance the quinquennial increase in the income of the fund, the corresponding increase in the 
number of school children, and the apportionment per child, from 1849 to 1875, inclusive ; also, 
the last apportionment, that for 1877. The rate for three years past has been 41 cents per 
child : 









1850. _ 



92. '05 



$588 00 

47,716 00 

125,906 02 

184.949 76 




151,816 34 
159,271 38 
184,624 64 
193.021 03 


The amount of productive school fund reported September 30, 1877, was $2,596,361.07. 
The portion of the fund not invested at that date, was $74,195.22. 


The State University. 

In his message to the first territorial legislature, in 1836, Governor Dodge recommended 
asking from congress aid for the establishment of a state educational institution, to be governed 
by the legislature. This was the first official action looking to the establishment of a state 
university. The same legislature passed an act to establish and locate the Wisconsin univer- 
sity at Belmont, in the county of Iowa. At its second session, the following year, the legislature 
passed an act, which was approved January 19, 1838, establishing "at or near Madison, the seat 
of government, a university for the purpose of educating youth, the name whereof shall be ' The 
University of the Territory of Wisconsin. " A resolution was passed at the same session, direct- 
ing the territorial delegate in congress to ask of that body an appropriation of $20,000 for the 
erection of the buildings ot said university, and also to appropriate two townships of vacant land 
for its endowment. Congress accordingly appropriated, in 1838, seventy-two sections, or two 
townships, for the support of a " seminary of learning in the territory of Wisconsin," and this 
was afterward confirmed to the state for the use of the university. No effectual provision, how- 
ever, was made for the establishment of the university until ten years later, when the state was 
organized. Congress, as has been said, had made a donation of lands to the territory for the 
support of such an institution, but these lands could not be made available for that purpose until 
the territory should become a state. The state constitution, adopted in 1848, declared that pro- 
vision should be made for the establishment of a state university, and that the proceeds of all 
lands donated by the United .States to the state for the support of a university should remain a 
perpetual fund, the interest of which should be appropriated to its sujiport 

The state legislature, at its first session, passed an act, approved July 26, 1848, establishing 
the University of Wisconsin, defining its location, its government, and its various departments, 
and authorizing the regents to purchase a suitable site for the buildings, and to proceed to the 
erection of the same, after having obtained from the legislature the approval of plans. This act 
repealed the previous act of 1838. The regents were soon after appointed, and theirfirst annual 
report was presented to the legislature, January 30, 1849. This report announced the selection 
of a site, subject to the approval of the legislature, announced the organization of a preparatory 
department, and the election of a chancellor or president. The university was thus organized, 
with John H. Lathrop, president of the University of Missouri, as its first chancellor, and John 
^\'. Sterling as principal of the preparatory department, which was opened February 5, 1849. 
Chancellor Lathrop was not formally inaugurated until January 16, 1850. 

Owing to the short-sighted policy of the state in locating without due care, and in apprais- 
ing and selling so low the lands of the original grant, the fund produced was entirely inadequate 
to the support of the institution. Congress, therefore, made, in 1854, an additional grant of 
seventy-two sections of land for its use. These, however, were located and sold in the same 
inconsiderate and unfortunate manner, for so low a price as to be a means of inducing immigra- 
tion, indeed, but not of producing a fund adequate for the support of a successful state univer- 
sity. Of the 92,160 acres comprised in the two grants, there had been sold prior to September 
30, 1866, 74,178 acres for the sum of $264,570.13, or at an average price of but little more than 
$3-5° per acre.* Besides this, the state had allowed the university to anticipate its income to the 
extent of over $100,000 for the erection of buildings. By a law of 1S62 the sum of $104,339.43 
was taken from its fund (already too small) to pay for these buildings. The resulting embar- 
rassment made necessary the re-organization of 1866, which added to the slender resources of 
the institution the agricultural college fund, arising from the sale of lands donated to the state by 
the congressional act of 1862. 


The first university building erected was the north dormitory, which was completed in 185 1. 
This is 110 feet in length by 40 in breadth, and four stories in height. The south dormitory, of 
the same size, was completed in 1855. The main central edifice, known as University Hall, was 
finished in 1859. The Ladies' College was completed in 1872. This latter was built with an 
appropriation of $50,000, made by the legislature in 1870 — the first actual donation the univer- 
sity had ever received from the state. The legislature of 1875 appropriated $80,000 for the 
erection of Science Hall, a building to be devoted to instruction in the physical sciences. This 
was completed and ready for occupancy at the opening of the fall term of 1877. 

The growth of this institution during the past fourteen years, and especially since its re- 
organization in 1866, has been rapid and substantial. Its productive fund on the 30th day of 
September, 1877, aside from the agricultural college fund, was $223,240 32. The combined uni- 
versity and agricultural funds amounted, at the same date, to $464,032 22. An act of the legis- 

*Compare the price obtained for the lands of the University of Michigan. Tlie first sale of those lands averaged 
$22.35 per acre, and brought in a single year (1837) $150,447.90. Sales were made in succeeding years at $15, ftlTt 
and $ig per acre. 

lature in 1867 appropriated to the university income for that year, and annually for the next ten 
years, the sum of $7,303.76, being the interest upon the sum taken from the university fund by 
the law of 1862 for the erection of buildings, as before mentioned. Chapter 100 of the general 
laws of 1872 also provided for an annual state ta.x of $10,000 to increase the income of the uni- 
versity. Chapter 119 of the laws of 1876 provides for an annual state tax of one-tenth of one 
mill on the taxable property of the state for the increase of the university fund irtcome, this tax 
to be "/« lieu of all other appropriations before provided for the benefit of said fund income,'* 
and to be "deemed a full compensation for all deficiencies in said income arising from the dis- 
position of the lands donated to the state by congress, in trust, for the benefit of said income."' 
The entire income of the university from all sources, including this tax (which was $42,359.62), 
was, for the year ending September 30, 1877, $89,879.89. The university has a faculty of over 
thirty professors and instructors, and during the past year — 1876-7 — it had in its various depart- 
ments 316 students. The law department, organized in 1S68, has since been in successful oper- 
ation. Ladies are admitted into all the departments and classes of the university. 

Agricultural ('ollege. 

The agricultural college fund, granted to the state by the congressional act of 1862, was 
by a subsequent legislative enactment (1866) applied to the support, not of a separate agricultural 
college, but of a department of agriculture in the existing university, thus rendering it unneces- 
sary for the state to erect separate buildings elsewhere. Under the provisions of chapter 114, 
laws of 1866, the county of Dane issued to the state, for the purpose of purchasing an experi- 
mental farm, bonds to the amount of $40,000. A farm of about 200 acres, adjoining the univer- 
sity grounds, was purchased, and a four years' course of study provided, designed to be thorough 
and extensive in the branches that relate to agriculture, in connection with its practical application 
.upon the experimental farm. 

The productive agricultural college fund has increased from $8,061.85, in 1866, to $240,791. 90^ 
in T877. 

NoRM.\L Schools. 

The propriety of making some special provision for the instruction of teachers was 
acknowledged in the very organization of the state, a provision for normal schools having been 
embodied in the constitution itself, which ordains that after the support and naintenance of the 


common schools is insured, the residue of the school fund shall be appropriated to academies and 
normal scliools. The state legislature, in its first session in 184S, in the act establishing the Uni^. 
varsity of Wisconsin, declared that one of the four departments thereof should be a department 
of the theory and practice of elementary instruction. The first institution ever chartered in 
the state as a normal school was incorporated by the legislature at its second session — 1849 — 
under tlie title of the " Jefferson County Normal School." This, however, was never organized. 

The regents, when organizing the university, at their meeting in 1849, ordained the estab- 
lishment of a normal professorship, and declared that in organizing the normal department it 
was their fixed intention " to make the University of Wisconsin subsidiary to the great cause of 
popular education, by making it, through i;s normal department, the nursery of the educators of 
the popular mind, and the central point of union and harmony to the educational interests of the 
commonwealth." They declared that instruction in the normal department should be free to all 
suitable candidates. Little was accomplished, however, in this direction during the ne.xt ten 
years. In 1857 an act was passed by the legislature appropriating twenty-five per cent, of the 
income of the swamp-land fund " to normal institutes and academies under the supervision and 
direction of a board of regents of normal schools," who were to be appointed in accordance 
with the provisions of the act. Distribution of this income was made to such colleges, acade- 
mies, and high schools as maintained a normal class, in proportion to the number of pupils pass- 
ing a successful examination conducted by an agent of the board. In 1S59, Dr. Henry Barnard, 
who had become chancellor of the university, was made agent of the normal regents. He 
inaugurated a system of teachers' institutes, and gave fresh vigor to the normal work throughout 
the state. Resigning, however, on account of ill-health, within two years. Professor Chas. H. 
Allen, wiio had been conducting institutes under his direction, succeeded him as agent of the 
normal regents, and was elected principal of the normal department of the university, entering 
upon his work as the latter in March, 1864. He managed the department with signal ability and 
success, but at the end of one or two years resigned. Meantime the educational sentiment of 
the state had manifested itself for the establishment of separate normal schools. 

In 1865, the legislature passed an act repealing that of two years before, and providing 
instead that one-half of the swamp-land fund should be set apart as a normal-school fund, the 
income of which should be applied to establishing and supporting normal schools under the 
direction and management of the board of normal regents, with a proviso, however, that one- 
fourth of such income should be annually transferred to the common-school fund income, until 
the latter should amount annually to $200,000. This proviso was repealed by the legislature of 
1S70, and the entire income of one-half the swamp-land fund has since been devoted to normal-. 
school purposes. During the same year proposals were invited for aid in the establishment of a 
normal school, in money, land, or buildings, and propositions from various places were received 
and considered. In 1S66, the board of regents was incorporated by the legislature. In the 
same year Platteville was conditionally selected as the site of a school, and as there was already 
a productive fund of about $600,000, with an income of over $30,000, and a prospect of a steady 
increase as the lands were sold, the board decided upon the policy of establishing several schools, 
located in different parts of the state. In pursuance of this policy, there have already been 
completed, and are now in very successful operation, the Platteville Normal School, opened 
October 9, 1866 ; the Whitewater Normal School, opened April 21, 1868 ; the Oshkosh Normal 
School, opened September 19, 1871, and the River Falls Normal School, opened September 
2, 1875. Each assembly district in the state is entitled to eight representatives in the 
normal schools. These are nominated by county and city superintendents. Tuition is. 
free to all normal students. There are in the normal schools two courses of study — an 



elementary course oi two years, and an advanced course oi ionr years. The student completing 
the former, receives a certificate ; the one completing the latter, a diploma. The certificate, when 
the holder has successfully taught one year after graduation, may be countersigned by the suj)- 
erintendent of public instruction, when it becomes equivalent to a five-years' state certificate. 
The diploma, when thus countersigned, after a like interval, is equivalent to a permanent state 

It is believed that the normal-school system of Wisconsin rests upon a broader and more 
secL'-e basis tlian the corresponding system of any other state. That basis is an independent 
and permanent fund, which has already reached a million dollars. The precise amount of this 
securely invested and productive fund, September 30, 1877, was $985,681.84, and the sum of 
•$45,056.84 remained uninvested. 

Teachers' Institutes. 

In addition to the work of the normal schools, the board of regents is authorized to expend 
■$5,000 annually to defray the e.xpenses of teachers' institutes. A law of 187 1, amended in 1S76, 
provides for normal institutes, which shall be held for not less than two consecutive weeks, and 
appropriates from the state treasury a sum not exceeding $2,000 per annum for their support. 
There were held in the state, in 1876, sixty-five institutes, varying in length from one to four 
Weeks. The total number of persons enrolled as attendants was 4,660 

Graded Schools. 

Including those in the cities, the graded schools of the state number about four nundred. 
The annual report of the state superintendent for 1S76 gives the number with two departments 
as one hundred and eighty-three, and the number with three or more as one hundred and 

A law of March, 1872, provided that "all graduates of any graded school of the state, who 
shall have passed an examination at such graded school satisfactory to the faculty of the univer- 
sity for admission into the sub-freshman class and college classes of the university, shall be at 
once and at all times entitled to free tuition in all the colleges of the university." A consider- 
able number of graduates of graded schools entered the university under this law during the 
next four years, but it being deemed an unwise discrimination in favor of this class of students, 
in 1876, in the same act which provided for the tax of one tenth of one mill, the legislature pro- 
vided that from and after the 4th of July of that year fio student, except students in law and 
those taking extra studies, should be required to pay any fees for tuition. Few graded schools 
of the state are able as yet to fully prepare students for entrance into the regular classes of the 
classical department of the university. The larger number prepared by them still enter the 
■scientific department or the sub-freshman class. 

The Township System. 

In 1869 the legislature passed a law authorizing towns to adopt by vote the " township sys- 
tem of school government." Under this system each town becomes one school district, and the 
several school districts already existing become sub-districts. Each sub-district elects a clerk, 
and these clerks constitute a body corporate under the name of the " board of school directors," and 
are invested with the title and custody of all school houses, school-house sites, and other prop- 
erty belonging to the sub-districts, with power to control them for the best interests of the- 
schools of the town. The law provides for an executive committee to execute the orders of the 


board, employ teacliers, etc., and for a secretary to record proceedings of the board, have imme- 
diate charge and supervision of the schools, and perform other specified duties. But few towns 
ha\e as yet made trial of this system, although it is in successful operation in Pensylvania, Mas- 
sachusetts, and some other states, and where fully and fairly tried in our own, has proved entirely 
satisfactory. It is the general belief of our enlightened educational men that the plan has such 
merits as ought to secure its voluntary adoption by the people of the state. 

Free High Schools. 

In 1875 the legislature enacted that any town, incorporated village, or city, may establish 
and maintain not more than two free high schools, and provided for an annual appropriation of 
not to exceed $25,000, tj refund one-half of the actual cost of instruction in such schools, but 
no school to draw in any one year more tlian $500. At the session of 1877 the benefits of the 
act were extended to such high schools already established as shall show by a proper report that 
they have conformed to the requirements of the law. If towns decline to establish such a 
school, one or more adjoining districts in the same have the privilege of doing so. The law has 
met with much favor. For the school year ending August 31, 1876 (the first year in which it was 
in operation), twenty such schools reported, and to these the sum of $7,466.50 was paid, being 
an average of S373.32 per school. It is expected that twice this number will report for the 
second year. The high school law was primarily designed to bring to rural neighborhoods the 
two-fold advantages of (i) a higlier instruction than the common district schools afford, and (2) 
a better class of teachers for these schools. It was anticipated, however, from the first that the 
imncdiate results of the law would be chiefly the improvement of existing graded schools in the 
larger villages and in cities. Experience may be said to have already confirmed both antici- 

School Officers. 

The school officers of Wisconsin are, a state superintendent of public instruction, sixty-four 
county sujjerintendents, twenty-eight city superintendents, and a school board in each district, 
consisting of a director, treasurer, and clerk. The state and county superintendents hold office 
two years, the district officers three years. In each independent city there is a board of educa- 
tion, and the larger cities have each a city superintendent, who in some cases is also principal of 
the high school. He is appoirited for one year. The county board of supervisors determine, 
within certain limits, the amount of money to be raised annually in each town and ward of their 
county for school ])urposes, levy an additional amount for the salary of the county superintend- 
ents, may authorize a special school tax, and may under certain circumstances determine that 
there shall be two superintendents for their county. The town board of supervisors have authority 
to form and alter school districts, to issue notice for first meeting, to form union districts for high 
school purposes, and appoint first boards for the same, to locate and establish school-house sites 
under certain circumstances, to extinguish districts tliat have neglected to maintain school for 
two years, and to dispose of the property of the same. The district clerks report annually to the 
town clerks, the town clerks to the county superintendents, and the county and city superintend- 
ents to the state superintendent, who in turn makes an annual report to the governor. 

State Te.\chers' Certificates. 

The state superintendent is authorized by law "to issue state certificates of high grade to 
teachers of eminent qualifications." Two grades of these are given, one unlimited, and the 
other good for five years. The examination is conducted by a board of three examiners, 
appointed annually by the state superintendent, and acting under niles and regulations prescribed 
I'V liim. 


Teachers' Associations. 

Besides the Wisconsin State Teachers' Association, holding its annual session in the summer 

and a semi-annual or " executive " session in the winter, there are, in several parts of the state, 

county or district associations, holding stated meetings. The number of such associations is 

annually increasing. 


The utility of public libraries as a part of the means of popular enlightenment, was early 
recognized in this state. The constitution, as set forth in 1848, required that a portion of the 
income of the school fund should be applied to the " purchase of suitable libraries and appa- 
ratus" for the common schools. The same year the legislature of the state, at its first session, 
enacted that as soon as this income should amount to $60,000 a year (afterwards changed to 
$30,000), each town superintendent might devote one tenth of the portion of this income received 
by his town annually, to town library purposes, the libraries thus formed to be distributed among 
the districts, in sections, and in rotation, once in three months. Districts were also empowered 
to raise money for library books. The operation of this discretionary and voluntary system was 
not successful. In ten years (1858) only about one third of the districts (1,121) had libraries, 
embracing in all but 38,755 volumes, and the state superintendent, Hon. Lyman C. Draper, urged 
upon the legislature a better system, of " town libraries," and a state tax for their creation and 
maintenance. In 1857, the legislature enacted that ten per cent, of the yearly income of the 
school fund should be applied to the purchase of town school libraries, and that an annual tax of 
one tenth of one mill should be levied for the same purpose. The law was left incomplete, how- 
ever, and in 1862, before the system had been perfected, the exigencies of the civil war led to 
the repeal of the law, and the library fund which had accumulated from the ten per cent, of the 
school fund income, and from the library tax, amounting in all to $88,784.78, was transferred to 
the general fund. This may be considered a debt to the educational interests of the slate that 
should be repaid. Meanwhile the single district library system languishes and yearly grows 
weaker. The re-enacting of a town library system, in which local effort and expenditure shall 
be stimulated and supplemented by state aid, has been urged upon the legislature by the present 
state superintendent, and will, it is hoped, be secured, at no distant day, as a part of a complete 
town system of schools and of public education. 

List of State Superintendents. 

The act creating the office was passed at the first session of the state legislature, in 1848, 
The incumbents up to the present time have been as follows : 


Hon. E. Root ._ .._ Three years — 1849-50-51. 

Hon. A. P. Ladd Two years — 1852-53. 

Hon. H. A. Wright* __ One year and five months — 1854-55. 

Hon, A. C. Barry Two years and seven months — 1855-56-57. 

Hon. L. C. Draper Two years — 185S-59. 

Hon. J. L. Pickardf ..Three years and nine months — 1860-61-62-63. 

Hon. J. G. McMynn Four years and three months — 1863-64-65-66-67. 

Hon. A. J. Craigt Two years and six months — 1868-69-70. 

Hon. Samuel Fallows Three years and six months — 1870-71-72-73. 

Hon. Edward Searing.. Four years — 1874-75-76-77. 


Sketches of Colleges in Wisconsin. 

Beloit College was founded in 1S47, at Beloit, under the auspices of the Congregational and 
Presbyterian churches of Wisconsin and northern Illinois. In 184S, Rev. Joseph Emerson and 
Rev. J. J. Bushnell were appointed professors, and in 1849, Rev. A. L. Chapin was appointed 
prasident, and has continued such until the present time. The institution has had a steady 
growth, has maintained a high standard of scholarship and done excellent work, both in its pre- 
paratory and college departments. Two hundred and thirty-si.\ young men have graduated. 
Its lands and buildings are valued at $78,000, and its endowments and funds amount to about 

Lawrence Unfversity, at .\ppleton, under th« patronage of the Methodist church, was 
organized as a college in 1S50, having been an " institute " or academy for three years previous, 
under the Rev. W. H. Sampson. The first president was Rev. Edward Cook ; the second, R. 
Z. Mason ; the present one is the Rev. George M. Steele, D. D. It is open to both sexes, and 
has graduated 130 young men, and 68 young women. It still maintains a preparatory depart- 
ment. It has been an institution of great benefit in a new region of country, in the northeastern 
part of the state. Receiving a liberal donation at the outset from the Hon. Amos A. Lawrence, 
of Boston, it has land and buildings valued at $47,000, at Appleton, and funds and endowments 
amounting to $60,000. 

Milton College, an institution under the care of the Seventh Day Baptists, was opened as a 
college in 1867, having been conducted as an academy since 1844. Rev. W. C. Whitford, tlie 
president, was for many years the principal of the academy The institution has done much 
valuable work, particularly in preparing teachers for our public schools. The college has gradu- 
ated 38 young men and women, having previously graduated 93 academic students. It has lands, 
buildings and endowments to the amount of about $50,000. 

Ripon College, which wa3 known till 1864 as Brockway College, was organized in 1853, at 
Ripon, and is supported by the Congregational church. Since its re-organization, in 1863, it has 
graduated 77 students (of both sexes) in the college courses, and has always maintained a large 
and flourishing preparatory department. Under its present efficient head, the Rev, E. H. Mer- 
rell, A. M., it is meeting with continued success. Its property amounts to about $125,000. 

Racine College was founded by the Episcopal Church, at Racine, in 1852, under the Rev. 
Roswell Park, D. D., as its first President. It was for a long time under the efficient administra- 
tion of Rev. James De Koven, D. D., now deceased, who was succeeded by Rev. D. Stevens 
Parker. It maintains a large boys' school also, and a preparatory department. It was designed, 
in part, to train young men for the Nashotah Theological Seminary. It has property, including 
five buildings, to the amount of about g 180,000, and has graduated ninety-nine young men. Its 
principal work, in which it has had great success, is that of a boys' school, modeled somewhat 
after the English schools. 

The Seminary of St. Francis of Sales, an ecclesiastical school, was established at St. Fran- 
cis Station, near Milwaukee, chiefly by the combined efforts of two learned and zealous priests, 
the Rev. Michael Heiss, now bishop of La Crosse, and the Rev. Joseph Salzmann. It was 
opened in January, 1856, with Rev. M. Heiss as rector, and with 25 students. Rev. Joseph 
.' alzmann was rector from September, i868, to the time of his death, January 17, 1874, since 
which time Rev. C. Wapelhorst has held the rectorship. The latter is now assisted by twelve 
professors, and the students number 267, of whom 105 are theologians, 31 students of philosophy, 
and the rest classical students. 

Pio Nono College is a Roman Catholic institution, at St. Francis Station, in the immediate 
neighl)orhood of tlie Seminary of St. Francist It was founded in 187 i, by Rev. Joseph Salzmann, 

* Died, M.iy 29, 1S45. f Resigned, Octolicr i, 1S63. | DiLvI, Jnly 3, 1S70. 


who was the first rector. He was succeeded in 1874 by the present rector, Rev. Thomas Brue- 
ner, who is assisted by a corps of seven professors. Besides the college proper, there is a nor- 
mal department, in whicli, in addition to the education that qualifies for teaching in common and 
higher schools, particular attention is given to church music. There is also, under the same 
management, but in an adjoining building, an institution for the instruction of the deaf and dumb. 
The pupils in the latter, both boys and girls, numbering about 30, are taught to speak by sounds, 
and it is said with the best success. 

An institution was organized in 1865,31 Prairie du Chien, under the name of Prairie du 
Chien College, and under the care of J. T. Lovewell, as principal. In the course of two or three 
years it passed into the hands of the Roman Catholic church, and is now known as St. John's 
College. It has so far performed principally preparatory work. 

Sinsinawa Mound College, a Roman Catholic institution, was founded in 1S48, through the 
Tabors of Father Mazzuchelli, but after doing a successful work, was closed in 1S63, and in 1S67 
the St. Clara academy was opened in the same buildings. 

The Northwestern University, which is under the Lutheran church, was organized in 1865, 
at Watertown, under Rev. August F. Ernst, as president. It has graduated 21 young men, and 
has a preparatory department. Its ])roperty is valued at $50,000. 

Galesville University was organized in 1859, under the patronage of the Methodist church 
at Galesville, in the northwest part of the state. The first president was the Rev. Samuel Fal- 
lows, since state superintendent. It has graduated ten young men and eight young women, its 
work hitherto having been mostly preparatory. It is now under the patronage of the Presby- 
terian denomination, with J. W. McLaury, A. M.. as president. It has property valued at 
$30,000, and an endowment of about $50,000. 

Carroll College was established at Waukesha, by the Presbyterian church, in 1846. Prof. J. 
W. Sterling, now of the state university, taught its primary classes that year. Under President 
John A. Savage, D.D., with an able corps of professors, it took a high rank and graduated 
classes; but for several years past it has confined its work principally to academic studies. 
Under W. L. Rankin, A. M.,the present principal, the school is doing good service. 

Wayland University was established as a college, by the Baptists, at Beaver Dam, in 1854, 
but never performed much college work. For three years past, it has been working under a new 
charter as an academy and preparatory school, and is now known as Wayland Institute. 

In 1 84 1, the Protestant Episcopal church established a mission in the wilds of Waukesha 
county, and, at an early day, steps were taken to establish in connection therewith an institution 
of learning. This was incorporated in 1847, by the name of Nashotah House. In 1852 the 
classical school was located at Racine, and Nashotah House became distinctively a theological 
seminary. It has an endowment of one professorship, th^ faculty and students being otherwise 
sustained by voluntary contributions. It has a faculty of five professors, with Rev. A. D. 
Cole, D.D., as president, buildings pleasantly situated, and has graduated 185 theological students. 

Female Colleges. 

Two institutions have been known under this designation. The Milwaukee Female College 
was founded in 1852, and ably conducted for several years, under the principalship of Miss Mary 
Mortimer, now deceased. It furnished an advanced grade of secondary instruction. The Wis- 
consin Female College, located at Fox Lake, was first incorporated in 1855, and re-organized in 
1863. It has never reached a collegiate course, is now known as Fox Lake Seminary, and 
admits both sexes. Rev. A. O. Wright, A. M., is the present principal. 


Academies and Seminaries. 

The following institutions of academic grade, are now in operation : Albion Academy ; 
Benton Academy; Big Foot Academy; Elroy Seminary; Fox Lake Seminary; two German and 
English academies in Milwaukee; Janesville Academy; Kemper Hall, Kenosha ; Lake Geneva 
Seminary, Geneva; Lakeside Seminary, Oconomowoc ; Marshall Academy, Marshall; Merrill 
Institute, Fond du Lac; Milwaukee Academy; Racine Academy; River Falls Institute; 
Rochester Seminary; St. Catherine's Academy, Racine; St. Clara Academy; Sinsinawa 
Mound ; St. Mary's Institute, Milwaukee ; Sharon Academy ; and \Vayland Institute, Beaver 
Dam. Similar institutions formerly in operation but suspended or merged in other institu- 
tions, were : Allen's Grove Academy; Appleton Collegiate Institute ; Baraboo Collegiate Insti- 
tute; Beloit Female Seminary; Beloit Seminary; Brunson Institute, Mount Hope; Evansville Sem- 
inary ; Janesville Academy (merged in the high school); Kilbourn Institute; Lancaster Institute; 
Milton .\cademy ; Platteville Academy; Southport Academy (Kenosha); Waterloo Academy; 
Waukesha Seminary; Wesleyan Seminary, Eau Claire; and Patch Grove Academy. The 
most important of these were the Milton and Platteville Academies, the former merged in Mil- 
ton College, the latter in the Platteville Normal School. Of the others, several were superseded 
by the establishment of public high schools in the same localities. 

Commercial Schools. 

Schools of this character, aiming to furnish what is called a business education, exist in Mil- 
waukee, Janesville, Madison, LaCrosse, Green Bay, Oshkosh and Fond du Lac. The oldest and 
largest is in Milwaukee, under the care of Prof. R. C. Spencer, and enrolls from two to three 
hundred students annually. 


By W. W. D.^NIELLS, M.S., Prof, of Chemistry and .\griculture at the University 

OF Wisconsin. 

The trend of the earliest industries of a country, is the result of the circumstances under 
which those industries are developed. The attention of pioneers is confined to supplying the 
immediate wants of food, shelter, and clothing. Hence, the firs tsettlers of a country are farm- 
ers, miners, trappers, or fishermen, according as they can most readily secure the means of pres- 
ent sustenance for themselves and their families. In the early history of Wisconsin this law is 
well exemplified. The southern part of the state, consisting of alternations of prairie and tim- 
ber, was first settled by farmers. As the country has developed, wealth accumulated, and means 
of transportation have been furnished, farming has ceased to be the sole interest. Manufactories 
have been built along the rivers, and the mining industry of the southwestern part of the state has 
grown to one of considerable importance. The shore of Lake Michigan was first mainly settled 
tied by fishermen, but the later growth of agriculture and manufactures has nearly overshadowed 
the fishing interest ; as has the production of lumber, in the north half of the state, eclipsed tlie 
trapping and fur interests of the first settlers. That the most important industry of Wisconsin 
is farming, may be seen from the following statistics of the occupation of the people as given by 
the United States census. Out of each one hundred inhabitants, of all occupations, 6S were 



farmers, in 1S40; 52 in 1850; 54 in 1S60; 55 in 1870. The rapid growth of the agriculture of 
the state is illustrated by the increase in the number of acres of improved land in farms, and in 
the value of farms and of farm implements and machinery, as shown by the following table, com- 
piled from the United States census : 










$ 28,528,563 

$ 1,641,568 



Farming, at thepresent time, is almost entirely confined to the south half of the state, the 
northern half being still largely covered by forests. A notable exception to this statement is 
found in the counties on the western border, which are well settled by farmers much farther north. 
The surface of the agricultural portion of the state is for the most part gently undulating, afford- 
ing ready drainage, without being so abruptly broken as to render cultivation difficult. The soil 
is varied in character, and mostly very fertile. The southern portion of the state consists of 
undulating prairies of variable size — the largest being Rock prairie — alternating with oak openings. 
The prairies have the rich alluvial soil so characteristic of the western prairies, and are easily 
worked. The soil of the "openings " land is usually a sandy loam, readily tilled, fertile, but not 
as " strong" as soils having more clay. The proportion of timber to prairie increases passing north 
from the southern boundary of the state, and forests of maple, basswood and elm, replace, to 
some extent, the oak lands. In these localities, the soil is more clayey, is strong and fertile, not 
as easily tilled, and not as quickly exhausted as are the more sandy soils of the oak lands. In 
that portion of the state known geologically as the " driftless " region, the soil is invariably good 
where the surface rock is limestone. In some of the valleys, however, where the lime-rock has 
been removed by erosion, leaving the underlying sandstone as the surface rock, the soil is sandy 
and unproductive, except in those localities where a large amount of alluvial matter has been 
deposited by the streams. The soils of the pine lands of the north of the state, are generally 
sandy and but slightly fertile. However, where pine is replaced by maple, oak, birch, elm and 
basswood, the soil is "heavier " and very fertile, even to the shores of Lake Superior. 

The same natural conditions that make Wisconsin an agricultural state, determined that 
during its earlier years the main interest should be grain-growing. The fertile prairies covering 
large portions of the southern part of the state had but to be plowed and sowed with grain to 
produce an abundant yield. From the raising of cereals the pioneer farmer could get the 
quickest returns for his labor. Hence in 1850, two years after its admission to the Union, Wis- 
consin was the ninth state in order in the production of wheat, while in 1S60 this rank was raised 
to third, Illinois and Indiana only raising more. The true rank of the state is not shown by 
these figures. Were the number of inhabitants and the number of acres of land in actual culti- 
vation taken into account in the comparison, the state would stand still higher in rank than is 
here indicated. There is the same struggle for existence, and the same desire for gain the world 
over, and hence the various phases of development of the same industry in different civilized 
countries is mainly the result of the widely varying economical conditions imposed upon that 
industry. Land is thoroughly cultivated in Europe, not because the Europeans have any 
inherent love for good cultivation, but because there land is scarce and costly, while labor is 
superabundant and cheap. In America, on the other hand, and especially in the newer states, 


land is abundant and cheap, while labor is scarce and costly. In its productive industries each 
country is alike economical in tlie use of the costly element in production, and more lavish in 
the use of that which is cheaper. Each is alike economically wise in following such a course 
when it is not carried to too great e.xtremes. With each the end sought is the greatest return for 
the expenditure of a given amount of capital. In accordance with this law of economy, the 
early agriculture of Wisconsin was mere land-skimming. Good cultivation of the soil was never 
thought of The same land was planted ^ccessively to one crop, as long as it yielded enough 
to pay for cultivation. The economical principle above stated was carried to an extreme. Farm- 
ing as then practiced was a quick method of land exhaustion. It was always taking out of the 
purse, and never putting in. No attention was paid to sustaining the soil's fertility. The only 
aim was to secure the largest crop for the smallest outlay of capital, without regard to the future. 
Manures were never used, and such as unavoidably accumulated was regarded as a great nuis- 
ance, often rendering necessary the removal of stables and outbuildings. Straw-stacks were 
invariably burned as the most convenient means of disposing of them. Wheat, the principal 
product, brought a low price, often not more than fifty cents a bushel, and had to be marketed 
by teams at some point from which it could be carried by water, as this was, at an early day, the 
only means of transportation. On account of the sparse settlement of the country, roads were 
poor, and the farmer, after raising and threshing his wheat, had to spend, with a team, from two 
to five days, marketing the few bushels that a team could draw. So that the farmer had every 
obstacle to contend with except cheap and very fertile land, that with the poorest of cultivation 
gave a comparatively abundant yield of grain. Better tillage, accompanied with the use of 
manures and other fertilizers, would not, upon the virgin soils, have added sufficiently to the 
yield to pay the cost of applying them. Hence, to the first farmers of the s\a.te, /foor farming was 
the only profitable farming, and consequently the only good farming, an agriculturo-economical 
paradox from which there was no escape. Notwithstanding the fact that farmers could economi- 
cally follow no other system than that of land-exhaustion, as described, such a course was none 
the less injurious to the state, as it was undermining its foundation of future wealth, by destroy- 
ing the fertility of the soil, that upon which the permanent wealth and prosperity of every agri- 
cultural community is first dependent. Besides this evil, and together with it, came the habit of 
loose and slovenly farming acquired by pioneers, which continued after the conditions making 
that method a necessity had passed away. With the rapid growth of the northwest came better 
home markets and increased facilities for transportation to foreign markets, bringing with them 
higher prices for all products of the farm. As a consequence of these better conditions, land in 
farms in the state increased rapidly in value, from $9.58 per acre in 1850, to §16.61 in 1S60, an 
increase of 62 per cent., while the total number of acres in farms increased during the 
same time from 2,976,658 acres to 7,893,587 acres, or 265 per cent. With this increase in the 
value of land, and the higher prices paid for grain, should have come an improved system of hus- 
bandry which would prevent the soil from deteriorating in fertility. This could have been 
accomplished either by returning to the soil, in manures and fertilizers, those ingredients of which 
it was being rapidly drained by continued grain-growing, or by the adoption of a system of mixed 
husbandry, which should include the raising of stock and a judicious rotation of crops. Such a 
system is sure to come. Indeed, it is now slowly coming. Great progress upon the earlier 
methods of farming have already been made. But so radical and thorough a change in the 
habits of any class of people as that from the farming of pioneers to a rational method that will 
preserve the soil's fertility and pay for the labor it demands, requires many years for its full 
accomplishment. It will not even keep pace with changes in those economical conditions which 



favor it. In the rapid settlement of the northwestern states this change has come most rapidly 
with the replacement of the pioneer farmers by immigrants accustomed to better methods of 
culture. In such cases the pioneers usually ' go west '' again, to begin anew their frontier farming 
upon virgin soil, as their peculiar method of cultivation fails to give them a livelihood. In Wis- 
consin as rapid progress is being made in the system of agriculture as, all things considered) 
could reasonably be expected. This change for the better has been quite rapid for the past ten 
years, and is gaining in velocity and momentum each year. It is partly the result of increased 
intelligence relating to farming, and partly the result of necessity caused by the unprofitableness 
of the old method. 

The estimated value of all agricultural products of the stat'e, including that of orchards, 
market gardens, and betterments, was, in 1S70, as given in the census of that year, $79,072,967, 
which places Wisconsin twelfth in rank among the agricultural states of the Union. In 1875, 
according to the " Report of the Commissioner of .\griculture," the value of the principal farm 
crops in this state was $58,957,050. According to this estimation the state ranks ninth in agri- 
cultui-al importance. As has been before stated, Wisconsin is essentially a grain-growing state. 
This interest has been the principal one, not because the soil is better adapted to grain-growing 
than to general, stock, or dairy farming, but rather because this course, which was at an early 
day most immediately profitable, has been since persistently followed from force of habit, even 
after it had failed to be remunerative. 

The following table shows the bushels of the different grains raised in the state for the years 
indicated : 








i86o ... 
1870 ... 

















From these statistics it will be seen that the increase in the production of grain was very 
rapid up to 1870, while since that time it has been very slight. This rapid increase in grain 
raising is first attributable to the ease with which this branch of farming was carried on upon the 
new and very rich soils of the state, while in the older states this branch of husbandry has been 
rrrowing more difficult and expensive, and also to the fact that the war in our own country so 
increased the demand for grain from 1861 to 1866 as to make this course the most immediately 
profitable. But with the close of the war came a diminished demand. Farmers were slow to 
recognize this fact, and change the character of their productions to accord with the wants of 
the market, but rather continued to produce the cereals in excess of the demand. The chinch 
bug and an occasional poor season seriously injured the crops, leaving those who relied princi- 
pally upon the production of grain little or nothing for their support. Hard times resulted from 
these poor crops. More wheat and corn was the farmer's usual remedy for hard times. So that 
more wheat and corn were planted. More crop failures with low prices brought harder times, 
until gradually the farmers of the state have opened their eyes to the truth that they can succeed 
in other branches of agriculture than grain growing, and to the necessity of catering to the 

♦Estimated in report of commissioner of agriculture. 


demands of the market. The value in 1869 of all farm products and betterments of the state 
was $79,072,967. There were raised of wheat the same year 25,606,344 bushels, which at $1.03 
per bushel, the mean price reported by the Milwaukee board of trade, for No. 2 wheat (the lead- 
ing grade), for tlie year ending July 31, 1S70, amounts to $26,374,524, or one third the value of 
all agricultural products and betterments. The average production per acre, as estimated by the 
commissioner of agriculture, was 14 bushels. Hence there were 1,829,024 acres of land devoted to 
this one crop, nearly one third of all the improved land in the state. Of the wheat crop of 1869 
24,375,435 bushels were spring wheat, and 1,230,909 bushels were winter wheat, which is 19.8 
bushels of spring to i bushel of winter wheat. The latter is scarcely sown at all on the prairies, 
or upon light opening soils. In some of the timbered regions hardy varieties do well, but it is 
not a certain crop, as it is not able to withstand the winters, unless covered by snow or litter. It 
is not injured as seriously by the hard freezing, as by tlie alternate freezing and thawing of Feb- 
ruary and March. 

The continued cropping of land with grain is a certain means of exhausting the soil of the 
phosphates, and of those nitrogenous compounds that are essential to the production of grain, and 
yet are present even in the most fertile soils in but small quantities. To the diminished yield, 
partly attributable to the overcropping of the land, and partially to poor seasons and chinch bugs, 
and to the decline in prices soon after the war, owing to an over production of wheat, may largely 
be attributed the hard times experienced by the grain growing farmers of Wisconsin from 1872 to 
1S77. The continued raising of wheat upon the same land, alternated, if any alternation 
occurred, with barley, oats, or corn, has produced its sure results. The lesson has cost the 
farmers of the state dearly, but it has not been altogether lost. A better condition of affairs has 
already begun. Wheat is gradually losing its prestige as the farmers' sole dependence, while 
stock, dairy, and mixed farming are rapidly increasing. The number of bushels of wheat 
raised to each inhabitant in the state was in 1850 fourteen, in i860 twenty-three and eight tenths 
in 1870 twenty-four, and in 1875 twenty and four tenths. These figures do not indicate a dimin- 
ished productiveness of the state, but show, with the greatly increased production in other 
branches of husbandry, that farmers are changing their system to one more diversified and 
rational. Straw stacks are no longer burned, and manure heaps are not looked upon as altogether 
useless. Much more attention is now paid to the use of fertilizers. Clover with plaster is looked 
upon with constantly increas'ing favor, and there is a greater seeking for light upon the more 
difficult problems of a profitable agriculture 

Corn is raised to a large extent, although Wisconsin has never ranked as high in corn, as in 
wheat growing. Sixteen states raised more corn in 1870 than this state, and in 1875, seventeen 
states raised more. Corn requires a rich, moist soil, with a long extended season of warm sun- 
shine. While this crop can be raised with great ease in the larger portion of the state, it will 
always succeed better farther south, both on account of the longer summers and the greater 
amount of rainfall. According to the statistics of tlie commissioner of agriculture, the average 
yield per acre for a period of ten years, is about 30 bushels. Corn is an important crop in the 
economy of the farmer, as from it he obtains much food for liis stock, and it is his principal 
dependence for fattening pork. On these accounts it will, without doubt, retain its place in the 
husbandry of the state, even when stock and dairy farming are followed to a much greater extent 
than at present. Barley is cultivated largely throughout the state, but five states produced more 
in 1870, than Wisconsin. The great quantity of beer brewed here, furnishes a good home market 
for this grain. Barley succeeds best in a rather moist climate, having a long growin>^ season. 
The dry, short summers of Wisconsin, are not well adapted to its growth. Hence the average 


yield is but a medium one, and the quality of the grain is only fair. According to the returns 
furnished the commissioner of agriculture, the average yield for a period of ten years, is 22 
bushels per acre. 

Next to wheat, more bushels of oats are raised than of any other grain. Wisconsin was, in 
i860, fifth in rank among the oat-growing states; in 1870, si.xth. The rich soils of the state 
raise an abundant crop of oats with but little labor, and hence their growth in large quantities is 
hot necessarily an indication of good husbandry. They will bear poor cultivation better than 
corn, and are frequently grown upon land too weedy to produce that grain. It is a favorite 
grain for feeding, especially to horses. With the best farmers, oats are looked upon with less 
favor than corn, because it is apt to leave land well seeded with weeds which are difficult to 
exterminate. In the production of rye, Wisconsin ranked seventh in i860, and fourth in 1870. 
It is a much surer crop in this state than winter wheat, as it is less easily winter-killed when not 
protected by snow, than is that grain. Besides, it ripens so early as not to be seriously injured 
by drouth in summer, and succeeds well even upon the poorer soils. The average yield per acre 
is about 16 bushels. 

But few hops were grown in Wisconsin, up to i860, when owing to an increased demand by 
the breweries (f the state, there was a gradual but healthful increase in hop culture. A few 
years later the advent of the hop louse, and other causes of failure at the east, so raised the price 
of hops as to make them a very profitable crop to grow. Many acres were planted in this state 
from 1863 to 1865, when the total product was valued at nearly $350,000. The success of those 
engaged in this new branch of farming, encouraged others to adopt it. The profits were large. 
Wheat growing had not for several years been remunerative, and in 1867 and 1868, the " hop 
fever " became an epidemic, almost a plague. The crop of Sauk county alone was estimated at 
over 4,000,000 pounds, worth over $2,000,000. The quality of the crop was excellent, the yield 
large, and the price unusually high. The secretary of the State .Agricultural society says, in his 
report for that year, " Cases are numerous in which the first crop has paid for the land and all 
the improvements." To many farmers hop raising appeared to offer a sure and speedy course to 
wealth. But a change came quickly. The hop louse ruined the crop, and low prices caused by 
over production, aided in bringing ruin to many farmers. In 1867, the price of hops was from 
40 to 55 cents per pound, while in 1869 it was from 10 to 15 cents, some of poor (quality selling 
as low as 3 cents. Many hop yards were plowed up during 1869 and 1870. The area under 
cultivation to this crop in 1875, was, according to the " Report of the Secretary of State," 10,932 

The production of tobacco has greatly increased since i860, when there were raised in the 
state 87,340 pounds. In 1870, the product was 960,813 pounds. As is well known, the quality 
of tobacco grown in the northern states is greatly inferior for chewing and smoking, to that grown 
in the south, although varieties having a large, tough leaf, suitable for cigar wrappers, do well 
here. The variety principally grown is the Connecticut seed leaf. Tobacco can only be grown 
successfully on rich, fertile soils, and it is very exhausting to the land. Of the amount produced 
in 1870, there were raised in Rock county 645,408 pounds, and in Dane county, 229,568 pounds; 
the entire remaining portion of the state raised but 85,737 pounds. According to the report of 
the secretary of state, the whole number of acres planted to tobacco in 1875, was 3,296. Of this 
amount Rock county planted 1,676 acres, and Dane county, 1,454 acres, leaving for the remain- 
der of the state but 166 acres. While the crop has been fairly productive and profitable, these 
statistics show that up to the present time tobacco-raising has been a merely local interest. 

The production of flax is another merely local industry, it being confined principally to the 


•counties of Kenosha, Grant, Iowa and LaFayette. Of flax fibre, Kenosha county raised in 1S69, 
nearly four fifths of the entire amount grown in the state, the total being 497,398 pounds. With 
the high price of labor and the low price of cotton now ruling, it is scarcely possible to make the 
raising of flax fibre profitable. Flax seed is raised to a small extent in the other counties men- 
tioned. The present price of oil makes this a fairly profitable crop. If farmers fully appreciated 
that in addition to the oil, the oil cake is of great value as a food for cattle and sheep, and also 
that the manure made by the animals eating it, is of three times the value of that made by ani- 
mals fed upon corn, doubtless much more flax seed would be raised than is at present. Ameri- 
can oil-cake finds a ready market in England, at prices which pay well for its exportation. If 
English farmers can afford to carry food for their stock so far, American farmers may well strive 
to ascertain if ihey can afford to allow the exportation of so valuable food. When greater atten- 
tion is paid in our own country to the quality of the manure made by our stock, more oil-cake 
win be fed at home, and a much smaller proportion of that made here will be exported. 

The amount of maple sugar produced diminishes as the settlement of the state increases, 
and is now scarcely sufficient in amount to be an item in the state's productions. The increase 
in the price of sugar from 1S61 to 186S caused many farmers to try sorghum raising. But the 
present low prices of this staple has caused an abandonment of the enterprise. Two attempts 
have been made in Wisconsin to manufacture beet-root sugar, the first at Fond du Lac in 1867 
the second at Black Hawk, Sauk county, in 1870. The Fond du Lac company removed their 
works to California in i86g, not having been successful in their efforts. The Black Hawk com- 
pany made, in 187 1, more than 134,000 pounds of sugar, but have since abandoned the business. 
Both these failures may be attributed to several causes, first of which was the want of sufficient 
capital to build and carry on a factory sufficiently large to enable the work to be done economi- 
cally ; secondly, the difficulty of sufficiently interesting farmers in the business to induce them 
to raise beets on so large a scale as to warrant the building of such a factory; and, thirdly, the high 
price of labor and the low price of sugar. The quality of beets raised was good, the polarization 
test showing in many instances as high as sixteen per cent, of sugar. The larger proportion of 
hay made in the state is from the natural meadows, the low lands or marshes, where wild grasses 
grow in abundance, and hay only costs the cutting and curing. Cultivated grasses do well 
throughout the state, and " tame hay " can be made as easily here as elsewhere. The limestone 
soils, where timber originally grew, are of the uplands, most natural to grass, and, consequently, 
'furnish the richest meadows, and yield the best pasturage. Ye e only soils where grasses do 
not readily grow, are those which are so sandv and dry as to be nearly barrens. Clover grows 
throughout the state in the greatest luxuriance. There is occasionally a season so dry as to make 
" seeding down " a failure, and upon light soils clover, when not covered with snow, is apt to win- 
ter-kill. Yet it is gaining in favor with farmers, both on account of the valuable pasturage and 
hay it affords, and on account of its value as a soil renovator. In wheat-growing regions, clover 
is now recognized to be of the greatest value in a " rotation," on account of its ameliorating 
influence upon the soil. Throughout the stock and dairy regions, clover is depended upon to a 
large extent for pasturage, and to a less extent for hay. 

There has been a growing interest in stock raising for the past ten years, although the 
increase has not been a rapid one. Many of the herds of pure-blood cattle in the state rank 
high for their great excellence. The improvement of horses has been less rapid than that of cattle, 
sheep, and swine; yet this important branch of stock farming is improving each year. The most 
attention is given to the improvement of draught and farm horses, while roadsters and fast horses 
are not altogether neglected. There are now owned in the state a large number of horses of the 
heavier English and French breeds, which are imparting to their progeny their own characteristics 



of excellence, the effects of which are already visible in many of the older regions of the state. 
Of the different breeds of cattle, the Short-horns, the Ayrshires, the Devons, and the Jerseys are 
well represented. The Short-horns have met with most favor with the general farmer, the grades 
of this breed being large, and possessing in a high degree the quiet habits and readiness to fat- 
ten, so characteristic of the full-bloods. Without doubt, the grade Short-horns will continue in 
the high favor in which they are now held, as stock-raising becomes a more important branch of 
the husbandry of the state. Of pure blood Short-horns there are many herds, some of which 
are of the very highest excellence. At the public sales of herds from this state, the prices 
have ranked high universally, and in a few cases have reached the highest of " fancy " prices^ 
showing the estimate placed by professional breeders upon the herds of Wisconsin. The Ayr- 
shires are increasing in numbers, and are held in high esteem by many dairymen. They are not 
yet, however, as generally disseminated over the state, as their great merit as a milking breed 
would warrant. The rapid growth of the dairy interest will doubtless increase their numbers 
greatly, at least as grades, in the dairying region. Of pure bred Devons and Jerseys, there are 
fewer than of the former breeds. The latter are principally kept in towns and cities to furnish 
milk for a single family. The following table shows the relative importance of stock raising in 
the state for the years mentioned. The figures are an additional proof to those already given, 
that the grain industry has held sway in Wisconsin to the detriment of other branches of farming, 
as well as to the state's greatest increase in wealth. 








EACH 100 




















T. 011,933 




* Estimated in report of commissioner of agriculture. 

The growth and present condition of sheep husbandry, compare much more favorably with 
the general development of the state than does that of cattle raising. In a large degree this 
may be accounted for by the impetus given to wool raising during our civil war by the scarcity 
of cotton, and the necessary substitution to a great extent, of woolen for cotton goods. This 
great demand for wool for manufacturing purposes produced a rapid rise in the price of this 
staple, making its production a very profitable branch of farming. With the close of tlie war 
came a lessened demand, and consequently lower prices. Yet at no time has the price of wool 
fallen below that at which it could be profitably produced. Tliis is the more notably true when 
the value of sheep in keeping up the fertility and productiveness of land, is taken into account. 
The foregoing table shows the improvement in this branch of husbandry since 1850 

Although many more sheep might profitably be kept in the state, the above figures show that 
the wool interest is fairly developed, and the average weight of fleece is an assurance of more 
than ordinarily good stock. The fine-wooled sheep and their grades predominate, although 
there are in the state some excellent stock of long-wools — mostly Cotswold — and of South- 

Of all the agricultural interests of the state, no other has made as rapid growth during the 
last ten years, as has that of dairying. With the failure of hop-growing, began the growth of 
the factory system of butter and cheese making, and the downfall of the one. was scarcely more 
rapid than has been the upbuilding of the other. The following statistics of the production of 
butter and cheese illustrate this rapid progress. It will be remembered that for the years 1850, 



lS6o, and iS;o tlie statistics are from the U. S. census, and hence include all the butter and 
cheese made in the state, while for the remaining years, only that made by factories and pro- 
fessional dairymen as reported to the secretary of the State Dairymen's Association, is included. 
It has been found impossible to obtain the statistics of butter, e.xcept for the census years. 





1S60 - 



22,473 036 




1, 591.798 




1870 -. 




The quality of Wisconsin dairy products is excellent, as may be judged by the fact that, at 
the Centennial Exhibition, Wisconsin cheese received twenty awards, a larger number than was 
given to any other state except New York, and for butter Wisconsin received five awards. No 
state received more, and only New York and Illinois received as many. Wisconsin received one 
award for each fourteen cheeses on exhibition No other slate received so large a proportion. 
New York received the largest number of awards, viz., twenty-one, but only secured one award 
for each thirty cheeses on exhibition. The number of cheese and butter factories is increasing 
each year, and there is being made in the better grazing regions of the state, as rapid a transition 
from grain to dairy-farming as is consistent with a healthful growth. This interest, which is now 
an important one in the state's industrial economy, has before it a promising future, both in its 
own development, and in its indirect influence upon the improvement of the agriculture of the 

The history of the earlier attempts in fruii raising in Wisconsin would be little more than a 
record of failures. The pioneers planted apple, peach, plum, and cherry trees, but they gathered 
little or no fruit. As was natural, they planted those varieties that were known to do well in the 
older states of the same latitude. Little was known of the climate, and there was no apparent 
reason why those varieties should not do well here. The first orchards died The same varie- 
ties were replanted, and again the orchards died. Gradually, through the costly school of 
experience, it was learned that the climate was different from that of the eastern states, and that 
to succeed here varieties of fruit must be such as were adapted to the peculiar climate of this 
State. These peculiarities are hot, and for the most part, dry summers, cold and dry winters. 
The dryness of the climate has been the greatest obstacle to success, as this is indirectly the cause 
of the great extremes of temperature experienced here. The summers are often so dry that the 
growth of the trees is not completed, and the wood sufficiently well ripened to enable it to with- 
stand the rigors of winter. And the clear, dry atmosphere of winter allows the sun's rays to 
pass through it so unobstructedly as to warm the body of the tree upon the sunny side, above 
the freezing point, even though the temperature of the air is much lower. The alternate thawing 
and freezing ruptures the tender cells connecting the bark and wood, producing a complete sepa- 
ration of these p.arts, and often besides bursts the bark. The separation of bark and wood 
destroys the circulation of the sap upon that side of the tree, thus enfeebling the entire 
plant. The tree is not able to form new bark over the ruptured part, and a diseased spot 
results. Such a plant makes but a feeble growth of poorly ripened wood, and soon dies 


altogether. Besides the above cause, the extreme cold weather occasionally experienced will kill 
healthy trees of all varieties not extremely hardy. Notwithstanding these natural obstacles, a. 
good degree of success has been attained in the raising of apples and grapes. This success has 
been the result of persevering effort upon the part of the horticulturists of the state, who have 
sought the causes of failure in order that they might be removed or avoided. It is thus by intel- 
ligent observation that the fruit growers have gained the experience which brings with it a. 
creditable success. The first requisite to success is the planting of varieties sufficiently hardy 
to withstand our severe winters. This has been accomplished by selecting the hardiest of the 
old varieties, and by raising seedlings, having besides hardiness, qualities sufficiently valuable to 
make them worthy of cultivation. The second requisite to success is in the selection of a situa- 
tion having suitable soil and exposure, and thirdly, proper care after planting. Among the 
hardy varieties of apples regarded with greatest favor are Tetofski, Red Astrachan, and Duchess 
of Oldenberg, all Russian varieties, and Fameuse from Canada. Besides these there are a few 
.\merican varieties so hardy as to prove reliable in the south half of the state. Among these 
are a few seedlings that have originated in Wisconsin. Apple trees are less apt to be injured by 
the winter upon a site sloping to the northeast or north, where they are less directly exposed to- 
the rays of the winter's sun. High ground is much better than low, and a good, strong, not too 
rich soil is best. Apples do better upon soils where timber originally grew than on the prairies, 
and they are grown more easily along the border of Lake Michigan than in the interior of the 
state. Pears are raised to but a slight extent, as only a few of the hardiest varieties will succeed 
at all, and these only in favorable situations. Grapes are grown in great abundance, and in 
great perfection, although not of the more tender varieties. The Concord, on account of its 
hardiness and excellent bearing qualities, is cultivated most generally. Next to this comes the 
Delaware, while many other varieties, both excellent and prolific, are raised with great ease. The 
season is seldom too short to ripen the fruit well, and the only precaution necessary to protect 
the vines during the winter is a covering of earth or litter. Cranberries grow spontaneously 
upon many marshes in the interior of the state. Within a' few years considerable attention has. 
been given to improving these marshes, and to the cultivation of this most excellent fruit. 
Doubtless within a few years the cranberry crop will be an important one among the fruit pro- 
ductions of the state. All of the small fruits adapted to this latitude are cultivated in abundance, 
and very successfully, the yield being often times exceedingly large. .Altogether, the horticul- 
tural interests of the state are improving, and there is a bright prospect that in the near future 
fruit growing will not be looked upon with the disfavor with which it has been regarded here- 

Of the associations for advancing the agricultural interests of the state, the first organized, 
was the " State Agricultural Society." The earliest efforts to establish such an organization were 
made at Madison in December, 1846, during the session of the first constitutional convention of 
the territory. A constitution was adopted, but nothing further was done. In February, 1S491 
another meeting was held in Madison, at which it was " Resolved, That in view of the great 
importance of agriculture in the west, it is expedient to form a state agricultural society in. 
Wisconsin." Another constitution was adopted, and officers were elected, but no effectual 
organization resulted from this second attempt. The " Wisconsin State Agricultural Society" — 
the present organization — had its inception in a meeting held at Madison, March 8, 1851, at 
which a committee was appointed to report a constitution and by-laws, and to nominate persons 
to fill the various offices of said society. At its organization, the society was composed of annual 
members, who paid one dollar dues each year, and of life members, who, upon the payment of 
ten dollars, were exempt from the annual contribution. „ The annual membership was afterward 


abolished, and in 1869 the fee constituting one a life member was raised to twenty dollars. The 
first annual fair of the society was held in Janesville, in October, 1851 Fairs have been held 
annually since, except during the years 1S61, 1862 and 1863. In 1851 premiums were paid to 
the amount of only $140, while at the present time they amount to nearly $10,000. In 185 1 
there were five life members. At the present time there are over seven hundred, representing all 
the various industries of the state. The fairs held under the auspices of this society have been 
of excellent character, and have been fruitful of good to all the industries of the state, but more 
especially to the farmers. The state has been generous m aid of this society, having furnished 
commodious rooms for its use in the capitol building, prmted the annual report of the secretary, 
a volume of about 500 pages, and donated annually, for many years, $2,000 toward its support, 
Besides its annual fairs, for the past five years there has been held an annual convention, under 
the auspices of this society, for the reading and discussing of papers upon topics of interest to 
farmers, and for a general interchange of ideas relating to farming. These conventions are held 
in high esteem by the better class of farmers, and have added greatly to the usefulness of the 
society. The '' Wisconsin State Horticultural Society" was originally the "Wisconsin State 
Fruit Growers' Association," which was organized in December, 1853, at Whitewater. Its 
avowed object was "the collecting, arranging, and disseminatingfacts interesting to those engaged 
in the culture of fruits, and to embody for their use the results ot' the practice and experiments, 
of fruit growers in all parts of the state." Exhibitions and conventions of the association were 
held annually up to 1S60, after which the society was disorganized, owing to the breaking out of 
the war of the rebellion A volume of " Transactions " was published by the association in 
1855. In 1859 its transactions were published with those of the state agricultural society. From 
i860 to 1865 no state horticultural association was in existence. In September of the latter 
year the " Wisconsin Fruit Growers' Association " was reorganized as the " Wisconsin State Hor- 
ticultural Society.'' The legislature had previously provided for the publication of the proceedings 
of such a society, in connection with those of the State Agricultural Society. The new society has 
held annual exhibitions, usually in connection with those of the State Agricultural Society, and 
annual conventions for the reading of papers upon, and the discussion of, horticultural subjects. In 
1871 an act was passed by the legislature incorporating the society, and providing for the separate 
printing of 2,000 copies annually of its transactions, of which there are now seven volumes. The 
most active, mtelligent, and persevering of the horticulturists of the state are members of this 
association, and to their careful observation, to their enthusiasm and determined persistence in 
seeking means to overcome great natural difficulties, the state is largely indebted for the success 
already attained in horticulture. Besides these state associations, there are many local agricul- 
tural and horticultural societies, all of which have been useful in aiding the cause for whieh they 
were organized. Farmers' clubs and granges of the " Patrons of Husbandry " have also 
done much, both directly and indirectly, to promote the industrial interests of the state. By thei 
frequent meetings, at which discussions are held, views compared, and experiences related, mucii 
valuable intelligence is gained, thought is stimulated, and the profession of farming advanced, 
As agriculture, like all kindred professions, depends upon intelligence to direct its advancement, 
all means intended to stimulate thought among farmers will, if wisely directed, aid in advancing 
this most complex of all industries. To those above named, and to other like associatioub, 
is in a large degree to be attributed the present favorable condition of the agriculture of 
the state. 

Wisconsin has been but thirty years a state. It was mainly settled by men who nad little monied 
capital. Markets were distant, and means of transportation poor. The early settlers had con- 
sequently to struggle for a livelihood in the face of the greatest difficulties. When these opposing 


circumstances are taken into account, and the improvement in methods of culture, and changes 
from grain to stock and dairy-farming that are now being made, are given their due weiglit, it 
must be acknowledged that the present condition of the agriculture of the state is excellen\ and 
that the future of this most important industry is rich in promise of a steady, healthful gro\< fi, 
toward a completer development of all the agricultural resources of the state. 


Bv ROLAND n. IRVING, Professor of Geology, etc., at the University of 


The useful mineral materials that occur within the limits of the state of Wisconsin, come 
tinder both of the two grand classes of such substances : the metallic ores, from which the 
metals ordinarily used in the arts are extracted ; and the non-metallic substances, which are used in 
the arts for the most part without any preliminary treatment, or at least undergo only a very 
partial alteration before being utilized. Of the first class are found in Wisconsin the ores of 
lead, zinc, iron and copper, besides minute traces of the precious metals; of the second class, the 
principal substances found jiXt brick-clay, kaolin, cement-rock, limestone for burning into quick-lime, 
iimest(me for flux, glass sand, peat and building stone. 


These metals are considered together because they are found occurring together in the same 
region and under exactly the same circumstances, being even obtained from the same openings. 
Lead has for many years been the most important metallic production of Wisconsin, and, together 
with zinc, whose ores have been utilized only since i860, still holds this prominent position, 
although the production is not so great as formerly. Small quantities of lead and zinc ores have 
been found in the crystalline (.\rch;«an) rocks of the northern part of the state and in the copper- 
bearing rocks of the Lake Superior country, but there are no indications at present that these 
regions will ever produce in quantity. All of the lead and zinc obtained in Wisconsin comes 
then from that portion of the southwestern part of the state which lies west of Sugar river and 
south of the nearly east and west ridge that forms the southern side of the valley of the Wis- 
consin, from the head of Sugar river westward. This district is commonly known in Wisconsin 
as the " Lead Region," and forms the larger part of the " Lead Region of the Upper Missis- 
sippi," which includes also smaller portions of Iowa and Illinois. 

What European first became acquainted with the deposits of lead in the upper portion of 
valley of the Mississippi is a matter of some doubt. Charlevoix (Histoire de la Nouvelle France, 
III, 397, 398.) attributes the discovery to Nicolas Perrot, about 1692; and states that in r72i 
the deposits still bore Perrot's name. Perrot himself, however, in the only one of his writings 
that remains, makes no mention of the matter. The itinerary of Le Sueur's voyage up the 
Mississippi, 1700-1701, given in La Harpe's History of Louisiana, which was written early in 
the i8th century, shows that the former found lead on the banks of the Mississippi, not far from 



the present southern boundary of Wisconsin, August 25, 1700. Captain Johathan Carver, 
1766. found lead in abundance at the Blue Mounds, and found the Indians in all the country 
around in possession of masses of galena, which they had obtained as " float mineral," and 
which they were incapable of putting to any. use. There is no evidence of any one mining 
before Julien Dubuque, who, 1788 to 1809, mined in the vicinity of the flourishing city which 
nowbears his name. After his death in 1809 nothing more was done until 1821, when the 
attention of American citizens was first drawn to the rich lead deposits of this region. By 1827, 
the mining had become quite general and has continued to the 'present time, the maximum 
production having been reached, however, between the years 1845 and 1847. 

The following table, prepared by the late Moses Strong, shows the mineral production of 
southwestern Wisconsin for the years i860 to 1873 in pounds: 















13 820,784 
















Until within the last decade the lead mines of the Mississippi valley, including now both 
the " Upper " and the " Lower " regions — the latter one of which lies wholly within the limits of 
the state of Missouri — have far eclipsed the rest of the United States in the production of lead, 
the district being in fact one of the most important of the lead districts in the world. Of late 
years, however, these mines are far surpassed in production by the " silver-lead " mines of Utah 
and other Rocky Mountain regions, which, though worked especially for their silver, produce 
incidentally a very large amount of lead. Nevertheless, the mines of the Mississippi valley will 
long continue to be a very important source of this metal. The lead ore of the Wisconsin lead 
region is of one kind only, the sulphide known &'i galena, ox gakniie. This ore, when free from 
mechanically mingled impurities, contains 86.6 per cent, of lead, the balance being sulphur. 
Small quantities of other lead ores are occasionally found in the uppermost portions of the deposits, 
having been produced by the o.xidizing influence of the atmosphere. The chief one of these 
oxidation products is the earthy carbonate known as cerussite. Galena almost always contains 
some silver, commonly enough to pay for its extraction. The Wisconsin galenas, however, are 
unusuallv free from silver, of which they contain only the merest trace. 

The zinc ores are of two kinds, the most abundant being the ferruginous sulphide, or the 
"black-jack " of the miners The pure sulphide, sphalerite, contains 67 per cent, of zinc, but the 
iron-bearing variety, known minerallogically as martnatite, generally contains 10 per cent, or 
more of iron, A ferruginous variety of the carbonate, smithsonite, also occurs in abundance, and 
is known to the miners as "dry-bone," the name being suggested by the peculiar structure of the 

Both lead and zinc ores occur in limited deposits in a series of limestone beds belonging to 
the Lower Silurian series. The lead region is underlaid by a nearly horizontal series of strata, 
with an aggregate thickness of 2,000 feet, which lie upon an irregular surface of ancient crystal- 
line rocks (gneiss, granite, etc.). The names and order of succession of the several strata are 
indicated in the following scheme, the last named being the lowest in the series : 


Formation, Thickness. 

Niagara dolomitic limestone . 300 — 300 feet. 

Cincinnati shales .^ 60 — 100 " 

/ Galena dolomitic limestone- 250-- 275 " 

Lead Horizon -j Blue limestone _ _ 50 — 75 " 

( Bufl' dolomitic limestone __ 15 — 20 " 

Lower Magnesian (doloaiitic) limestone - 250 

Potsdam sandstone series _ 800 — 1000 " 

The first two of these layers, in the Wisconsin part of the lead region, are met with only in a 
few isolated peaks and ridges. The prevailing surface rock is the Galena limestone, through 
which, however, the numerous streams cut in deep and narrow valleys which not unfrequently 
are carved all the way into the Lower Magnesian. 

The lead and zinc ores are entirely confined to the Galena, Blue and Buff limestones, an 
aggregate vertical thickness of some 350 to 375 feet. The upper and lower strata of the series 
are entirely barren. Zinc and lead ores are found in the same kind of deposits, and often 
together; by far the larger part of the zinc ores, however, come from the Blue and Buff limestones, 
and the lowest layers of the Galena, whilst the lead ores, though obtained throughout the whole 
thickness of the mining ground, are especially abundant in the middle and upper layers of the 
Galena beds. 

The ore deposits are of two general kinds, which may be distinguished as vertical crevices 
and flat crevices, the former being inuch the most common. The simplest form of the vertical 
crevice is a narrow crack in the rock, having a width of a few inches, an extension laterally from 
a few yards to several hundred feet, and a vertical height of 20 to 40 feet, thinning out to noth- 
ing in all directions, and filled from side to side with highly crystalline, brilliant, large-surfaced 
galena, which has no accompanying metallic mineral, or gangue matter. Occasionally the vertical 
extension exceeds a hundred feet, and sometimes a number of these sheets are close together 
and can be mined as one. Much more commonly the vertical crevice shows irregular expan- 
sions, which are sometimes large caves, or openings in certain layers, the crevice between retain- 
ing its normal character, while in other cases the expansion affects the whole crevice, occasion- 
ally widening it throughout into one large opening. These openings are rarely entirely filled, 
and commonly contain a loose, disintegrated rock, in which the galena lies loose in large masses, 
though often adhering to the sides of the cavity in large .stalactites, or in cubical cryst.ils. The 
vertical crevices show a very distinct arrangement parallel with one another, there being two 
systems, which roughly trend east and west, and north and south. The east and west crevices are 
far the most abundant and most productive of ore. The vertical crevices are confined nearly 
altogether to the upper and middle portions of the Galena, and are not productive of zinc ores. 
They are evidently merely the parallel joint cracks which affect every great rock formation, filled 
by chemical action with the lead ore. The crevices with openings have evidently been enlarged 
by the solvent power of atmospheric water carrying carbonic acid, and from the way in wliich the 
ore occurs loose in the cavities, it is evident that this solving action has often been subsequent 
to the first deposition of lead ore in the crevice. 

The " flat crevices," " fiat sheets," and "flat openings,'' are analogous to the deposits just 
described, but have, as indicated by the names, a horizontal position, being characteristic of 
certain layers, which have evidently been inore susceptible to chemical action than others, the 
dissolving waters having, moreover, been directed along them by less pervious layers above and 
below. The fiat openings differ from the vertical crevices also, in having associated with the 


galena much of either the black-jack or dry-hone zinc ores, or both, the galena not unfrequentiy 
being entirely wanting. Cleavable calcite also accompanies the ores in these openings in large 
quantities, and the same is true of the sulphide of iron, which is the variety known as marcasite. 
These materials have sometimes a symmetrical arrangement on the bottom and top of the open- 
ing, the central portion being empty. The flat openings characterize the Blue and lUiff and 
lower Galena beds, and from them nearly all the zinc ore is obtained. 

It is not possible, in the limits of this short paper, even to mention the various mining 
districts. It may merely be said that the amount of galena raised from single crevices has often 
been several hundred thousand, or even over a million pounds, and that one of the principal 
mining districts is in the vicinity of Mineral Point, where there are two furnaces constantly 
engaged in smelting. Between the years 1862 and 1873, these two establishments have produced 
23,903,260 pounds of metallic lead, or an average of 1,991,938 pounds, the maximum being, in 
1869, 2,532,710 pounds, the minimum, in 1873, 1,518,888 pounds. 

The zinc ores were formeriy rejected as useless, and have only been utilized since i860. An 
attempt to smelt them at Mineral Point was not successful, because the amount needed of fuel 
and clay, both of which have to come from a distance, exceeding even the amount of ore used, 
caused a very heavy expense for transportation. The ores are therefore now taken altogether to 
LaSalle, Illinois, where they meet the fuel and clay, and the industry at tiiat place has become 
a flourishing one. The amount of zinc ore in the Wisconsin lead region is, beyond doubt, very 
great, and will be a source of wealth for a long time to come. 

Since the ores of zinc and lead in this region are confined to such a small thickness of strata 
greatly eroded by the atmospheric waters, the entire thickness having frequently been removed, 
it becomes a matter of great importance to know how much of the mining ground remains at 
every point throughout the district. The very excellent topographico-geological maps of the 
region, made by Mr. Moses Strong, and just published by the state in the Report of the Geologi- 
cal Survey, make this knowledge accessible to all. 


Iron mining in Wisconsin is yet in its infancy, although some important deposits are 
producing a considerable quantity of ore. A number of blast furnaces have sprung up in the 
eastern part of the state, but these smelt Michigan ores almost entirely. Much remains yet to 
be done in the way of exploration, for the most promising iron fields are in the heavily timbered 
and unsettled regions of the north part of the state, and are as yet imperfectly known. It 
appears probable, however, that iron ores will, in the near future, be the most important mineral 
l)roduction of Wisconsin. The several ores will be noted in the order of their presetit im- 

Red He.m.\tites. 

The iron in these ores exists as an anhydrous sesquioxide, which is, however, in an earthy 
condition, and entirely without the brilliant metallic luster that characterizes the specular hema- 
tites. Pure hematite contains seventy per cent, of metallic iron, but the red hematites, as mined, 
are always so largely mingled with mechanical impurities that they rarely contain more than fifty 
per cent. The most important red hematite mined in Wisconsin is that known as the Clinton iron 
ort\ the name coming from the formation in which the ore occurs. This formation is a member 
of the Upper Silurian series, and is named from a locality in Oneida county. New York, where it 
was first recognized. Associated with its rocks, which are limestones and shales, is con- 
stantly found a peculiar red hematite, which is so persistent in its characters, both physical and 


and chemical, that one familiar with it from any one locality can hardly fail to recognize it when 
coming from others. The iron produced from it is always "cold-short," on account of the large 
content of phosphorus; but, mingled with siliceous ores free from phosphorus, it yields alwayj 
a most excellent foundry iron. It is mined at numerous points from New York to Tennessee, 
and at some points reaches a very great total thickness. In Wisconsin the Clinton rocks merge 
into the great Niagara limestone series of the eastern part of the state, but at the bottom of the 
series, in a few places, the Clinton ore is found immediately overlying the Cincinnati shales. The 
most important locality is that known as Iron Ridge, on sections twelve and thirteen in the town 
of Hubbard, in Dodge county. Here a north-and-south ledge of Niagara limestone overlooks lower 
land to the west. Underneath, at the foot of the ridge, is the ore bed, fifteen to eighteen feet in 
thickness, consisting of horizontally bedded ore, in layers three to fourteen inches thick. The 
ore has a concretionary structure, being composed of lenticular grains, one twenty-fifth of an inch 
in diameter, but the top layer is without this structure, having a dark purplish color, and in places 
a slight metallic appearance. Much of the lower ore is somewhat hydrated. Three quarters of 
a mile north of Iron Ridge, at Mayville, there is a total thickness of as much as forty feet. 
According to Mr. E. T. Sweet, the percentages of the several constituents of the Iron Ridge ore 
are as follows: iron pero.xide, 66.38; carbonate of lime, 10.42; carbonate of magnesia, 2.79; 
silica, 4.72; alumina, 5.54 ; manganese oxide, 0.44; sulphur, 0.23 ; phosphoric acid, 0.73; water, 
8.75 = 100: metallic iron, 46.66. 

Two small charcoal furnaces at Mayville and Iron Ridge smelt a considerable quantity of 
these ores alone, producing an iron very rich in phosphorus. An analysis of the Mayville pig 
iron, also by Mr. Sweet, shows die following composition: iron, 95.784 per cent; phosphorus, 
1.675 ■ carbon, 0.849; silicon, 0.108 = 100.286. The average furnace yield of the ore is forty- 
five per cent. By far the larger part of the ore, however, is sent away to mingle with other ores. 
It goes to Chicago, Joliet and Springfield, 111., St. Louis, Mo., Wyandotte and Jackson, Mich., 
and Appleton, Green Bay and Milwaukee, Wis. In 1872, the Iron Ridge mines yielded 82,371 
tons. The Clinton ore is found at other places farther north along the outcrop of the base of 
the Niagara formation in Wisconsin, but no one of these appears to promise any great quantity 
of good ore. Red hematite is found at numerous places in Wisconsin, highly charging certain 
layers of the Potsdam sandstone series, the lowest one of the horizontal Wisconsin formations. 
In the eastern part of the town of -Westfield, Sauk county, the iron ore excludes the sandstone, 
forming an excellent ore. No developments have been made in this district, so that the size of 
the deposit is not definitely known. 

Brown Hematites. 

These ores contain their iron as the hydrated, or brown, sesquioxide, which, when pure, 
has about sixty per cent, of the metal ; the ordinary brown hematites, however, seldom 
contain over forty per cent. Bog iron ore, a porous brown hematite that forms by deposi- 
tion from the water of bogs, occurs somewhat widely scattered underneath the large marshes of 
Portage, Wood and Juneau counties. Very excellent bog ore, containing nearly 50 per cent, of 
iron, is found near Necedah, Juneau county, and near Grand Rapids, Wood county, but the 
amount obtainable is not definitely known. The Necedah ore contains: silica, 8.52 ; alumina, 
3.77; iron peroxide, 71.40; manganese oxide, 0.27; lime, 0.58; magnesia, trace; phosphoric 
acid, 0.21; sulphur, 0.02; organic matter, 1.62; water, 13.46=99.85, metallic iron, 49.98 — 
according to Mr. E. T. Sweet's analysis. An ore from section 34, twp. 23, range 6 east, Wood 
county, yielded, to Mr. Oliver Matthews, silica, 4.81 ; alumina, i.oo; iron peroxide, 73.23 ; lime, 
o. 1 1 , magnesia, 0.25; sulphuric acid, 0.07 ; phosphoric acid, 0.10 ; organic matter, 5. 88; water. 


14.24; =99.69: metallic iron, 51.26. 

Brown hematite, mingled with more or less red ore, occurs also in some quantity filling cracks 
and irregular cavities in certain portions of the Potsdam series in northwestern Sauk county and 
the adjoining portion of Richland. A small charcoal furnace has been in operation on this ore 
at Ironton, Sauk county, for a number of years, and recently another one has been erected at 
Cazenovia in the same district. 

Magnetic Ores and Specular Hematites. 

These are taken together here, because their geological occurrence is the same, the two ores 
occurring not only in the same group of rocks, but even intimately mingled with one another. 
These ores are not now produced in Wisconsin ; but it is quite probable that they may before 
many years become its principal mineral production. In magnetic iron ore, the iron is in the 
shape of the mineral magnetite, an oxide of iron containing 72 4 per cent of iron when pure, and 
this is the highest percentage of iron that any ore can ever have. Specular hematite is the same 
as red hematite, but is crystalline, has a bright, metallic luster, and a considerable hardness. As 
mined the richest magnetic and specular ores rarely run over 65 per cent., while in most regions 
where they are mined they commonly do not reach 50 per cent. The amount of rich ores of this 
kind in the northern peninsula of Michigan is so great, however, that an ore with less than 50 per 
cent, finds no sale; and the same must be true in the adjoining states. So largely does this mat- 
ter of richness aifect the value of an ore, that an owner of a mine of 45 per cent. " hard " ore in Wis- 
consin would find it cheaper to import and smelt Michigan 65 per cent, ore, than to smelt his own, 
even if his furnace and mine were side by side. 

The specular and magnetic ores of Wisconsin occur in two districts — the Penokee iron dis- 
trict, ten to twenty miles south of Lake Superior, in Bayfield, Ashland and Lincoln counties, and 
the Menomonee iron district, near the head waters of the Menomonee river, in township 40, 
ranges 17 and 18 east, Oconto county. Specular iron in veins and nests is found in small quan- 
tities with the quartz rocks of the Baraboo valley, Sauk county, and Necedah, Juneau county; 
and very large quantities of a peculiar quartz-schist, charged with more or less of the magnetic 
and specular iron oxides, occur in the vicinity of Black River Falls, Jackson county ; but in none 
of these places is there any promise of the existence of valuable ore. 

In the Penokee and Menomonee regions, the iron ores occur in a series of slaty and 
quartzose rocks known to geologists as the Haronian series. The rocks of these districts are 
really the extensions westward of a great rock series, which in the northern Michigan peninsula 
contains the rich iron ores that have made that region so famous. In position, this rock series 
may be likened to a great elongated parabola, the head of which is in the Marquette iron district 
and the two ends in the Penokee and Menomonee regions of Wisconsin. In all of its extent, this 
rock series holds great beds of lean magnetic and specular ores. These contain large quantities 
of quartz, which, from its great hardness, renders them very resistant to the action of atmospheric 
erosion. As a result, these lean ores are found forming high and bold ridges. Such ridges of 
lean ores have deceived many explorers, and "not a few geologists. In the same rock series, for 
the most part occupying portions of a higher layer, are found, however, ores of extraordinary 
richness and purity, which, from their comparative softness, very rarely outcrop. The existence 
in quantity of these very rich ores in the Menomonee region has been definitely proven. One 
deposit, laid open during the Summer of 1877, shows a width of over 150 feet of first class 
specular ore; and exceeding in size the greatest of the famous deposits of Michigan. In the 
Penokee region, however, though the indications are favorable, the existence of the richer 
ores is as yet an inference only. The Penokee range itself is a wonderful development of 


lean ore, which forms a continuous belt several hundred feet in width and over thirty miles in 
length. Occasionally portions of this belt are richer than the rest, and become almost merchant- 
able ores. The probability is, however, that the rich ores of this region will be found in the 
lower country immediately north of the Penokee range, where the rocks are buried beneath 
heavy accumulations of drift material. 


The only copper ore at present raised in Wisconsin is obtained near Mineral Point, in the 
lead region of the southwestern part of the state, where small quantities of chalcopyrite,ih.t yellow 
sulphide of copper and iron, are obtained from pockets and limited crevices in the Galena lime- 
stone. Copper pyrites is known to occur in this way throughout the lead region, but it does not 
appear that the quantity at any point is sufficient to warrant exploration. 

Copper occurs also in the northernmost portions of Wisconsin, where it is found under alto- 
gether different circumstances. The great copper-bearing series of rocks of Keweenaw point and 
Isle Royale stretch southwestward into and entirely across the state of Wisconsin, in two parallel 
belts. One of these belts enters Wisconsin at the mouth of the Montreal river, and immediately 
leaving the shore of Lake Superior, crosses Ashland and Bayfield counties, and then widening 
greatly, occupies a large area in Douglas, St. Croix, Barron and Chippewa counties. The other 
belt forms the backbone of the Bayfield peninsula, and crosses the northern part of Douglas 
county, forming a bold ridge, to the Minnesota line. The rocks of this great series appear to 
be for the most part of igneous origin, but they are distinctly bedded, and even interstratified 
with sandstone, shales, and coarse boulder-conglomerate, the whole series having generally a 
tilted position. In veins crossing the rock-beds, and scattered also promiscuously through the 
layers of both conglomerates and igneous rocks, pure metallic copper in fine flakes is often 
found. Mining on a small scale has been attempted at numbers of points where the rivers 
flowing northward into Lake Superior make gorges across tlie rock series, but at none of them 
has sufficient work been done to prove or disprove the existence of copper in paying quantity. 

Gold and Silver. 

Small traces of gold have been detected by the writer in quartz from the crystalline rocks 
of Clark county, but there is no probability that any quantity of this metal will ever be found in 
the state. Traces of silver have also been found in certain layers of the copper series in Ash- 
land county. Judging from the occurrence of silver in the same series not far to the east in 
Michigan, it seems not improbable that this metal may be found also in Wisconsin. 

Brick Clays. 

These constitute a very important resource in Wisconsin. Extending inland for many miles 
fiom the shores of Lakes Michigan and Superior are stratified beds of clay of lacustrine origin, 
having been deposited by the lakes when greatly expanded beyond their present sizes. All of 
these clays are characterized by the presence of a large amount of carbonate of lime. Along 
Lake Superior they have not yet been utilized, but all through the belt of country bordering 
Lake Michigan they are dug and burned, fully 50,000,000 bricks being made annually in this 
region. A large proportion of these bricks are white or cream-colored, and these are widely 
known under the name of "'Milwaukee brick," though by no means altogether made at Mil- 
waukee. Others arc ordinary red brick. The difference between the light-colored and red 
bricks is ordinarily attributed to the greater amount of iron in the clay from whicli the latter are 



burned, but it has been shown by Mr. E. T Sweet that the white bricks are burned from clay 
which often contains more iron than that from which the red bricks are made, but which also 
contains a very large aniont of carbonate of lime. The following analyses show (i) the compo- 
sition of the clay from which cream-colored brick are burned at Milwaukee, (2) the composition 
of a red-brick clay from near Madison, and (3) the composition of the unutilized clay from 
Ashland, Lake Superior. Nos. i and 2 are by Mr. E. T. Sweet, No. 3 by Professor W. W. 
Daniells : 










16 23 



0.31 ; 












Iron peroxide 

Iron protoxide 


[ 409 







At Milwaukee 24,000,000 cream-colored brick are made annually ; at Racine, 3,500,000 ; at 
.\ppleton and Menasha, 1,800,000 each; at Neenah, 1,600,000; at Clifton, 1,700,000; at Wat- 
erloo, 1,600,000; and in smaller quantities at Jefferson, Ft. Atkinson, Edgerton, Whitewater, 
Geneva, Ozaukee, Sheboygan Falls, Manitowoc, Kewaunee, and other places. In most cases the 
cream-colored bricks are made from a bright-red clay, although occasionally the clay is light- 
colored. At Whitewater and other places tile and pottery are also made from this clay. 

Although these lacustrine clays are much the most important in Wisconsin, e.xcellent brick 
clays are also found in the interior of the state. In numbers of places along the Yahara valley, 
'n Dane county, an excellent stratified clay occurs. At Madison this is burned to a red brick ; at 
Stoughton and Oregon to a fine cream-colored brick. At Platteville, Lancaster, and other points 
in the southwestern part of the state, red bricks are made from clays found in the vicinity. 

Kaolin (Porcelain -Clav — Fire - Clay). 

The word "kaolin*" is applied by geologists to a clay-like material which is used in making 
chinaware in this country and in Europe. The word is of Chinese origin, and is applied by the 
Chinese to the substance from which the famous porcelain of China is made. Its application to 
the European porcelain-^/*?)' was made under the mistaken idea — one which has prevailed among 
scientists until very recently — that the Chinese material is the same as the European. This we 
now know to be an error, the Chinese and Japanese wares being both made altogether from a 
solid rock. 

True kaolin, using the word in its European sense, is unlike other ordinary clays, in being 
the result of the disintegration of felspathic crystalline* rocks " in place,"' that is without being 
removed from the place of its first formation. The base of kaolin is a mineral known as kaolinite, a 
compound of silica, alumina and water, which results from a change or decay of the felspar of 
felspar-bearing rocks. Felspar contains silica, alumina, and soda or potash, or both. By perco- 
lation through the rocks of surface water carrying carbonic acid, the potash and soda are 
removed and kaolinite results. Mingled with the kaolinite are, however, always the other ingre- 
dients of the rock, quartz, mica, etc., and also always some undecomposed, or only partly decom- 
posed felspar. These foreign ingredients can all, however, be more or less perfectly removed by 
a system of levigation, when a pure white clay results, composed almost wholly of the scales of 



the mineral kaolinite. Prepared in this way the kaolin has a high value as a refractory material,, 
and for forming the base of fine porcelain wares. 

The crystalline rocks, which, by decomposition, would produce a kaolin, are widely spread 
over the northern part of Wisconsin ; but over the most of the region occupied by them there is no 
sign of the existence of kaolin, the softened rock having apparently been removed by glacial 
action. In a belt of country, however, which extends from Grand Rapids on the Wisconsin, 
westward to Black river, in Jackson county, the drift is insignificant or entirely absent ; the glacial 
forces have not acted, and the crystalline rocks are, or once were, overlaid by sandstone, along 
whose line of junction with the underlying formation numerous water-courses have existed, the 
result being an unusual amount of disintegration. Here we find, in the beds of the Wisconsin, 
Yellow, and Black rivers, large exposures of crystalline rocks, which between the rivers 
are overlaid by sandstone. The crystalline rocks are in distinct layers, tilted at high angles, 
and in numerous places decomposed into a soft white kaolin. Inasmuch as these layers 
strike across the country m long, straight lines, patches of kaolin are found ranging 
themselves into similar lines. The kaolin patches are most abundant on the Wisconsin 
in the vicinity of the city of Grand Rapids, in Wood county. They vary greatly in size, 
one deposit even varying from a fraction of an inch to a number of feet in thickness. 
The kaolin varies, also, greatly in character, some being quite impure and easily fusible 
from a large content of iron oxide or from partial decomposition only,''while much of it is very 
pure and refractory. There is no doubt, however, that a large amount of kaolin exists in this 
region, and that by selection and levigation an excellent material may be obtained, which, by 
mingling with powdered quartz, may be made to yield a fire-brick of unusual refractoriness, and 
which may even be employed in making fine porcelain ware. 

The following table gives the composition of the raw clay, the fine clay obtained from it by 
levigation, and the coarse residue from the same operation, the sample having been taken from 
the opening on the land of Mr. C. B. Garrison, section 5, town 22, range 6 east, Wood county : 









Silica. ..-. - 










Soda - 

Carbonic Acid 









Iron peroxide 




Potash - 




Cement - Rock. 

Certain layers of the Lower Magnesian limestone, as at Ripon, and other points in the east- 
ern part of the state, are known to produce a lime which has in some degree the hydraulic 
property, and the same is true of certain layers of the Blue limestone of the Trenton group, in 
the southwestern part of the state ; the most valuable material of this kind, however, that is as yet 
known to exist in Wisconsin, is found near Milwaukee, and has become very recently somewhat 
widely known as the " Milwaukee" cement-rock. This rock belongs to the Hamilton formation, 
and is found near the Washington street bridge, at Brown Deer, on the lake shore at Whitefish 



bay, and at other points in the immediate vicinity of Milwaukee. The (juantity attainable is 
large, and a very elaborate series of tests by D. J. Whittemore, chief engineer of the Milwau- 
kee and St. Paul railroad, shows that the cement made from it exceeds all native and foreign 
cements in strength, except the famous English " Portland " cement. The following are 
three analyses of the rock from different points, and they show that it has a very constant 
composition : 

Carbonate of Lime 

Carbonate of Magnesia 



Iron Sesquioxide 








1. 41 











Limestone for M.\king Quick - lime. 

Quick-lime is made from all of the great liinestone formations of Wisconsin, but more is 
burnt from the Lower Magnesian and Niagara formations, than from the others. The Lower 
Magnesian yields a very strong mortar, but the lime burned from it is not very white. It is burned 
largely in the region about Madison, one of the largest quarries being on the south line of section 
33 of that town, where some 20,000 bushels are produced annually, in two kilns. The lime from 
this place has a considerable local reputation under the name of " Madison lime." The Trenton 
limestone is burned at a few points, but yields an inferior lime. The Galena is not very generally 
burned, but yields a better lime than the Trenton. In the region about Watertown and White- 
water, some 40,000 to 50,000 barrels are made annually from this formation. 

The Niagara, however, is the great lime furnisher of the northwest. From its purity it is 
adapted to the making of a most admirable lime. It is burned on a large scale at numbers of 
points in the eastern part of the state, among which may be mentioned, Pellon's kilns, Pewau- 
kee, where 12,000 barrels are made weekly and shipped to Chicago, Grand Haven, Des Moines, 
etc.; and Holick & Son's kilns, Racine, which yield 60,000 to 75.000 barrels annually. A total 
ot about 400,000 barrels is annually made from the Niagara formation in eastern Wisconsin. 

Limestone for Flux in Iron Smelting. 

The limestones of Wisconsin are rarely used as a flux, because of their prevalent magnesian 
character. The stone from Schoonmaker's (juarry, near Milwaukee, is used at the Bay View 
iron works, and is one of the few cases. There are certain layers, however, in the Trenton lime- 
stone, widely spread over the southern part of the state, which are non-magnesian, and frequently 
sufficiently free from earthy impurities to be used as a flux. These layers deserve the attention 
of the iron masters of the state. 

Glass Sand. 

Much of the St. Peter's sandstone is a purely siliceous, loose, white sand, well adapted to 
the making of glass. It is now being put to this use at points in the eastern part of the state. 



Peat exists in large quantities and of good quality underneath the numerous marshes of the 
eastern and central parts of the state. Whether it can be utilized in the future as a fuel, will 
depend altogether upon the cost of its preparation, which will have to be very low in order that 
it may compete with superior fuels. As a fenilizer, peat has always a great value, and requires 
no •Preliminary treatment. 

Building Stones. 

All the rocky formations of Wisconsin are used in building, and even the briefest synopsis 
■of the subject of the building stones of the state, would exceed the hmits of this paper. A few 
of the more prominent kinds only are mentioned. 

Granite occurs in protruding masses, and also grading into gneiss, in the northern portions 
■of the state, at numerous points. In many places on the Wisconsin, Yellow, and Black rivers, 
and especially at Big Bull Falls, Yellow river, red granites of extraordinary beauty and value 
occur. These are not yet utilized, but will in the future have a high value. 

The handsomest and most valuable sandstone found in Wisconsin, is that which extends 
along the shore of Lake Superior, from the Michigan to the Minnesota line, and which forms the 
basement rock of the Apostle islands. On one of these islands a very large quarry is opened, 
from which are taken masses of almost any size, of a very close-grained, uniform, dark brown 
stone, which has been shipped largely to Chicago and Milwaukee. At the latter place, the well 
known court house is built of this stone. An equally good stone can be obtained from the neigh- 
boring islands, and from points on the mainland. A very good white to brown, indurated sand- 
stone is obtained from the middle portions of the Potsdam series, at Stevens Point, Portage 
county; near,Grand Rapids, Wood county; at Black River Falls, Jackson county; at Packwau- 
kee, Marquette county ; near Wautoma, Waushara county ; and at several points in the Baraboo 
valley, Sauk county. A good buff-colored, calcareous sandstone is quarried and used largely in 
the vicinity of Madison, from the uppermost layers of the Potsdam series. 

All of the limestone formations of the state are quarried for building stone. A layer known 
locally as the " Mendota" limestone, included in the upper layers of the Potsdam series, yields a 
very evenly bedded, yellow, fine-grained rock, which is largely quarried along the valley of the 
lower Wisconsin, and also in the countrj* about Madison. In the town of Westport, Dane 
county, a handsome, fine-grained, cream-colored limestone is obtained from the Lower Magne- 
sian. The Trenton limestone yields an evenly bedded, thin stone, which is frequently used for 
laying in wall. The Galena and Niagara are also utilized, and the latter is capable, in much of 
the eastern part of the state, of furnishing a durable, easily dressed, compact, white stone. 

In preparing this paper, I have made use of Professor Whitney's " Metallic Wealth of the 
TInited States," and " Report on the Geology of the Lead Region;" of the advance sheets of 
Volume II of the Reports of the State Geological Survey, including Professor T. C. Chamberlin's 
Report on the Geology of Eastern Wisconsin, my own Report on the Geology of Central Wisconsin, 
and Mr. Strong's Report on the Geology of the Lead Region ; Mr. E. T. Sweet's account of the 
mineral exhibit of the state at the Centennial Exposition ; and of my unpublished reports on the 
geology of the counties bordering Lake Superior. 


Bv Hon. H. H. GILES. 

The territory of Wisconsin offered great advantages to emigrants. Explorers had published 
accounts of the wonderful fertility of its soil, the wealth of its broad prairies and forest openings, 
and the beauty of its lakes and rivers. Being reached from the older states by way of the lakes 
and easily accessible by a long line of lake coast, the hardships incident to weeks of land travel 
were avoided. Previous to 1836 but few settlements had been made in that part of the 
then territory of Michigan, that year organized into the territory of Wisconsin, except 
as mining camps in the southwestern part, and scattered settlers in the vicinity of the 
trading posts and military stations. From that time on, with the hope of improving their condi- 
tion, thousands of the enterprising yeomanry of New England, New York and Ohio started for 
the land of promise. Germans, Scandinavians and other nationalities, attracted by the glowing 
accounts sent abroad, crossed the ocean on their way to the new world; steamers and sail-craft 
laden with families and their household goods left Buffalo and other lake ports, all bound for 
the new Eldorado. It may be doubted if in the history of the world any country was ever peo- 
pled with the rapidity of southern and eastern Wisconsin. Its population in 1840 was 30,749; 
in 1850,304,756; in 1860,773,693; in 1870, 1,051,351; in 1875, 1,236,729. With the develop- 
ment of the agricultural resources of the new territory, grain raising became the most prominent 
interest, and as the settlements extended back from the lake shore the difficulties of transporta- 
tion of the products of the soil were seriously felt. The expense incurred in moving a load of 
produce seventy or eighty miles to a market town on the lake shore frequently exceeded the gross 
sum obtained for the same. All goods, wares and merchandise, and most of the lumber used 
must also be hauled by teams from Lake Michigan. Many of our early settlers still retain 
vivid recollections of trying experiences in the Milwaukee woods and other sections bordering 
on the lake shore, from the south line of the state to Manitowoc and Sheboygan. To meet the 
great want — better facilities for transportation — a valuable land grant was obtained from 
congress, in 1S38, to aid in building a canal from Milwaukee to Rock river The company which 
was organized to construct it, built a dam across Milwaukee river and a short section of the canal; 
then the work stopped and the plan was finally abandoned. It was early seen that to satisfy the 
requirements of the people, railroads, as the most feasable means of commumcatiou within 
their reach, were an indispensable necessity. 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway. 

Between the years 1838 and 1841, the territorial legislature of Wisconsin chartered several 
railroad companies, but with the exception of the " Milwaukee & Waukesha Railroad Company,' 
incorporated in 1847, none of the corporations thus created took any particular shape. The 
commissioners named in its charter met November 23, 1847, and elected a president. Dr. L. W. 
Weeks, and a secretary, A. W. Randall (afterward governor of Wisconsin). On the first Monday 
of February, 1848, they opened books of subscription. The charter of the company provided 


that $100,000 should be subscribed and five percent, thereof paid in before the company should 
fully organize as a corporation. Tlie country was new. There were plenty of active, energetic 
men, but money to build railroads was scarce, and not until April 5, 1849, was the necessary 
subscription raised and percentage paid. A board of directors was elected on the loth day of 
May, and Byron Kilbourn chosen president. The charter had been previously amended, in 1848, 
authorizing the company to build a road to the Mississippi river, in Grant county, and in 1850, 
its name was changed to the " Milwaukee & Mississippi Railroad Company." After the company 
was fully organized, active measures were taken to push the enterprise forward to completion. 
The city of Milwaukee loaned its credit, and in 185 1 the pioneer Wisconsin railroad reached 
Waukesha, twenty miles out from Milwaukee. In the spring of 1852, Edward H. Broadhead, a, 
prominent engineer, from from the state of New York, was put in charge of the work as chief 
engineer and superintendent. Under his able and energetic administration the road was pushed 
forward in 1852 to Milton, in 1853 to Stoughton, in 1854 to Madison, and in 1856 to the Mis- 
sissippi river, at Prairie du Chien. In 1851 John Catlin of Madison, was elected president 
in place of Kilbourn. 

The proposed length of this article will not admit of any detailed statement of the trials, 
struggles and triumphs of the men who projected, and finally carried across the state, from the 
lake to the river, this first Wisconsin railroad. Mitchell, Kilbourn, Holton, Tweedy, Catlin, 
Walker, Broadhead, Crocker and many others, deserve to be remembered by our people as bene- 
factors of the state. In 1859 and i860, the company defaulted in the payment of the interest on 
its bonds. A foreclosure was made and a new company, called the " Milwaukee & Prairie du 
Chien," took its place, succeeding to all its rights and property. 

The "Southern Wisconsin Railway Company" was chartered in 1852, and authorized to build 
a road from Milton to the Mississippi river. When the Milwaukee and Mississippi road reached 
Milton in 1852, it was not authorized by its charter to go to Janesville, but, under the charter of 
the Southern Wisconsin, a company was organized that built the eight miles to Janesville in 1853, 
Under a subsequent amendment to the charter, the Milwaukee and Mississippi company was 
authorized to build from Milton to the Mississippi river. The Janesville branch was then 
purchased and extended to Monroe, a distance of about thirty-four miles, or forty-two miles west 
of Milton. Surveys were made and a line located west of Monroe to the river. The people of 
La Fayette and Grant counties have often been encouraged to e.xpect a direct railroad communi- 
cation with the city of Milwaukee. Other and more important interests, at least so considered 
by the railroad company, have delayed the execution of the original plan, and the road through 
the counties mentioned still remains unbuilt. 

The " LaCrosse & Milwaukee Railroad Company" was chartered in 1852, to construct a road 
from LaCrosse to Milwaukee. During the year in which the charter was obtained, the company 
was organized, and the first meeting of the commissioners held at LaCrosse. Among its pro- 
jectors were Byron Kilbourn and Moses M. Strong. Kilbourn was elected its first president. 
No work was done upon this line until after its consolidation with the " Milwaukee, Fond du Lac 
& Green Bay Railroad Company" in 1854. The latter company was chartered in 1853, to build a 
road from Milwaukee z'/a West Bend to Fond du Lac and Green Bay. It organized in the spring of 
1853, and at once commenced active operations under the supervision of James Kneeland, its 
first president. The city of Milwaukee loaned its credit for $200,000, and gave city bonds. The 
company secured depot grounds in Milwaukee, and did considerable grading for the first twenty- 
five miles out. Becoming embarrassed in January, 1854, the Milwaukee, Fond du Lac & Green 
Bay consolidated with the LaCrosse & Milwaukee company. Work was at once resumed on 
the partially graded line. In 1855 the road was completed to Horicon, fifty miles. 

wisconsi;n railroads. 175 

The Milwaukee & Watertown company was chartered in 1851, to build from Milwaukee to 
VVatertown. It soon organized, and began the construction of its line from Brookfield, fourteen 
miles west of Milwaukee, and a point on the Milwaukee & Mississippi road leading through 
Oconomowoc to Watertown. The charter contained a provision that the company might extend 
its road by way of Portage to La Crosse. It reached Watertown in 1856, and was consolidated 
with the LaCrosse & Milwaukee road in the autumn of the same year. 

In the spring of 1856 congress made a grant of land to the state of Wisconsin, to aid in the 
building of a railroad from Madison, or Columbus, via Portage City, to the St. Croix river or 
lake, between townships 25 and 31. and from thence to the west end of Lake Superior, and to 
Bayfield. An adjourned session of the Wisconsin legislature met on September 3 of that year, 
to dispose of the grant. The disposal of this grant had been generally discussed by the press, 
and the public sentiment of the state seemed to tend toward its bestowal upon a new company. 
There is little doubt but that this was also the sentiment of a large majority of the members of 
both houses when the session commenced. When a new company was proposed a joint com 
mittee of twenty from the senate and assembly was appointed to prepare a bill, conferring the 
grant upon a company to be created by the bill itself. The work of the committee proceeded 
harmoniously until the question of who should be corporators was to be acted upon, when a 
difference of opinion was found to exist, and one that proved difficult to harmonize. In the mean- 
lime the LaCrosse and Watertown companies had consolidated, and a sufficient number of the 
members of both houses were "propitiated" by " pecuniary compliments" to induce them to 
pass the bill, conferring the so called St. Croix grant upon the LaCrosse & Milwaukee railroad 
company. The vote in the assembly in the passage of the bill was, ayes 62, noes 7. In the senate 
it stood, ayes 17, noes 7. 

At the session of the legislature of 1858 a committee was raised to investigate the matter, 
and their report demonstrated that bonds were set apart for all who voted for the LaCrosse bill ; 
to members of assembly $5,000 each, and members of senate $10,000 each. A few months 
after the close of the legislative sesssion of 1856 the land grant bonds of the LaCrosse road 
became worthless. Neither the LaCrosse company nor its successors ever received any portion 
of the lands granted to the state. During the year 1857 the LaCrosse company completed its 
line of road through Portage City to LaCrosse, and its Watertown line to Columbus. 

The "Milwaukee & Horicon Railroatl Company" was chartered in 1852. Between the 
year^ 1855 and 1857 it built through Waupun and Ripon to Berlin, a distance of forty-two miles. 
It was, in effect, controlled by the LaCrosse & Milwaukee company, although built as a separate 
branch. This line was subsequently merged in the LaCrosse company, and is now a part of the 
northern division of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railway. 

The '■ Madison, Fond du Lac & Lake Michigan Railroad Company" was chartered in 1855, 
to build a road from Madison wV? Fond du Lac to Lake Michigan. In 1857 it bought of the 
LaCrosse company that portion of its road acquired by consolidation with the Milwaukee & 
Watertown company. Its name was then changed to " Milwaukee & Western Railroad Com- 
jiany." It owned a line of road from Brookfield to Watertown, and branches from the latter 
place to Columbus and Sun Prairie, in all about eighty miles in length. 

In 1858 and 1859 the La Crosse & Milwaukee and the Milwaukee & Horicon companies 
defaulted in the payment of the interest on their bonded debts. In the same years the bond- 
holders of the two companies instituted foreclosure proceedings on the different trust deeds given to 
secure their bonds. Other suits to enforce the payment of their floating debts were also com- 
menced. Protracted litigation in both the state and federal courts resulted in a final settlement 
in 1868, by a decision of the supreme court of the United States. In llic meantime, in 1862 and 


1863, both roads were sold, and purchased by an association of the bondholders, who organized 
the " Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company." The new company succeeded to all the rights 
of both the La Crosse and Horicon companies, and soon afterward, in 1863, purchased the 
property of the Milwaukee & Western company, thus getting control of the roads from Mil- 
waukee to La Crosse, from Horicon to Berlin, from Brookfield to Watertown, and the branches 
to Columbus and Sun Prairie. In 1864 it built from Columbus to Portage, from Brookfield to 
Milwaukee, and subsequently extended the Sun Prairie branch to Madison, in 1S69. It also 
purchased the Ripon & Wolf River road, which had been built fifteen miles in length, from 
Ripon to Omro, on the Fox river, and extended it to Winneconne on the Wolf river, five miles 
farther, and twenty miles from Ripon. In 1867 the Milwaukee ii: St. Paul railway company 
obtained control of the Milwaukee & Prairie du Chien railroad. The legislature of 1857 had 
passed an act, authorizing all stock-holders in all incorporated companies to vote on shares of 
stock owned by them. The directors of the Milwaukee & St. Paul company had secured a 
majority of the common stock, and, at the election of 1867, elected themselves a board of 
directors for the Prairie du Chien company. All the rights, property and interests of the 
latter company came under the ownership and control of the former. 

In 1865, Alexander Mitchell, of Milwaukee, was elected president, and S. S. Merrill general 
manager of the Milwaukee & St. Paul railway company. They were retained in their respective 
positions by the new organization, and still continue to hold these offices, a fact largely owing to 
the able and efficient manner that has characterized their management of the company's affairs. 
The company operates six hundred and eighty-six miles of road in Wisconsin, and in all one 
thousand four hundred miles. Its lines extend to St. Paul and Minneapolis in Minnesota, and 
to Algona in Iowa, and over the Western Union to Savannah and Rock Island in the state of 

The"Oshkosh & Mississippi Railroad Company" was chartered in 1866 to build a road 
from the city of Oshkosh to the Mississippi river. Its construction to Ripon in 1872 was a 
move on the part of citizens of Oshkosh to connect their town with the Milwaukee & St. Paul 
road. It is twenty miles in length and leased to the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul company. 

In 1871 and 1872 the "Wisconsin Union Railroad Company," of which John W. Cary was 
president, built a road from Milwaukee to the state line between Wisconsin and Illinois, to 
connect with a road built from Chicago to the state line of Illinois. This new line betwe'en 
Milwaukee and Chicago was built in the interest of, and in fact by, the Milwaukee & St. Paul 
company to afford a connection between its Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota system of roads, 
and the eastern trunk lines centering in Chicago. It runs parallel with the shore of Lake 
Michigan and from three to six miles from it, and is eighty-five miles in length. 

The Chicago & Northwestern Railway. 

The territorial legislature of 1848 chartered the " Madison & Beloit Railroad Company "' 
with authority to build a railroad from Beloit to Madison only. In 1850, by an act of the 
legislature, the company was authorized to extend the road to the Wisconsin river and La Crosse, 
and to a point on the Mississippi river near St. Paul, and also from Janesville to Fond du Lac. 
Its name was changed, under legislative authority, to the " Rock River Valley Union Railroad 
Company." In 1851, the line from Janesville north not being pushed as the people expected, 
the legislature of Illinois chartered the " Illinois & Wisconsin Railroad Company " with authority 
to consoHdate with any road in Wisconsin. In 1855, an act of the Wisconsin legislature consoli- 
dated the Illinois and Wis^nsin companies with the " Rock River Valley Union Railroad Com- 
pany," and the new organfflfcon took the name of the " Chicago, St. Paul & Fond du Lac Rail- 


road Company." In 1854, and previous to the consolidation, the company had failed and 
passed into tlie hands of the bondholders, who foreclosed and took stock for their bonds. The 
old management of A. Hyatt Smith and John B. Macy was superseded, and Wm. B. Ogden was 
made president. Chicago was all along deeply interested in reaching the rich grain fields of the 
Rock river valley, as well as the inexhaustible timber and mineral wealth of the northern part 
of Wisconsin and that part of Michigan bordering on Lake Superior, called the Peninsula. It 
also sought a connection with the upper Mississippi region, then being rapidly peopled, by a line 
of railroad to run through Madison to St. Paul, in Minnesota. Its favorite road was started from 
Chicago on the wide (six feet) gauge, and so constructed seventy miles to Sharon on the Wis- 
consin state line. This was changed to the usual (four feet, eight and one-half inches) width, 
and the work was vigorously pushed, reaching Janesville in 1855 and Fond du Lac in 1858. The 
Rock River Valley Union railroad company had, however, built about thirty miles from Fond 
du Lac south toward Minnesota Junction before the consolidation took place. The partially 
graded line on a direct route between Janesville and Madison was abandoned. In 1852 a new 
charter had been obtained, and the " Beloit & Madison Railroad Company " had been organized 
to build a road from Beloit via Janesville to Madison. A subsequent amendment to this charter 
had left out Janesville as a point, and the Beloit branch was pushed through to Madison, reach- 
ing that city in 1864. 

The "Galena and Chicago Union Railroad Company" had built a branch of the Galena 
line from Belvedere to Beloit previous to 1854. In that year, it leased the Beloit & Madison 
road, and from 1856 operated it in connection with the Milwaukee & Mississippi, reaching Janes- 
ville by way of Hanover Junction, a station on its Southern Wisconsin branch, eight miles west 
of Janesville. The consolidation of the Galena & Chicago Union and the Chicago, St. Paul & 
Fond du Lac companies was effected and approved by legislative enactment in 1855, and a new 
organization called the "Chicago & Northwestern Railwav Company" took their place. 

The "Green Bay, Milwaukee & Chicago Railroad Company " was chartered in 185 1 to build 
a road from Milwaukee to the state line of Illinois to connect with a road from Chicago, called 
the Chicago & Milwaukee railroad. Both roads were completed in 1855, and run in connection 
until 1863, when they were consolidated under the name of the "Chicago & Milwaukee Railroad 
Company." To prevent its falling into the hands of the Milwaukee & St. Paul, the Chicago & 
Northwestern secured it by perpetual lease. May 2, 1866, and it is now operated as its Chicago 

The " Kenosha «S; Beloit Railroad Company " was incorporated in 1853 to build a road from 
Kenosha to Beloit, and was organized soon after its chartenwas obtained. Its name was after- 
ward changed to the " Kenosha, Rockford & Rock Island Railroad Company," and its route 
changed to run to Rockford instead of Beloit. The line starts at Kenosha, and runs through the 
county of Kenosha and crosses the state line near the village of Genoa in the county of Wal- 
worth, a distance of thirty miles in the state of Wisconsin, and there connects with a road in 
Illinois running to Rockford, and with which it consolidated. Kenosha and its citizens were the 
principal subscribers tc its capital stock. The company issued its bonds, secured by the usual 
mortgage on its franchises and property. Failing to pay its interest, the mortgage was foreclosed, 
and the road was sold to the Chicago & Northwestern company in 1863, and is now operated by 
it as the Kenosha division. The line was constructed from Kenosha to Genoa in 1S62. 

The "Northwestern Union Railway Company " was organized in 1872, under the general rail- 
road law of the state, to build a line of road from Milwaukee to Fond du Lac, with a branch to 
Lodi. The road was constructed during the years 1872 and 1S73 from Milwaukee to Fond du 
Lac. The Chicago & Northwestern company were principally inteAted in its being built, to. 


shorten its line between Chicago and Green Bay, and now uses it as its main through line between 
the two points. 

The " Baraboo Air-Line Railroad Company" was incorporated in 1870, to build a road from 
Madison, Columbus, or Waterloo via Baraboo, to La Crosse, or any point on the Mississippi 
river. It organized in the interest of the Chicago & Northwestern, with which company it con- 
solidated, and the work of building a connecting line between Madison and Winona Junction 
was vigorously pushed forward. Lodi was reached in 1870, Baraboo in 1871, and Winona Junc- 
tion in 1874. The ridges between Elroy and Sparta were tunneled at great expense and with 
much difficulty. In 1874 the company reported an expenditure for its three tunnels of 
$476,743.32, and for the 129 i-io miles between Madison and Winona Junction of $5,342,169.96, 
and a large expenditure yet required to be made on it. In 1867 the Chicago & Northwestern 
company bought of D. N. Barney & Co. their interest in the Winona & St. Peters railway, a line 
being built westerly from Winona in Minnesota, and of which one hundred and five miles had 
been built. It also bought of the same parties their interest in the La Crosse, Trempealeau & 
Prescott railway, a line being built from Winona Junction, thre<: miles east of La Crosse, to 
Winona, Minn. The latter line was put in operation in 1870, and is twenty-nine miles long. 
With the completion of its Madison branch to Winona junction, in 1873,11 had in operation a 
line from Chicago, via Madison and Winona, to Lake Kampeska, Minn., a distance of six hundred 
and twenty-three miles. 

In the year 1856 a valuable grant of land was made by congress to the state of Wisconsin 
to aid in the construction of railroads. The Chicago, St. Paul & Fond du Lac company claimed 
that the grant was obtained through its efforts, and that of right it should have the northeastern 
grant, so-called. At the adjourned session of the legislature of 1856, a contest over the dispo- 
sition of the grant resulted in conferring it upon the " Wisconsin & Superior Railroad Company," 
a corporation chartered for the express purpose of giving It this grant. It was generally believed 
at the time that the new company was organized in the Interest of the Chicago, St. Paul & 
Fond du Lac company, and at the subsequent session, in the following year, it was authorized to 
consolidate with the new company, which it did in the spring of that year, and thus obtained the 
grant of 3,840 acres per mile along its entire line, from Fond du Lac northerly to the state line 
between Wisconsin and Michigan. It extended its road to Oshkosh in 1859, to Appleton in 
1861, and in 1862 to Fort Howard, forming a line two hundred and forty-two miles long. The 
line from Fort Howard to Escanaba, one hundred and fourteen miles long, was opened in Decem- 
ber, 1872, and made a connection with the peninsular railroad of Michigan. It now became a part 
of the Chicago & Northwestern, extending from Escanaba to the iron mines, and thence to 
Lake Superior at Marquette. Albert Keep, of Chicago, is president, and Marvin Hughltt, a 
gentleman of great railroad experience, is general superintendent. The company operates five 
hundred and fifty-six miles of road in Wisconsin, and in all one thousand five hundred miles. 
Its lines extend into five different states. Over these lines its equipment is run In common, or 
transferred from place to place, as the changes in !:-L-slness may temporarily require. 

Wisconsin Central Railroad. 

The " Milwaukee & Northern Railway Company " was incorporated in 1870, to build a road 
from Milwaukee to some point on the Fox river below Winnebago lake, and thence to Lake 
Superior, with branches. It completed its road to Menasha, one hundred and two miles from 
Milwaukee, with a branch from Hilbert to Green Bay, twenty-seven miles, in 1873, and in that 
year leased its line to the "Wisconsin Central Railroad Company," which is still operating it. In 



1864 congress made a grant of land to the state of Wisconsin to aid in the construction of a rail- 
road from Berlin, Doty's Island, Fond du Lac, or Portage, by way of Stevens Point, to Bayfield 
or Superior, granting the odd sections within ten miles on each side of the line, with an indem- 
nity limit of twenty miles on each side. The legislature of 1865 failed to dispose of this grant, 
but that of 1S66 provided for the organization of two companies, one to build from Portage City 
by way of Berlin to Stevens Point, and the other from Menasha to the same point, and then 
jointly to Bayfield and Lake Superior. The former was called the "Winnebago and Lake Superior 
Railroad Company," and the latter the " Portage & Superior Railroad Company." In 1869 an act 
was passed consolidating the two companies, which was done under the nane of the " Portage, 
Winnebago & Superior Railroad Company." In 1S71 the name of the company was changed to 
the " Wisconsin Central Railroad Company." The Winnebago & Lake Superior company was 
organized under Hon. George Reed as president, and at once commenced the construction of its 
line of road between Menasha and Stevens Point. In 187 i the Wisconsin Central consolidated 
with the " Manitowoc & Mississippi Railroad Company." The articles of consolidation provided 
that Gardner Colby, a director of the latter company, should be president, and that George Reed, 
a director of the former, should be vice president of the new organization ; with a further provision 
that Gardner Colby, George Reed, and Elijah B. Phillips should be and remain its executive 

In 1871, an act was passed incorporating the " Phillips and Colby Construction Company," 
which created E. B. Phillips, C. L. Colby, Henry Pratt, and such others as they might associate 
with them, a body corporate, with authority to build railroads and do all manner of things relat- 
ing to railroad construction and operation. Under this act the construction company contracted 
with the Wisconsin Central railroad company, to build its line of road from Menasha to Lake 
Superior. In November, 1873, the Wisconsin Central leased of the Milwaukee & Northern com- 
pany its line of road extending from Schwartzburg to Menasha, and the branch to Green Bay, for 
the term of nine hundred and ninety-nine years, and also acquired the rights of the latter com. 
pany to use the track of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul company between Schwartzburg and 
Milwaukee, and to depot facilities in Milwaukee. The construction of the land grant portion 
of this important line of road was commenced in 1S71, and it was completed to Stevens Point in 
November of that year. It was built from Stevens Point north one hundred miles to Worcester 
in 1872. During 1872 and 1873, it was built from Ashland south to the Penoka iron ridge, a dis- 
tance of thirty miles. The straight line between Portage City and Stevens Point, authorized by 
an act of the legislature of 1875, was constructed between October i, 1875, and October, 1876, 
seven y-one miles in length. The gap of forty-two miles between Worcester and Penoka iron 
ridge was closed in June, 1877. E. B. Phillips, of Milwaukee, is president and general manager. 
This line of road passes through a section of our state hitherto unsettled. It has been pushed 
through with energy, and opened up for settlement an immense region of heavily timbered land, 
and thus contributed to the growth and prosperity of the state. 

The Western Union 

The " Racine, Janesville & Mississippi Railroad Company " was chartered in 1852,10 build 
a road from Racine to Beloit, and was organized the same year. The city of Racine issued its 
bonds for $300,000 in payment for that amount of stock. The towns of Racine, Elkhorn, Dele- 
van and Beloit gave $190,000, and issued their bonds, and farmers along the line made liberal 
subscriptions and secured the same by mortgages on their farms. The road was built to Burling- 
ton in 1855, to Delavan early in 1856, and to Beloit, sixty-eight miles from Racine, during the 
Rame year. Failing to meet the interest on its bonds and its floating indebtedness, it was sur- 


rendered by the company to the bond-holders in 1859, who completed it to Freeport during that 
year, and afterward built to the Mississippi river at Savannah, and thence to Rock Island. The 
bond-holders purchased and sold the road in 1866, and a new organization was had as the " West- 
ern Union Railroad (Company," and it has sinee been operated under that name. In 1869, it 
built a line from Elkhorn to Eagle, seventeen miles, and thus made a connection with Milwau- 
kee over the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul line. The latter company owns a controlling 
interest it its line. Alexander Mitchell is the president of the company, and D. A. Olin, 
general superintendent. 

West Wisconsin Railroad. 

The lands granted by congress in 1856 to aid in the construction of a railroad in Wisconsin, 
from Tomah to Superior and Bayfield, were disposed of as mentioned under the history of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul company. The La Crosse company, as we have seen, prevailed in 
the legislature of 1856, and secured legislation favorable to its interests; but it failed to build the 
line of road provided for, and forfeited its right to lands granted. In 1863, the " Tomah & Lake 
St. Croix Railroad Company " was incorporated, with authority to construct a railroad from some 
point in the town of Tomah in Monroe county, to such point on Lake St. Croix, between town- 
ships 25 and 31 as the directors might determine. To the company, by the act creating it, was 
granted all the interest and estate of this state, to so much of the lands granted by the United 
States to the state of Wisconsin, known as the St. Croix grant, as lay between Tomah and Lake 
St. Croix. A few months after its organization, the company passed substantially into the hands 
of D. A. Baldwin and Jacob Humbird, who afterward built a line of road from Tomah, via Black 
River Falls, and Eau Claire to Hudson, on Lake St. Croix, one hundred and seventy-eight miles. 
Its name was afterward changed to the "West Wisconsin Railroad Company." In 1S73, it built 
its road from Warren's Mills via Camp Douglass, on the St. Paul road to Elroy, and took up its 
track from the first-named place, twelve miles, to Tomah. A law-suit resulted, which went against 
the railroad company, and the matter was finally compromised by the payment of a sum of money 
by the company to the town of Tomah. The road was built through a new and sparsely settled 
country, and its earnings have not been sufficient to enrich its stock-holders. It connects at 
Camp Douglass with the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul road, and at Elroy with the Chicago & 
Northwestern railway company's line, which gives the latter a through line to St. Paul. It is 
operated in connection with the Chicago & Northwestern railway, and managed in its interest. 
It is now in the hands of Wm. H. Ferry, of Chicago, as receiver; H. H. Potter, of Chicago, as 
president^; and E. W. Winter, of Hudson, superintendent. 

The Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western Railway. 

In 1870, the "Milwaukee, Manitowoc & Green Bay Railroad Company" was chartered to 
build a road from Milwaukee to Green Bay by way of Manitowoc. It built its line from Mil- 
waukee to Manitowoc in 1873, when its name was changed to " Milwaukee, Lake Shore & West- 
ern Railroad Company." Under a decree of foreclosupe, it was sold Dec. 10, 1875, and its name 
was changed to " Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western Railway Company," by which name it is 
still known. 

In 1866, the " Appleton & New London Railroad Company" was incorporated to build a 
road from Appleton to New London, and thence to Lake Superior. A subsequent amendment 
to its charter authorized it to extend its road to Manitowoc. It built most of the line from 
Appleton to that city, and then, under legislative authority, sold this extension to the Milwau- 


kee, Lake Shore & ^Vestern railroad company. The last-named company extended it to New 
London, on the Wolf river, twenty-one miles, in 1876, where it connects with the Green Bay & 
Minnesota road. It now operates one hundred and forty-six miles of road, extending from Mil- 
waukee to New London, passing through Sheboygan, Manitowoc and Appleton, which includes 
a branch line six miles in length from Manitowoc to Two Rivers. F. W. Rhinelander, of New 
York, is its president, and H. O. H. Reed, of Milwaukee, superintendent. 

The Green Bay & Minnesota Railroad. 

The line of road operated by this company extends from Fort Howard to the Mississippi 
river, o]iposite Winona, Minnesota. It is two hundred and sixteen miles in length, and was 
built through a sparsely settled and heavily timbered section of the state. It began under most 
discouraging circumstances, yet was pushed through by the energy of a few men at Green Bay 
and along its line. It was originally chartered in 1866 as the "Green Bay & Lake Pepin Rail- 
road Company " to build a road from the mouth of the Fox river near Green Bay to the Missis- 
sippi river opposite Winona. But little was done except the making of preliminary surveys in 
1870. During 1870 and 1871, forty miles were constructed and put in operation. In 1872, one 
hundred and fourteen miles were graded, the track laid, and the river reached, sixty-two miles 
farther, in 1873. In 1876, it acquired the right to use the "Winona cut-off " between Winona 
and Onalaska, and built a line from the latter point to La Crosse, seven miles, thus connecting its 
road with the chief city of Wisconsin on the Mississippi river. The city of La Crosse aided this 
extension by subscribing $75,000 and giving its corporation bonds for that amount. Henry 
Ketchum, of New London, is president of the company, and D. M. Kelly, of Green Bay, gen- 
eral manager. 

Wisconsin Valley Road. 

The "Wisconsin Valley Railroad Company " was incorporated in 1871 to build a road from 
a point on or near the line of the Milwaukee & La Crosse railroad, between Kilbourn City and 
the tunnel in said road to the village of Wausau, in the county of Marathon, and the road to pass 
not more than one mile west of the village of Grand Rapids, in the county of Wood. The road 
was commenced at Tomah, and graded to Centralia in 1872, and opened to that village in 1873, 
and during 1874 it was completed to Wausau, ninety miles in its whole length. Boston capitalists 
furnished the money, and it is controlled in the interest of the Dubuque & Minnesota railroad, 
through which the equipment was procured. The lumber regions of the Wisconsin river find an 
outlet over it, and its junction with the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul road at Tomah enables 
a connection with the railroads of Iowa and Minnesota. It gives the people of Marathon county 
an outlet long needed for a large lumber traffic, and also enables them to receive their goods and 
supplies of various kinds for the lumbering region tributary to Wausau. James F. Joy, of 
Detroit, is president, and F. O. Wyatt, superintendent. 

Sheboygan & Fond du Lac Railroad. 

The " Sheboygan & Mississippi Railroad Company " was incorporated in 1 85 2, to build .t 
road from Sheboygan to the Mississippi river. It was completed from Sheboygan to Plymouth 
in 1858, to Glenbeulah in i860, to Fond du Lac in 1868, and to Princeton in 1872. The extension 
from Fond du Lac to Princeton was built under authority of an act passed in 1871. 

Under a foreclosure in 1861 the line from Sheboygan to Fonddu Lac was sold, and the name 
of the company changed to "Sheboygan & Fond du Lac Railroad Company." The length of 


the line is seventy-eight miles, and it passes through a fertile agricultural country. The city of 
Sheboygan, county, city and town of Fond du Lac, and the towns of Riverdale, Ripon, Brooklyn, 
Princeton, and St. Marie, aided in its building to an amount exceeding $25o,ooc. D. L. Wells 
is president, and Geo. P. Lee, superindendent. 

The Mineral Point Railroad. 

The "Mineral Point Railroad Company" was chartered in 1852, to build a road from Mineral 
Point, in the county of Iowa, to the state line, in township number one, in either the county of 
Green or La Fayette. It was completed to Warren, in the state of Illinois, thirty-two miles, in 

1855, making a connection at that point with the Illinois Central, running from Chicago to Galena. 
Iowa county loaned its credit and issued its bonds to aid in its construction. It was sold under 
foreclosure in 1856. Suits were brought against Iowa county to collect the amount of its bonds, 
and judgment obtained in the federal courts. Much litigation has been had, and ill feeling 
engendered, the supervisors of the county having been arrested for contempt of the decree of 
the court. Geo. W. Cobb, of Mineral Point, is the general manager. 

The Dubuque, Platte ville & Milwaukee railroad was completed in July, 1870, and extends 
from Calamine, a point on the Mineral Point railroad, to the village of Platteville, eighteen miles, 
and is operated by the Mineral Point railroad compan\ 

Madison & Portage Railroad. 

The legislature of 1855 chartered the "Sugar River Valley Railroad Company" to build a road 
from a point on the north side of tlie line of the Southern Wisconsin road, within the limits of 
Green county, to Dayton, on the Sugar river. In 1857 it was authorized to build south to the state 
line, and make its northern terminus at Madison. In 1861 it was authorized to build from Madi- 
son to Portage City, and from Columbus to Portage City, and so much of the land grant act of 

1856, as related to the building of the road from Madison, and from Columbus to Portage City, 
was annulled and repealed, and the rights and privileges that were conferred upon the LaCrosse 
company were given to the Sugar River Valley railroad company, and the portion of the land 
grant, applicable to the lines mentioned, was conferred upon the last named company. Under 
this legislation about twenty miles of the line between Madison and Portage were graded, and 
the right of way secured for about thirty of the thirty-nine miles. The La Oosse company had 
done considerable grading before its right was annulled. In 1866 the company was relieved 
from constructing the road from Columbus to Portage City. In 1870 the purchasers of that part 
of the Sugar River Valley railroad lying between Madison and Portage City were incorporated 
as the " Madison & Portage Railroad Company," and to share all the rights, grants, etc., that 
were conferred upon the Sugar River railroad company by its charter, and amendments thereto, 
so far as related to that portion of the line. 

Previous to this time, in 1864 and 1865, judgments had been obtained against the Sugar 
River Valley company ; and its right of way, grading and depot grounds sold for a small sum. 
James Campbell, who had been a contractor with the Sugar River Valley company, with others, 
became the purchasers, and organized under the act of 1870, and, during the year 187 1, com- 
pleted it between Madison and Portage City, and in March, 1871, leased it to the Milwaukee & 
St. Paul company, and it is still operated by that corporation. In 187 1 the Madison & Portage 
company was authorized to extend its road south to the Illinois state line, and north from 
Portage City to Lake Winnebago. The same year it was consolidated with the " Rockford Central 


Railroad Company," of Illinois, and its name changed to the "Chicago lS; Superior Railroad 
Company," but still retains its own organization. The Madison & Portage railroad company 
claims a share in the lands granted by acts of congress in 1856, and have commenced proceed- 
ings to assert its claim, which case is still pending in the federal courts. 

North Wisconsin Railroad. 

The "North Wisconsin Railroad Company" was incorporated in 1869, to build a road from 
Lake St. Croix, or river, to Bayfield on Lake Superior. The grant of land by congress in 1856,10 
aid in building a road from Lake St. Croix to Bayfield on Lake Superior, under the decision of 
the federal court, was yet at the disposal of the state. This company, in 187 1, built a short 
section of its line of road, with the expectation of receiving the grant. In 1873, the grant was 
conferred upon the Milwaukee & St. Paul company, but under the terms and restrictions con- 
tained in the act, it declined to accept it. The legislature of 1874 gave it to the North Wiscon- 
sin company, and it has built forty miles of its road, and received the lands pertaining thereto. 
Since 1876, it has not completed any part of its line, but is trying to construct twenty miles 
during the present year. The company is authorized to construct a road both to Superior and 
to Bayfield, but the act granting the lands confers that portion from Superior to the intersection 
of the line to Bayfield upon the Chicago & North Pacific air-line railroad. This last-named 
company have projected a line from Chicago to the west end of Lake Superior, and are the 
owners of an old grade made through Walworth and Jefferson counties, by a company chartered 
in 1853 as the "Wisconsin Central," to build a road from Portage City to Geneva, in the county 
of Walworth. The latter company had also graded its line between Geneva and the state line 
of Illinois. This grade was afterward appropriated by the Chicago & Northwestern, and over it 
they now operate their line from Chicago to Geneva. 

Prairie du Chien & McGregor Railroad. 

This is a line two miles in length, connecting Prairie du Chien in Wisconsin, with McGregor 
in Iowa. It is owned and operated by John Lawler, of the latter-named place. It extends across 
I'otli channels of the Mississippi river, and an intervening island. The railroad bridge consists 
of substantial piling, except a pontoon draw across each navigable channel. Each pontoon is four 
hundred feet long and thirty feet wide, provided with suitable machinery and operated by steam 
power. Mr. Lawler has secured a patent on his invention of the pontoon draw for railroad 
bridges. His line was put in operation in April, 1874. 

The Chippewa Falls & Western Railroad. 

This road was built in 1874, by a company organized under the general law of the state. It 
is eleven miles in length, and connects the " Falls " with the West Wisconsin line at Eau Claire. 
It was constructed by the energetic business men and capitalists of Chippewa Falls, to afford an 
outlet for the great lumber and other interests of that thriving and prosperous city. The road 
is substantially built, and the track laid with steel rails. 

Narrow Gauge Railroads. 

The " Galena & Southern Wisconsin Railroad Company " was incorporated in 1857. Under 
its charter, a number of capitalists of the city of Galena, in the state of Illinois, commenced 


the construction of a narrow (three feet) gauge road, running from that city to Platteville, thirty- 
one miles in length, twenty miles in Wisconsin. It runs through a part of La Fayette county to 
Platteville, in Grant county, and was completed to the latter point in 1875. Surveys are being 
made for an extension to Wingville, in Grant county. 

The "Fond du Lac, Amboy & Peoria Railway Company " was organized under the general 
law of the state, in 1874, to build a narrow gauge road from the city of Fond du Lac to the south 
line of the state in the county of Walworth or Rock, and it declared its intention to consolidate 
with a company in Illinois that had projected a line of railroad from Peoria, in Illinois, to the south 
line of the state of Wisconsin. The road is constructed and in operation from Fond du Lac to 
Iron Ridge, a point on the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railway, twenty-nine miles from Fond 
du Lac. 

The "Pine River & Steven's Point Railroad Company" was organized by the enterprising 
citizens of Richland Center, and has built a narrow gauge road from Lone Rock, a point on the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul road, in Richland county, to Richland Center, si.\teen miles in 
length. Its track is laid with wooden rails, and it is operated successfully. 

The " Chicago & Tomah Railroad Company " organized under the general railroad law of 
the state, in 1872,10 construct a narrow gauge road from Chicago, in Illinois, to the city of 
Tomah, in Wisconsin. Its president and active manager is D. R. Williams, of Clermont, Iowa, 
and its secretary is L. M. Culver, of Wauzeka. It has graded about forty-five miles, extending 
from Wauzeka up the valley of the Kickapoo river, in Crawford county, Wisconsin. It e.xpects 
to have fifty-four miles in operation, to Bloomingdale, in Vernon county, the present year (1877). 
The rolling stock is guaranteed, and the president is negotiating for the purchase of the iron. 
South of Wauzeka the line is located to Belmont, in Iowa county. At AVauzeka it will connect 
with the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul line. 

The publij-spirited citizens of Necedah, in Juneau county, have organized under the general 
law of the state, and graded a road-bed from their village to New Lisbon, on the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul company's line. The latter company furnish and lay the iron, and will 
operate the road. It is thirteen miles in length. 


The railroads of Wisconsin have grown up under the requirements of the several localities 
that have planned and commenced their construction, and without regard to any general 
system. Frequently the work of construction was begun before adequate means were provided, 
and bankruptcy overtook the roads in their early stages. The consolidation of the various 
•companies, as in the cases of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, the Chicago & Northwestern, 
and others, has been effected to give through lines and the public greater facilities, as well as to 
introduce economy in management. At times the people have become apprehensive, and by legisla- 
tive action prohibited railroads from consolidating, and have sought to control and break down 
the power of these corporations and to harmonize the interests of the companies and the 
public. The act of 1874, called the " Potter law," was the assertion, by the legislative power of 
the state, of its right to control corporations created by itself, and limit the rates at which freight 
and passengers should be carried. After a long and expensive contest, carried through the state 
and federal courts, this right has been established, being finally settled by the decision of the 
supreme court of the United States. 

Quite all the railroads of Wisconsin have been built with foreign capital. The plan pursued 
after an organization was effected, was to obtain stock subscriptions from those immediately 


interested in the enterprise, procure the aid of counties and municipalities, and then allure the 
farmers, with the prospect of joint ownership in railroads, to subscribe for stock and mortgage 
their farms to secure the payment of their subscriptions. Then the whole line was bonded and 
a mortgage executed. The bonds and mortgages thus obtained, were taken to the money 
centers of New York, London, Amsterdam and other places, and sold, or hypothecated to 
obtain the money with which to prosecute the work. The bonds and mortgages were made to 
draw a high rate of interest, and the earnings of these new roads, through unsettled localities, 
were insufficient to pay more than running and incidental expenses, and frequently fell short of 
that. Default occurring in the payment of interest, the mortgages were foreclosed and the 
property passed into the hands and under the control of foreign capitalists. Such has baen the 
history of most of the railroads of our state. The total number of farm mortgages given has 
been 3,785, amounting to $4,079,433; town, county and municipal bonds, amounting to 
$6,910,652. The total cost of all the railroads in the state, as given by the railroad commissioner 
in his report for 1876, li:is been $98,343,453.67. This vast sum is, no doubt, greatly in excess of 
what the cost should have been, but the roads have proved of immense benefit in the develop- 
ment of the material resources of the state. 

Other lines are needed through sections not yet traversed by the iron steed, and present 
lines should be extended by branch roads. The questions upon which great issues were raised 
between the railway corporations and the people, are now happily settled by securing to the latter 
their rights ; and the former, under the wise and conciliatory policy pursued by their managers, 
are assured of the sa-fety of their investments. An era of good feeling has succeeded one of 
distrust and antagonism. The people must use the railroads, and the railroads depend upon the 
people for sustenance and protection. This mutuality of interest, when fully recognized on both 
sides, will result in giving to capital a fair return and to labor its just reward. 



Foremost among the industries of Wisconsin is that of manufacturing lumber. Very much 
of the importance to which the state has attained is due to the development of its forest wealth. 
In America, agriculture always has been, and always will be, the primary and most important 
interest; but no nation can subsist upon agriculture alone. While the broad prairies of Illinois 
and Iowa are rich with a fertile and productive soil, the hills and valleys of northern Wisconsin 
are clothed with a wealth of timber that has given birth to a great manufacturing interest, which 
employs millions of capital and thousands of men, and has peopled the northern wilds with 
energetic, prosperous communities, built up enterprising cities, and crossed the state with a net- 
work of railways which furnish outlets for its productions and inlets for the new populations 
which are ever seeking for homes and employment nearer to the setting sun. 

If a line be drawn upon the state map, from Green Bay westward through Stevens Point, 
to where it would naturally strike the Mississippi river, it will be below the southern boundary of 
the pine timber regions, with the single exception of the district drained by the Yellow river, a 
tributary of the Wisconsin, drawing its timber chiefly from Wood and Juneau counties. The 
territory north of this imaginary line covers an area a little greater than one half of the state. 
The pine timbered land is found in belts or ridges, interspersed with prairie openings, patches 
of hardwood and hemlock, and drained by numerous water-courses. No less than seven large 


rivers traverse this northern section, and, with their numerous tributaries, penetrate every county, 
affording facilities for floating the logs to the mills, and, in many instances, the power to cut them 
into lumber. This does not include the St. Croix, which forms the greater portion of the 
boundary line between Wisconsin and Minnesota, and, by means of its tributaries, draws the most 
and best of its pine from the former state. These streams divide the territory, as far as lumbering 
is concerned, into six separate and distinct districts : The Green bay shore, which includes the 
Wisconsin side of the Menomonee, the Peshtigo and Oconto rivers, with a number of creeks 
which flow into the bay between the mouths of the Oconto and Fox rivers ; the Wolf river 
district; the ^Visconsin river, including the Yellow, as before mentioned ; the Black river; the 
Chippewa and Red Cedar; and the Wisconsin side of the St. Croix. 

Beginning with the oldest of these, the Green bay shore, a brief description of each will be 
attempted. The first saw-mill built in the state, of which there is now any knowledge, was put in 
operation in 1809, in Brown county, two or three miles east from Depere, on a little stream which 
was known as East river. It was built by Jacob Franks, but probably was a very small affair. 
Of its machinery or capacity for sawing, no history has been recorded, and it is not within the 
memory of any inhabitant of to-day. In 1829, John P. Arndt, of Green Bay, built a water- 
power mill on the Pensaukee river at a point where the town of Big Suamico now stands. In 
1834, a mill was built on the Wisconsin side of the Menomonee, and, two years later, one at 
Peshtigo. Lumber was first shipped to market from this district in 1834, which must be termed 
the beginning of lumbering operations on the bay shore. The lands drained by the streams 
which flow into Green bay are located in Shawano and Oconto counties, the latter being the 
largest in the state. In 1847, Willard Lamb, of Green Bay, made the first sawed pine shingles in 
that district ; they were sold to the Galena railroad company for use on depot buildings, and 
were the first of the kind sold in Chicago. Subsequently Green Bay became one of the greatest 
points for the manufacture of such shingles in the world. The shores of the bay are low, and 
gradually change from marsh to swamp, then to level dry land, and finally become broken and 
mountainous to the northward. The pine is in dense groves that crowd closely upon the swamps 
skirting the bay, and reach far back among the hills of the interior. The Peshtigo flows into the 
bay about ten miles south of the Menomonee, and takes its rise far back in Oconto county, near 
to the latter's southern tributaries. It is counted a good logging stream, its annual product 
being from 40,000,000 to 60,000,000 feet. The timber is of a rather coarse quality, running but 
a small percentage to what the lumbermen term "uppers." About ten per cent, is what is 
known as Norway pine. Of the whole amount of timber tributary to the Peshtigo, probably 
about one third has been cut off to this date. The remainder will not average of as good quality, 
and only a limited portion of the land is of any value for agricultural purposes after being cleared 
of the pine. There are only two mills on this stream, both being owned by one company. The 
Oconto is one of the most important streams in the district. The first saw-mill was built 
on its banks about the year 1840, though the first lumbering operations of any account were 
begun in 1845 by David Jones. The business was conducted quite moderately until 1856, 
in which year several mills were built, and from that date Oconto has been known as quite 
an extensive lumber manufacturing point. The timber tributary to this stream has been of 
the best quality found in the state. Lumber cut from it has been known to yield the 
extraordinarily high average of fifty and sixty per cent, uppers. The timber now being cut 
will not average more than half that. The proportion of Norway is about five per cent. It is 
estimated that from three fourths to four fifths of the timber tributary to the Oconto hais been 
Cut away, but it will require a much longer time to convert the balance into lumber than was. 
necessary to cut its equivalent in amount, owing to its remote location. The annual production 


of ])ine himber at Oconto is from 50,000,000 to 65,000,000 feet. The whole production of the 
district, exclusive of the timber which is put into the Menomonee from Wisconsin, is about 
140,000,000 feet annually. 

The Wolf river and its tributaries constitute the next district, proceeding westward. The 
first saw logs cut on this stream for commercial purposes were floated to the government mill at 
Neenah in 1835. In 1842, Samuel Farnsworth erected the first saw-mill on the upper Wolf 
near the location of the present village of Shawano, and in the following spring he sent the first 
raft of lumber down the Wolf to Oshkosh. This river also rises in Oconto county, but flows in 
a southerly direction, and enters Winnebago lake at Oshkosh. Its pineries have been very exten- 
sive, but the drain upon them within the past decade has told with greater effect than upon any 
other district in the state. The quality of the timber is very fine, and the land is considered good 
for agricultural purposes, and is being occupied upon the lines of the different railways which 
cross it. The upper waters of the Wolf are rapid, and have a comparatively steady flow, which 
renders it a very good stream for driving logs. Upon the upper river, the land is quite rolling, 
and about the head-waters is almost mountainous. The pine timber that remains in this dis- 
trict is high up on the main river and branches, and will last but a few years longer. A few years 
ago the annual product amounted to upward of 250,000,000 feet; in 1876 it was 138,000,000. 
The principal manufacturing points are Oshkosh and Fond du Lac ; the former has 21 mills, and 
the latter 10. 

Next comes the Wisconsin, the longest and most crooked river in the state. It rises in the 
extreme northern sections, and its general course is southerly until, at Portage City, it makes a 
grand sweep to the westward and unites with the Mississippi at Prairie du Chien. It has numer- 
ous tributaries, and, together with these, drains a larger area of country than any other river in 
the state. Its waters flow swiftly and over numerous rapids and embryo falls, which renders log- 
driving and raft-running very difficult and even hazardous. The timber is generally near the 
banks of the main stream and its tributaries, gradually diminishing in extent as it recedes from 
them and giving place to the several varieties of hard-woods. The extent to which operations 
have been carried on necessitates going further up the stream for available timber, although there 
is yet what may be termed an abundant supply. The first cutting of lumber on this stream, of 
which there is any record, was by government soldiers, in 1828, at the building of Fort Winne- 
bago. In 1831, a mill was built at Whitney's rapids, below Point Bass, in what was then Indian 
territory. By 1840, mills were in operation as high up as Big Bull falls, and Wausau had a 
population of 550 souls. Up to 1876, the product of the upper Wisconsin was all sent in rafts 
to markets on the Mississippi. The river above Point Bass is a series of rapids and eddies ; the 
current flows at the rate of from 10 to 20 miles an hour, and it can well be imagined that the 
task of piloting a raft from Wausau to the dells was no slight one. The cost of that kind of 
transportation in the early times was actually equal to the present market price of the lumber. 
With a good stage of water, the length of time required to run a raft to St. Louis was 24 days, 
though quite frequently, owing to inability to get out of the Wisconsin on one rise of water, sev- 
eral weeks were consumed. The amount of lumber manufactured annually on this river is from 
140,000,000 to 200,000,000 feet. 

Bl.ick river is much shorter and smaller than the Wisconsin, but has long been known as a 
very imiwrtant lumbering stream. It is next to the oldest lumber district in the state. The 
first saw-mill west of Green Bay was built at Black River Falls in 1819 by Col. John Shaw. 
The Winnebago tribe of Indians, however, in whose territory he was, objected to the innovation 
of such a fine art, and unceremoniously offered up the mill upon the altar of their outraged 


solitude. The owner abruptly quitted that portion of the country. In 1839 another attempt 
to establish a mill on Black river was more successfully made. One was erected at the same 
point by two brothers by the name of Wood, the millwright being Jacob Spaulding, who 
eventually became its possessor. His son, Mr. Dudley J. Spaulding, is now a very extensive 
operator upon Black, river. La Crosse is the chief manufacturing point, there being ten saw-mills 
located there. The annual production of the stream ranges from 150,000,000 to 225,000,000 feet 
of logs, less than 100,000,000 feet being manufactured into lumber on its banks. The balance 
is sold in the log to mills on the Mississippi. It is a very capricious river to float logs in, which 
necessitates the carrying over from year to year of a very large amount, variously estimated at 
from 150,000,000 to 200,000,000 feet, about equal to an entire season's product. This makes the 
business more hazardous than on many other streams, as the loss from depreciation is very great 
after the first year. The (juality of the timber is fine, and good prices are realized for it when 
sold within a year after being cut. 

The Chippewa district probably contains the largest and finest body of white pine timber 
now standing, tributary to any one stream, on the continent. It has been claimed, though with 
more extravagance than truth, that the Chippewa pineries hold one-half the timber supply of 
the state. The river itself is a large one, and has many tributaries, which penetrate the rich 
pine district in all directions. The character of the tributary country is not unlike that through 
which the Wisconsin flows. In 1828 the first mill was built in the Chippewa valley, on Wilson's 
creek, near its confluence with the Red Cedar. Its site is now occupied by the village of Meno- 
monee. In 1837 another was built on what is the present site of the Union Lumbering Company's 
mill at Chippewa Falls. It was not until near 1 865 that the Chippewa became very prominent as a 
lumber-making stream. Since that date it has been counted as one of the foremost in the north- 
west. Upon the river proper there are twenty-two saw-mills, none having a capacity of less than 
3,500,000 feet per season, and a number being capable of sawing from 20,000,000 to 25,000,000 
The annual production of sawed lumber is from 250,000,000 to 300,000,000 feet; the production 
of logs from 400,000,000 to 500,000,000 feet. In 1867 the mill-owners upon the Mississippi, 
between Winona and Keokuk, organized a corporation known as the Beef Slough Manufactur- 
ing, Log-Driving and Transportation Company. Its object was to facilitate the handling of logs 
cut upon the Chippewa and its tributaries, designed for the Mississippi mills. At the confluence 
of the two rivers various improvements were made, constituting the Beef Slough boom, which is 
capable of assorting 200,000,000 feet of logs per season. The Chippewa is the most difficult 
stream in the northwest upon which to operate. In the spring season it is turbulent and 
ungovernable, and in summer, almost destitute of water, .\bout its head are numerous lakes 
which easily overflow under the influence of rain, and as their surplus water flows into the 
Chippewa, its rises are sudden and sometimes damaging in their extent. The river in many 
places flows between high bluffs, and, under the influence of a freshet, becomes a wild and 
unmanageable torrent. Logs have never been floated in rafts, as upon other streams, but are 
turned in loose, and are carried down with each successive rise, in a jumbled and confused mass, 
which entails much labor and loss in the work of assorting and delivering to the respective 
owners. Previous to the organization of the Eagle Rapids Flooding Dam and Boom Company, 
in 1872, the work of securing the stock after putting it into the river was more difficult than to 
cut and haul it. At the cities of Eau Claire and Chippewa Falls, where most of the mills are 
located, the current, under the influence of high water, is very rapid, and for years the problem 
was, how to stop and retain the logs, as they would go by in great masses and with almost resist- 
less velocity. In 1847 is recorded one of the most sudden and disastrous floods in the history 
of log-running streams. In the month of June the Chippewa rose twelve feet in a single night, 


and, in the disastrous torrent that was created, piers, booms, or " pockets " for holding logs at the 
mills, together with a fine new mill, were swept away, and the country below where Eau Claire 
now stands was covered with drift-wood, saw-logs, and other debris. Such occurrences led to 
the invention of the since famous sheer boom, which is a device placed in the river opposite 
Ihe mill boom into which it is desired to turn the logs. The sheer boom is thrown diagonally 
across the river, automatically, the action of the current upon a number of ingeniously arranged 
*' fins" holding it in position. By this means the logs are sheered into the receptacle until it is 
filled, when the sheer boom, by closing up the " fins" with a windlass, falls back and allows the 
logs to go on for the next mill to stop and capture its pocket full in like manner. By this 
method each mill could obtain a stock, but a great difficulty was experienced from the fact that 
the supply was composed of logs cut and owned by everybody operating on the river, and the 
process of balancing accounts according to the " marks," at the close of the season, has been 
■one prolific of trouble and legal entanglements. The building of improvements at Eagle 
Rapids by the company above mentioned remedied the difficulty to some extent, but the process 
of logging will always be a difficult and hazardous enterprise until adequate means for holding 
and assorting the entire log product are provided. Upon the Yellow and Eau Ciaire rivers, two 
important branches of the Chippewa, such difficulties are avoided by suitable improvements. 
The entire lumber product of the Chippewa, with the exception of that consumed locally, is 
floated in rafts to markets upon the Mississippi, between its mouth and St. Louis. The quality 
•of the timber is good, and commands the best market price in the sections where it seeks 

West of the Chippewa district the streams and timber are tributary to the St. Croix, and in 
all statistical calculations the entire product of that river is credited to Minnesota, the same as 
that of the Menomonee is given to Michigan, when in fact about one half of each belongs to 
Wisconsin. The important branches of the St. Croix belonging in this state are the Apple 
Clam, Yellow, Namekogan, Totagatic and Eau Claire. The sections of country through which 
they flow contain large bodies of very fine pine timber. The St. Croix has long been noted for 
the excellence of its dimension timber. Of this stock a portion is cut into lumber at Stillwater, 
and marketed by rail, and the balance is sold in the log to mills on the Mississippi. 

Such is a brief and somewhat crude description of the main lumbering districts of the state. 
Aside from these, quite extensive operations are conducted upon various railway lines which 
penetrate the forests which are remote from log-running streams. In almost every county in 
the state, mills of greater or less capacity may be found cutting up pine or hard-woods into 
lumber, shingles, or cooperage stock. Most important, in a lumbering point of view, of all the 
railroads, is the Wisconsin Central. It extends from Milwaukee to Ashland, on Lake Superior, 
a distance of 351 miles, with a line to Green Bay, 113 miles, and one from Stevens Point to 
Portage, 7 i miles, making a total length of road, of 449 miles. It has only been completed to 
Ashland within the present season. From Milwaukee to Stevens Point it passes around to the 
•east and north of Lake Winnebago, through an excellent hard-wood section. There are many 
stave mills in operation upon and tributary to its line, together with wooden-ware establishments 
and various manufactories requiring either hard or soft limber as raw material. From Stevens 
Point northward, this road passes through and has tributary to it one of the finest bodies of tim- 
ber in the state. It crosses the upper waters of Black river and the Flambeau, one of the main 
tributaries of the Chippewa. From 30,000,000 to 50,000,000 feet of lumber is annually manu- 
factured on its line, above Stevens Point. The Wisconsin Valley railroad extends from Tomah 
to Wausau, and was built to afford an outlet, by rail, for the lumber produced at the latter point. 

The extent of the timber supply in this state has been a matter of much speculation, and 



is a subject upon which but little can be definitely said. Pine trees can not be counted or 
measured until reduced to saw-logs or lumber. It is certain that for twenty years the 
forests of Wisconsin have yielded large amounts of valuable timber, and no fears are 
entertained by holders of pine lands that the present generation of owners will witness, 
an exhaustion of their supply. In some sections it is estimated that the destruction to 
the standing timber by fires, which periodically sweep over large sections, is greater than 
by the axes of the loggers. The necessity for a state system of forestry, for the protection of 
the forests from fires, has been urged by many, and with excellent reason ; for no natural resource 
of the state is of more value and importance than its wealth of timber. According to an esti- 
mate recently made by a good authority, and which received the sanction of many interested 
parties, there was standing in the state in 1876, an amount of pine timber approximating 
35,000,000,000 feet. 

The annual production of lumber in the districts herein described, and from logs floated out 
of the state to mills on the Mississippi, is about 1,200,000,000 feet. The following table gives, 
the mill capacity per season, and the lumber and shingles manufactured in 1876 : 

Green .Bay Shore 

Wolf River 

Wisconsin Central Railroad. 

Green Bay Sc Minnesota Railroad 

Wisconsin River - 

Black R iver _. — 

Chippewa River. - 

Mississippi River — using Wisconsin logs 



2o6,0OO,( 00 
258,50 ',000 




IN 1876. 












IN 1876. 






If to the above is added the production of mills outside of the main districts and lines of rail* 
way herein described, the amount of pine lumber annually produced from Wisconsin forests would 
reach 1,500,000,000 feet. Of the hard-wood production no authentic information is obtainable 
To cut the logs and place them upon the banks of the streams, ready for floating to the mills^ 
requires the labor of about 18,000 men. Allowing that, upon an average, each man has a family 
of two persons besides himself, dependent upon his labor for support, it would be apparent that 
the first step in the work of manufacturing lumber gives employment and support to 54,000 
persons. To convert 1,000,000 feet of logs into lumber, requires the consumption of 1,200 
bushels of oats, 9 barrels of pork and beef, 10 tons of hay, 40 barrels of flour, and the use of 2 
pairs of horses. Thus the fitting out of the logging companies each fall makes a market for 
1,800,000 bushels of oats, 13,500 barrels of pork and beef, 15,000 tons of hay, and 60,000 barrels 
of flour. Before the lumber is sent to market, fully $6,000,000 is expended for the labor 
employed in producing it. This industry, aside from furnishing the farmer of the west with the 
cheapest and best of materials for constructing his buildings, also furnishes a very important 
market for the products of his farm. 

The question of the exhaustion of the pine timber supply has met with much discussion 
during the past few years, and, so far as the forests of Wisconsin are concerned, deserves a brief 
notice. The great source of supply of white pine timber in the country is that portion of the 
northwest between the shores of Lake Huron and the banks of the Mississippi, comprising the 


northern portions of the states of Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. For a quarter of a 
century these fields have been worked by lumbermen, the amount of tlie yearly production 
having increased annually until it reached the enormous figure of 4,000,000,000 feet. With all 
of this tremendous drain upon the forests, there can be pointed out but one or two sections that 
are actually exhausted. There are, however, two or three where the end can be seen and the 
■date almost foretold. The pineries of Wisconsin have been drawn upon for a less period and 
less amount than those of Michigan, and, it is generally conceded, will outlast them at the present 
proportionate rate of cutting. There are many owners of pine timber lands who laugh at tin; 
prospect of exhausting their timber, within their lifetime. As time brings them nearer to the end, 
the labor of procuring the logs, by reason of the distance of the timber from the water-courses 
will increase, and the work will progress more slowly. 

In the future of this industry there is much promise. Wisconsin is the natural source of 
supply for a very large territory. The populous prairies of Illinois and Iowa are near-by and 
unfailing markets. The broad plains of Kansas and the rich valleys of Nebraska, which are still in 
the cradle of development, will make great drafts upon her forests for the material to construct cities 
in which the first corner-stone is yet unlaid. Minnesota, notwithstanding the fact that large 
forests exist within her own confines, is even now no mean customer for Wisconsin lumber, and 
the ambitious territory of Dakota will soon clamor for material to build up a great and wealthy 
state. In the inevitable progress of development and growth which must characterize the great 
west, the demand for pine lumber for building material will be a prominent feature. With the 
growth of time, changes will occur in the methods of reducing the forests. With the increasing 
demand and enhancing values will come improvements in manipulating the raw material, and a 
stricter economy will be preserved in the handling of a commodity which the passage of time 
only makes more valuable. Wisconsin will become the home of manufactories, which will 
convert her trees into finished articles of daily consumption, giving employment to thousands of 
artisans where it now requires hundreds, and bringing back millions of revenue where is now 
realized thousands. Like all other commodities, lumber becomes more valuable as skilled labor 
is employed in its manipulation, and the greater the extent to which this is carried, the greater is 
the growth in prosperity, of the state and its ]ieople. 


By JOHN 1'. McGregor. 

Wisconsin was organized as a territory in 1836, and the same year several acts were passed 
by the territorial legislature, incorporating banks of issue. Of these, one at Green Bay and 
another at Mineral Point went into operation just in time to play their part in the great panic 
of 1837. The bank at Green Bay soon failed and left its bills unredeemed. The bank at 
Mineral Point is said to have struggled a little longer, but both these concerns were short lived, 
and their issues were but a drop in the great flood of worthless wild-cat bank notes that spread 
over the whole western country in that disastrous time. The sufferings of the people of Wis- 
consin, from this cause, left a vivid imjiression on their minds, which manifested its results in the 
legislation of the territory and in the constitution of the state adopted in 1848. So jealous were 
the legislatures of the territory, of banks and all their works, that, in every act of incorporatior 
for any purpose, a clause w.; ; inserted to the effect that nothin;^ in the act contained should he 


taken to authorize the corporation to assume or exercise any banking powers ; and this proviso 
was even added to acts incorporating church societies. For some years there can hardly be said 
to have been a;.y banking business done in the territory ; merchants and business men were left 
to their own devices to make their exchanges, and every man was his own banker. 

In the year 1839 an act was passed incorporating the " Wisconsin Marine and Fire Insurance 
Company," of Milwaukee. This charter conferred on the corporation, in addition to the usual 
powers of a fire and marine insurance company, the privilege of receiving deposits, issuing certifi- 
cates of deposit diW^ lending money, — and wound up with the usual prohibition from doing a 
banking business. This company commenced business at once under the management of George 
Smith as president and Alexander Mitchell as secretary. The receiving deposits, issuing certifi- 
cates of deposit and lending money, soon outgrew and overshadowed the insurance branch of the 
institution, which accordingly gradually dried up. In fact, the certificates of deposit had all the 
appearance of ordinary bank notes, and served the purposes of an excellent currency, being 
always promptly redeemed in coin on demand. Gradually these issues attained a great 
circulation all through the west, as the people gained more and more confidence in the honesty 
and ability of the managers ; and though " runs " were several times made, yet being successfully 
met, the public finally settled down into the belief that these bills were good beyond question, so. 
that the amount in circulation at one time, is said, on good authority, to have been over 

As the general government required specie to be paid for all lands bought of it, the Wis- 
consin Marine and Fire Insurance company, by redemption of its " certificates of deposit," 
furnished a large part of the coin needed for use at the Milwaukee land office, and more or less 
for purchases at land offices in other parts of the state, and its issues were of course much in 
request for this purpose. For many years this institution furnished the main banking facilities, 
for the business men of the territory and young state, in the way of discounts and exchange^. 
Its right to carry on the operations it was engaged in, under its somewhat dubious and incon- 
sistent charter, was often questioned, and, in 1852, under the administration of Governor Farwell, 
some steps were taken to test the matter ; but as the general banking law had then been passed 
by the legislature, and was about to be submitted to the people, and as it was understood that the 
comiany vould organize as a bank under the law, if approved, the legal proceedings were not 
pressed. While this corporation played so important a part in the financial history and commer- 
cial development of Wisconsin, the writer is not aware of any available statistics as to the- 
amount of business transacted by it before it became merged in the "Wisconsin Marine and 
Fire Insurance Company's Bank." 

In 1847, the foundation of the present well-known firm of Marshall & Ilsley was laid by 
Samuel Marshall, who, in that year, opened a private banking office in Milwaukee, and was joined 
in 1849 by Charles F. Ilsley. This concern has always held a prominent position among the 
banking institutions of our state. About this time, at Mineral Point, Washburn & Woodman 
(C. C. Washburn and Cyrus Woodman) engaged in private banking, as a part of their business. 
After some years they were succeeded by Wm. T. Henry, who still continues the banking office. 
Among the early private tankers of the state were Mr. Kellogg, of Oshkosh ; Ulmann and Bell, of 
Racine ; and T. C. Shove, of Manitowoc. The latter still continues his business, while that of 
the other firms has 1 een wound up or merged in organized banks. 

In 1848, Wisconsin adopted a state constitution. This constitution prohibited the legislature- 
from incorporating banks and from conferring banking powers on any corporation ; but provided 
the question of " banks or no banks " might be submitted to a vote of the electors, and, if the 
decision should be in favor of banks, then the legislature might charter banks or might enact a 


general banking law, hut no such special charter or general hanking law should have any force 
until submitted to the electors at a general election, and approved by a majority of votes cast on 
that subject. In 1851, the legislature submitted this question to the people, and a majority of 
the votes were cast in favor of " banks." Accordingly the legislature, in 1852, made a general 
banking law, which was submitted to the electors in November of that year, and was approved 
I)y them. This law was very similar to the free banking law of the state of New York, which 
had then been in force about fifteen years, and was generally approved in that state. Our law 
authorized any number of individuals to form a corporate association for banking [jurposes, and 
its main provisions were intended to provide security for the circulating notes, by deposit of state 
and United States stocks or bonds with the state treasurer, so that the hill holders should sustain 
no loss in case of the failure of the banks. Provision was made for a bank comptroller, whose 
main duty it was to see that countersigned circulating notes were issued to banks only in proper 
amounts for the securities deposited, and upon compliance with the law, and that the banks kept 
these securities good. 

The first bank comptroller was James S. Baker, who was appointed by Governor Farwell. 
The first banks organized under the new law were the " State Bank," established at Madi- 
son by Marshall & Ilsley, and the "Wisconsin Marine and Fire Insurance Company's Bank," 
established at Milwaukee under the old management of that company. These banks both went 
into operation early in January, 1853, and, later in that year, the " State Bank of Wisconsin " (now 
Milwaukee National Bank of Wisconsin), and the " Farmers' and Millers' Bank " (now First 
National Bank of Milwaukee), were established, followed in January, 1854, by the "Bank of Mil- 
waukee " (now National Exchange Bank of Milwaukee). From this time forward banks were 
rapidly established at different points through the state, until in July, 1857, they numbered sixty 
— with aggregate capital, $4,205,000; deposits, $3,920,238; and circulation, $2,231,829. In 
October, the great revulsion and panic of 1857 came on, and in its course and effects tried pretty 
severely the new hanks in Wisconsin. Some of them succumbed to the pressure, but most of 
them stood the trial well. 

The great source of loss and weakness at that time was found in the rapid decline of the 
market value of the securities deposited to protect circulation, which were mostly state bonds, 
and largely those of the southern states; so that this security, when it came to be tried, did not 
prove entirely sufificient. Another fault of the system, or of the practice under it, was developed 
at this time. It was found that many of the banks had been set up without actual working capi- 
tal, merely for the purpose of issuing circulating notes, and were located at distant and inaccessible 
points in what was then the great northern wilderness of the state ; so that it was expensive and 
in f.jct impracticable to present their issues for redemption. While these evils and their rem^ 
edies were a good deal discussed among bankers, the losses and inconveniences to the people 
were not yet great enough to lead to the adoption of thorough and complete measures of reform. 
The effect of these difficulties, however, was to bring the bankers of the state into the habit of 
consulting and acting together in cases of emergency, the first bankers' convention having been 
held in 1857. This was followed by others from time to time, and it would he difficult to over- 
value the great good that has resulted, at several important crises from the har.i onious and con^ 
servative action of the liankers of our state. Partly, at least, upon their recommendations the 
legislature, in 1S5S, adopted amendments to the hanking law, providing that no bank should be 
located in a township containing less than two hundred inhabitants ; and that the comptroller 
should not issue circulating notes, except to banks doing a regular discount deposit and exchange 
business in some inhabited town, village, city, or where the ordinary business of inhabited towns, 
villages and cities was carried on. These amendments were ai>proved by the people at the fall 


election of that year. 

Banking matters now ran along pretty smoothly until the election in i860, of the republican 
presidential ticket, and the consequent agitation in the southern states threatening civil war, the 
effects of which were speedily felt; first, in the great depreciation of the bonds of the southern 
states, and then in a less decline in those of the northern states. At this time (taking the state- 
ment of July, i860,) the number of banks was 104, with aggregate capital, $6,547,000; circula- 
tion, $4,075,918; deposits, $3,230,252. 

During the winter following, there was a great deal of uneasiness in regard to our state cur- 
rency, and CO .tinuous demand upon our banks for the redemption of their circulating notes in 
coin. Many banks of the wild-cat sort failed to redeem their notes, which became depreciated 
and uncurrent; and, when the rebellion came to a head by the firing on Fort Sumter, the banking 
interests of the state were threatened with destruction by compulsory winding up and enforced 
sale at the panic prices then prevailing, of the securities deposited to secure circulation. Under 
these circumstances, on the 17th of .April, 1861, the legislature jjassed " an act to protect the 
holders of the circulating notes of the authorized banks of the state of Wisconsin." As the 
banking law could not be amended except by approval of the electors, by vote at a general 
election, a practical suspension of specie payment had to be effected by indirect methods. So 
this act first directed the bank comptroller to suspend all action toward banks for failing to 
redeem their circulation. Secondly, it prohibited notaries public from protesting bills of banks 
until Dec 1, 1861. Thirdly, it gave banks until that date to answer complaints in any proceed- 
ing to compel specie payment of circulating notes. This same legislature also amended the 
banking law, to cure defects that had been developed in it. These amendments were intended 
to facilitate the presentation and protest of circulating notes, and the winding up of banks 
failing to redeem them, and provided that the bank comptroller should not issue circulating notes 
except to banks having actual cash capital; on which point lie was to take evidence in all cases; 
that after Dec. i, 1861, all banks of the state should redeem their issues either at Madison or 
Milwaukee, and no bonds or stocks should be received as security for circulation except those of 
the United States and of the state of Wisconsin. 

Specie payment of bank bills was then practically suspended, in our state, from April 17 to 
December 1, 1861, and there was no longer any plain practical test for determining which were 
good, and which not. In this condition of things, bankers met in convention, and, after discus- 
sion and inquiry as to the condition and resources of the different banks, put forth a list of those 
whose issues were to be considered current and bankable. But things grew worse, and it was 
evident that the list contained banks that would never be able to redeem their circulation, and 
the issues of such were from time to time thrown out and discredited without any concert of 
action, so that the uneasiness of people in regard to the financial situation was greatly increased. 
The bankers finally met, gave the banks another sifting, and put forth a list of seventy banks, 
whose circulating notes they pledged themselves to receive, and pay out as current, until Decem- 
ber I. There had been so many changes that this pledge was thought necessary to allay the 
apprehensions of the public. But matters still grew worse instead of better. Some of the 
banks in the " current " list closed their doors to their depositors, and others were evidently 
unsound, and tiieir circulation so insufficiently secured as to make it certain that it would never 
be redeemed. There was more or less sorting of the currency, both by banks and business men, 
all over the state, in the endeavor to keep the best and pay out the poorest. In this state of 
things, some of the Mihvaukee banks, without concert of action, and acting under the apprehen- 
sion of being loaded up with the very worst of the currency, which, it was feared, the country 
thanks and mercbants were sorting out and sending to Milwaukee, revised the list again, and 


threw out ten of the seventy banks whose issues it liad been agreed should be received as 
current. Other banks and bankers were compelled to take the same course to protect them- 
selves. The consequence was a great disturbance of the public mind, and violent charges of 
bad faith on the part of the banks, which culminated in the bank riots of June 24, 1861. On 
that day, a crowd of several hundred disorderly people, starting out most probably only with the 
idea of making some sort of demonstration of their dissatisfaction with the action of the banks 
and bankers and with the failure to keep faith with the public, marched through the streets with 
a band of music, and brought up at the corner of Michigan and East Water streets. 

The banks had just sufficient notice of these proceedings to enable them to lock up their 
money and valuables in their vaults, before the storm broke upon them. The mob halted at the 
place above mentioned, and for a time contented themselves with hooting, and showed no dispo- 
sition to proceed to violence; but, after a little while, a stone was thrown through tiie windows 
of the Wisconsin Marine and Fire Insurance Company's Bank, situated at one corner of the 
above streets, and volleys of stones soon followed, not only against that bank, but also against 
the State Bank of Wisconsin, situated on the opposite corner. The windows of both these 
institutions and of the offices in the basements under them were effectually demolished- 
The mob then made a rush into these banks and offices, and completely gutted them, offering 
more or less violence to the inmates, though no person was seriously hurt. The broken furni- 
ture of the offices under the State Bank of Wisconsin was piled up, and the torch was applied 
by some of the rioters, while others were busy in endeavoring to break into the safes of the offices 
and the vaults of the banks. The debris of the furniture in the office of the Wisconsin Marine 
and Fire Insurance ("ompany's Bank, was also set on fire, and it was plain that if the mob was 
not immediately checked, the city would be given up to conflagration and pillage — the worst 
elements, as is always the case with mobs, having assumed the leadership. Just at that juncture, 
t'ne Milwaukee zouaves, a small military company, appeared on the scene, and with the help of 
llie firemen who had been called out, the mob was put to flight, and the incipient fire was extin- 

The damage so far done was not great in amount, and the danger for the moment was over; 
but the situation was still grave, as the city was full of threats, disturbance and apprehension. 
F.y the prompt action of the authorities, a number of companies of volunteers were brought from 
different places in the state, order was preserved, and, after muttering for three or four days, the 
storm died away. The eff"ect of that disturbance and alarm was, however, to bring home to the 
bankers and business men the conviction that eff"ectual measures must be taken to settle our 
state currency matters on a sound and permanent basis, and that the issues of all banks that 
could not be put in shape to meet specie payment in December, must be retired from circulation 
and be got out of the way. A meeting of the bankers was held ; also of the merchants' association 
of Milwaukee, and arrangements were made to raise $100,000, by these two bodies, to be used in 
assisting weak and crippled banks in securing or retiring their circulation. The bankers 
appointed a committee to take the matter in charge. 

It happened that just at this time Governor Randall and State Treasurer Hastings returned 
from New York City, where they had been making unsuccessful eflbrts to dispose of $800,000 of 
Wisconsin war bonds, which had been issued to raise funds to fit out Wisconsin volunteers. 

Our state had never liad any bonds on the eastern market. For other reasons, 01; r 
credit was not high in New York, and it had been found impossible to dispose of these bonds for 
over sixty cents on the dollar. The state officers conferred with the bankers to see what could 
be done at home ; and it was finally arranged that the bankers' committee should undertake to 
get the state banks to dispose of their southern and other depreciated state bonds on deposit to 


secure circulation, for what they would bring in coin, in New York, and replace these bonds witli 
those of our own state, .which were to be taken by our banks nominally at par — seventy percent, 
being paid in cash, and the different banks purchasing bonds, giving their individual obligation 
for the thirty per cent, balance, to be paid in semi-annual installments, with an agreement that the 
state should deduct these installments from the interest so long as these bonds should remain on 
deposit with the state. By the terms of the law, sixty per cent, of the proceeds of the bonds had to 
be paid in coin. The bankers' committee went to work, and with some labor and difficulty 
induced most of the banks to sell their southern securities at the existing low prices in New 
York, and thus produce the coin required to pay for our state bonds. From the funds provided 
by the merchants and bankers, they assisted many of the weaker banks to make good their 
securities with the banking department of the state. By the 19th of July, six of the ten rejected 
banks that had been the occasion of the riot, were made good, and restored to the list. The 
other four were wound up, and their issues redeemed at par, and, before the last of August, the 
value of the securities of all the banks on tlie current list were brought up to their circulation, 
as shown by the comptroller's report. 

Wisconsin currency at the time of the bank riot was at a discount of about 15 per cent., as 
compared with gold or New York exchange. At the middle of July the discount was 10 to 12 
per cent,, and early in August it fell to 5 per cent. The bankers' committee continued their 
work in preparation for the resumption of specie payment on December i. While the securities 
for the bank circulation had been made good, it was, nevertheless, evident that many of the 
banks on the current list would not be equal to the continued redemption of their bills in specie, 
and that they would have to be wound up and got out of the way in season. Authority was got 
from such institutions, as fast as possible, for the bankers' committee to retire their circulation 
and sell their securities. The Milwaukee banks and bankers took upon themselves the great 
burden of this business, having arranged among themselves to sort out and withhold from cir- 
culation the bills of these banks, — distributing the load among themselves in certain defined 
proportions. Instead of paying out these doubted bills, the different banks brought to the bank- 
ers' committee such amounts as they accumulated from time to time, and received from the 
committee certificates of deposit bearing seven per cent, interest, and these bills were locked up 
by the committee until the securities for these notes could be sold and the proceeds realized. 
Over $400,000 of this sort of paper was locked up by the committee at one time; but it was all 
converted into cash, and, when the first of December came, the remaining banks of this state 
were ready to redeem their issues in gold or its equivalent, and so continued to redeem until the 
issue of the legal-tender notes and the general suspension of specie payment in the United 

In July, 1861, the number of our banks was 107, with capital, $4,607,000; circulation, 
$2,317,907 ; deposits, $3,265,069. 

By the contraction incident to the preparations for redemption in specie, the amount of cur- 
rent Wisconsin bank notes outstanding December i, 1861, was reduced to about $1,500,000. 
When that day came, there was quite a disposition manifested to convert Wisconsin currency 
into coin, and a sharp financial pinch was felt for a few days ; but as the public became satisfied 
that the banks were prepared to meet the demand, the call for redemption rapidly fell off, and 
the banks soon began to expand their circulation, which was now current and in good demand 
all through the northwestern states. The amount saved to all the interests of our state, by this 
successful effort to save our banking system from destruction, is beyond computation. From 
this time our banks ran along quietly until prohibitory taxation by act of congress drove the bills 
of state banks out of circulation. 


The national banking law was passed in 1S63, and a few banks were soon organized under 
it in different parts of the country. The first in Wisconsin was formed by the re-organization of 
the Farmers' and Millers' Bank, in August, 1S63, as the First National Bank of Milwaukee, 
with Edward D. Holton as president, and H. H. Camp, cashier. The growth of the new system, 
however, was not very rapid ; the state banks were slow to avail themselves of the privileges of 
the national banking act, and the central authorities concluded to compel them to come in; sa 
facilities were offered for their re-organization as national banks, and then a tax of ten per cent, 
was laid upon the issues of the state banks. This tax was imposed by act of March, 1865, and 
at once caused a commotion in our state. In July, 1864, the number of Wisconsin stat« banks 
was sixty-six, with capital §3,147,000, circulation §2,461,728, deposits §5,483,205, and these 
figures were probably not very different in the spring of 1S65. The securities for the circulating 
notes were in great part the bonds of our own state, which, while known by our own people to 
be good beyond question, had never been on the general markets of the country so as to be cur- 
rently known there; and it was feared that in the hurried retirement of our circulation these 
lionds would be sacrificed, the currency depreciated, and great loss brought upon our banks and 
people. There was some excitement, and a general call for the redemption of our stat-e circula- 
tion, but the banks mostly met the run well, and our people were disposed to stand by our own 
state bonds. 

In April, 1861, the legislature passed laws, calling in the mortgage loans of the scliool fund, 
and directing its investment in these securities. The state treasurer was required to receive 
Wisconsin bank notes, not only for taxes and debts due the state, but also on deixjsit, and to 
issue certificates for such deposits bearing seven per cent, interest. By these and like means 
the threatened panic was stopped ; and in the course of a few months Wisconsin state currency 
was nearly all withdrawn from circulation. In July, 1865, the number of state banks wa* 
twenty-six, with capital $1,087,000, circulation $192,323, deposits $2,284,210. Under the 
pressure put on by congress, the organization of national banks, and especially the re-organiza- 
tion of state banks, under the national system, was proceeding rapidly, and in a short time nearly 
every town in our own state of much size or importance was provided with one or more of these 

In the great panic of 1873, ^'^ '^^ Wisconsin banks, both state and national (in common 
with those of the whole country), were severely tried; but the failures were few and unimpor- 
tant; and Wisconsin went through that ordeal with less loss and disturbance than almost any 
other state. 

We have seen that the history of banking in Wisconsin covers a stormy period, in whicb 
great disturbances and panics have occurred at intervals of a few years. It is to be hoped that 
a more peaceful epoch will succeed, but permanent quiet and prosperity can not rationally be 
expected in the present unsettled condition of our currency, nor until we have gone through the 
temporary stringency incidental to the resumption of specie payment. 

According to the last report of the comptroller of the currency, the number of nationaS 
banks in Wisconsin in November, 1876, was forty, with capital $3,400,000, deposits $7,145,360, 
circulation $2,072,869. 

At this time (July, 1877) the number of state banks is twenty-six, with capital $1,288,231, 
deposits $6,662,973. Their circulation is, of course, merely nominal, though there is no legai 
obstacle to their issuing circulating notes, except the tax imposed by congress. 


By Hon. H. H. GILES. 

The material philosophy of a people has to do with the practical and useful. It sees in 
iron, coal, cotton, wool, grain and the trees of the forest, the elements of personal comfort and 
sources of material greatness, and is applied to their development, production and fabrication fur 
purposes of exchange, interchange and sale. The early immigrants to Wisconsin territory found 
a land teeming with unsurpassed natural advantages ; prairies, timber, water and minerals, invit- 
ing the farmer, miner and lumberman, to come and build houses, furnaces, mills and factories. 
The first settlers were a food-producing people. The prairies and openings were ready for the 
plow. The ease with which farms were brought under cultivation, readily enabled the pioneer 
to supply the food necessary for himself and family, while a surplus was often produced in a few 
months. The hardships so often encountered in the settlement of a new country, where forests 
must be felled and stumps removed to prepare the soil for tillage, were scarcely known, or greatly 

During the decade from 1835 to 1845, so great were the demands for the products of the 
soil, created by the tide of emigration, that the settlers found a home market for all their surplus 
products, and so easily were crops grown that, within a very brief time after the first emigration, 
but little was required from abroad. The commerce of the country was carried on by the 
exchange of products. The settlers (they could scarcely be called farmers) would exchange 
their wheat, corn, oats and pork for the goods, wares and fabrics of the village merchant. It 
was an age of barter ; but they looked at the capabilities of the land they had come to possess, 
and, with firm faith, saw bright promises of better days in the building up of a great state. 

It is not designed to trace with minuteness the history of Wisconsin through the growth of 
its commercial and manufacturing interests. To do it justice would require a volume. The 
aim of this article will be to present a concise view of its present status. Allusion will onlj' be 
incidentally made to stages of growth and progress by which it has been reached. 

Few states in the Union possess within their borders so many, and in such abundance, 
elements that contribute to the material prosperity of a people. Its soil of unsurpassed 
fertility ; its inexhaustible mines of lead, copper, zinc and iron ; its almost boundless forests ; 
its water-powers, sufficient to drive the machinery of the world ; its long lines of lake shore on 
two sides, and the " Father of waters " on another, — need but enterprise, energy and capital to 
utilize them in building an empire of wealth, where the hum of varied^industries shall be heard 
in the music of the sickle, the loom and the anvil. 

The growth of manufacturing industries was slow during the first twenty-five years of our 
history. The early settlers were poor. Frequently the land they tilled was pledged to obtain 
means to pay for it. Capitalists obtained from twenty to thirty per cent, per annum for the use 
of their money. Indeed, it was the rule, under the free-trade ideas of the money-lenders for 
them to play the Shy lock. While investments in bonds and mortgages were so profitable, few 
■were ready to improve the natural advantages the country presented for building factories and 


For many years, quite all the implements used in farming were brought from outside the 
state. While this is the case at present to some extent with the more cumbersome farm 
machinery, quite a proportion of that and most of the simpler and lighter implements are made 
at home, while much farm machinery is now manufactured for export to other states. 


The northwest was visited and explored by French voyageurs and missionaries from Canada 
at an early day. The object of the former was trading and gain. The Jesuits, ever zealous in 
the propagation of their religion, went forth into the unknown wilderness to convert the natives 
to their faith. As early as 1624, they were operating about Lake Huron and Mackinaw. Father 
Men ird it is related, was with the Indians on Lake Superior as early as 1661. The early 
explorers were of two classes, and were stimulated by two widely different motives — the voyag- 
eurs, by the love of gain, and the missionaries, by their zeal in the propagation of their faith. 
I'revious to 1679, a considerable trade in furs had sprung up with Indian tribes in the vicinity of 
Mackinaw and the northern part of " Ouisconsin." In that year more than two hundred canoes, 
laden with furs, passed Mackinaw, bound for Montreal. The whole commerce of this vast region 
then traversed, was carried on with birch-bark canoes. The French used them in traversing 
wilds — otherwise inaccessible by reason of floods of water at one season, and ice and snow at 
another — also lakes and morasses which interrupted land journeys, and rapids and cataracts 
that cut off" communication by water This little vessel enabled them to overcome all difficulties. 
I5eing buoyant, it rode the waves, although heavily freighted, and, of light draft, it permitted the 
traversing of small streams. Its weight was so light that it could be easily carried from one 
stream to another, and around rapids and other obstructions. With this little vessel, the fur 
trade of the northwest was carried on, as well as the interior of a vast continent explored. 
Under the stimulus of commercial enterprise, the French traders penetrated the recesses of the 
immense forests whose streams were the home of the beaver, the otter and the mink, and in 
whose depths were found the martin, sable, ermine, and other fur-bearing animals. A vast trade 
in furs sprung up, and was carried on by different agents, under authority of the French 

When the military possession of the northwestern domain passed from the government of 
France to that of Great Britain in 1760, the relationship of the fur trade to the government 
changed. The government of France had controlled the traffic, and made it a means of strength- 
ening its hold upon the country it possessed. The policy of Great Britain was, to charter 
companies, and grant them exclusive privileges. The Hudson bay company had grown rich and 
powerful between 1670 and 1760. Its success had excited the cupidity of capitalists, and rival 
organizations were formed. The business of the company had been done at their trading-stations 
— the natives bringing in their furs for exchange and barter. Other companies sent their 
voyageurs into every nook and comer to traffic with the trappers, and even to catch the fur-bear- 
ing animals themselves. In the progress of time, private parties engaged in trapping and dealing 
in furs, and, under the competition created, the business became less profitable. In 1815. 
congress passed an act prohibiting foreigners from dealing in furs in the United States, or any 
of its territories. This action was obtained through the influence of John Jacob Astor. Mr. 
.\stor organized the American fur company in 1809, and afterward, in connection with the North- 
west company, bought out the Mackinaw company, and the two were merged in the Southwest 
company. The association was suspended by the war of 1812. The American re-entered the 
field in 1816. The fur trade is still an important branch of traffic in the northern part of the 
state, and, during eight months of the year, employs a large number of men. 



Lead and Zinc. 

In 1824, the lead ore in the southwestern part of Wisconsin began to attract attention. 
From 1826 to 1830, there was a great rush of miners to this region, somewhat like the Pike's 
Peak excitement at a later date. The lead-producing region of Wisconsin covers an area of 
about 2,200 square miles, and embraces parts of Grant, Iowa and La Fayette counties. Between 
1S29 and 1839, the production of lead increased from 5,000 to 10,000 tons. After the latter 
year it rose rapidly, and attained its maximum in 1845, when it reached nearly 25,000 tons. 
Since that time the production has decreased, although still carried on to a considerable extent. 

The sulphate and carbonate of zinc abound in great quantities with the lead of southwest 
Wisconsin. Owing to the difficulty of working this class of ores, it was formerly allowed to 
accumulate about the mouths of the mines. Within a few years past, metallurgic processes 
have been so greatly improved, that the zinc ores have been largely utilized. At La Salle, in the 
state of Illinois, there are three establishments for smelting zinc ores. There is also one at Peru, 
ni. To smelt zinc ores economically, they are taken where cheap fuel is available. Hence, the 
location of these works in the vicinity of coal mines. The works mentioned made in 1875, 
from ores mostly taken from Wisconsin, 7,510 tons of zinc. These metals are, therefore, impor- 
tant elements in the commerce of W'isconsin. 


The iron ores of Wisconsin occur in immense beds in several localities, and are destined to 
prove of great value. From their product in 1863, there were 3,735 tons of pig iron received at 
Milwaukee; in 1865, 4,785 tons; in 1868, 10,890 tons. Of the latter amount, 4,648 tons were 
from the iron mines at Mayville. There were shipped from Milwaukee, in 1868, 6,361 tons of 
pig iron. There were also received 2,500 tons of ore from the Dodge county ore beds. During 
1869, the ore beds at Iron Ridge were developed to a considerable extent, and two large blast 
fomaces constructed in Milwaukee, at which place there were 4,695 tons of ore received, and 
2,059 tons were shipped to Chicago and Wyandotte. In 1870, 112,060 tons of iron ore were 
received at Milwaukee, 95,000 tons of which were from Iron Ridge, and 17,060 tons from Esca- 
aaba and Marquette, in Michigan. The total product of the mines at Iron Ridge in 187 1 was 
82,284 tons. The Milwaukee iron company received by lake, in the same year, 28,094 tons of 
Marquette iron ore to mix with the former in making railroad iron. In 1872, there were receivea 
from Iron Ridge 85,245 tons of ore, and 5,620 tons of pig iron. Much of the metal made by the 
Wisconsin iron company in 1872 was shipped to St. Louis, to mix with the iron made from 
Missouri ore. 

The following table shows the production of pig iron in Wisconsin, for 1872, 1873 and 1874, 
in tons : 





Milwaukee Iron Company, Milwaukee _. 

Minerva Furnace Company, Milwaukee _ 

Wisconsin Iron Company, Iron Ridge 

Northwestern Iron Company, Mayville _. 









J. 300 

Green Bay Iron Company, Green Bay 

National Iron Company, Depere ._ 

Fox River Iron Company, W. Depere 

Ironton Furnace, Sauk county 




The Milwaukee iron company, during the year 1872, entered into the manufacture of mer- 
chant iron — it having been demonstrated that the raw material could be reduced there cheaper 
than elsewhere. The Minerva furnace company built also during the same year one of the 
most compact and complete iron furnaces to be found any where in the country. During the 
year 1873, the iron, with most other material interests, became seriously prostrated, so that the 
total receipts of ore in Milwaukee in 1874 amounted to only 31,993 tons, against 69,418 in 1873, 
and 85,245 tons in 1872. There were made in Milwaukee in 1874, 29,680 tons of railroad iron. 
In 1875, 58,868 tons of ore were received at Milwaukee, showing a revival of the trade in an 
increase of 19,786 tons over the previous year. The operation of the works at Bay View having 
suspended, the receijits of ore in 1876, at Milwaukee, were less than during any year since 1869, 
being only 31,119 tons, of which amount only 5,488 tons were from Iron Ridge, and the total 
shipments were only 498 tons. 


The business of lumbering holds an important rank in the commerce of the state. For 
many years the ceaseless hum of the saw and the stroke of the ax have been heard in all our 
great forests. The northern portion of the state is characterized by evergreen trees, principally 
pine; the southern, by hard^woods. There are exceptional localities, but this is a correct state- 
ment of the general distribution. I think that, geologically speaking, the evergreens belong to 
the primitive and sandstone regions, and the hard wood to the limestone and clay formations. 
Northern Wisconsin, so called, embraces that portion of the state north of forty-five degrees, 
and possesses nearly all the valuable pine forests. The most thoroughly developed portion of 
this region is that lying along the streams entering into Green bay and Lake Michigan, and border- 
ing on the Wisconsin river and other streams entering into the Mississippi. Most of the pine in 
the immediate vicinity of these streams has been cut off well toward their sources ; still, there 
are vast tracts covered with dense forests, not accessible from streams suitable for log-driving 
purposes. The building of railroads into these forests will alone give a market value to a large 
iwrtion of the pine timber there growing. It is well, perhaps, that this is so, for at the present 
rate of consumption, but a few years will elapse before these noble forests will be totally destroyed. 
-Most of the lumber manufactured on the rivers was formerly taken to a market by being floated 
down the streams in rafts. Now, the railroads are transporting large quantities, taking it directly 
from the mills and unloading it at interior points in Iowa, Illinois and Wisconsin, and some of it 
in eastern cities. From five to eight thousand men are employed in the pineries in felling the 
trees, sawing them into logs of suitable length, and hauling them to the mills and streams during 
ever)- winter in times of fair prices and favorable seasons. The amount of lumber sawed in 
i860, as carefully estimated, was 355.055,155 feet. The amount of shingles made was 2,272,061, 
and no account was made of the immense number of logs floated out of the state, for manufac- 
ture into lumber elsewhere. The amount of logs cut in the winter of 1873 and 1874 was 
987,000,000 feet. In 1876 and 1877 the Black river furnished 188,344,464 feet. The Chippewa, 
90,000,000; the Red Cedar, 57,000,000. There passed through Beef Slough 129,384,000 feet of 
logs. Hon. A. H. Eaton, for fourteen years receiver of the United States land office at Stevens 
Point, estimated the acreage of pine lands in his district at 2,000,000, and, taking his own district 
as the basis, he estimated the whole state at 8,000,000 acres. Reckoning this at 5,000 feet to the 
acre, the aggregate pine timber of the state would be 40,000,000,000 feet. The log product 
annually amounts to an immense sum. In 1876, 1,172,611,823 feet were cut. This is about the 
average annual draft that is made on the pine lands. There seems to be no remedy for the 



wholesale destruction of our pine forests, except the one alluded to, the difficulty of transporta- 
tion, and this will probably save a portion of them for a long time in the future. At the rate of 
consumption for twenty years past, we can estimate that fifty years would see northern Wiscon- 
sin denuded of its pine forests; but our lumber product has reached its maximum, and will 
probably decrease in the coming years as the distance to be hauled to navigable streams 
increases. In the mean time lumber, shingles and lath will form an important factor in our 
commerce, both state and inter-state, and will contribute millions to the wealth of our citizens. 


Up to 1841, no grain was exported from Wisconsin to be used as food; but, from the time 
of Its first settlement in 1S36 to 1S40, the supply of bread stuffs from abroad, upon which tlie 
people depended, was gradually diminished by the substitution of home products. In the winter 
of 1840 and 1841, E. D. Holton, of Milwaukee, purchased a small cargo of wheat (about 4,000 
bushels), and in the spring of 1841, shipped it to Buffalo. This was the beginning of a traffic 
that has grown to immense proportions, and, since that time, wheat has formed the basis of the 
commerce and prosperity of the state, until the city of Milwaukee has become the greatest 
primary wheat mart of the world. 

The following table gives the exports of flour and grain from Milwaukee for thirty-two years, 
commencing in 1845: 

1845 -- 
1847- - 
1849- - 
1858. _ 

1864. _ 






























































































































































Up to 1856, the shipnieuts were almost wholly of Wisconsin products ; but with the com|)le- 
tion of lines of railroad from Milwaukee to the .VIississip[)i river, the commerce of Wisconsin 
became so interwoven with that of Iowa and Minnesota, that the data furnished by the transpor- 
tation companies, give us no definite figures relating to the products of our own state. 

Dairy Products. 

Wisconsin is becoming largely interested in the dairy business. Its numerous springs, 
streams, and natural adaptability to grass, make it a fine grazing country, and stock thrives 
remarkably well. Within a few years, cheese-factories have become numerous, and their owners 
are meeting with excellent success. Wisconsin cheese is bringing the highest price in the markets, 
and much of it is shipped to England. Butter is also made of a superior quality, and is exten- 
sively exported. At the rate of progress made during the last few years, Wisconsin will soon 
take rank with the leading cheese and butter producing states. The counties most largely inter- 
ested in dairying, are Kenosha, Walworth, Racine, Rock, Green, Waukesha, Winnebago, Sheboy- 
gan, Jefferson and Dodge. According to estimates by experienced dairymen, the manufacture 
of butter was 22,473,000 pounds in 1870; 50,130,000 in 1S76; of cheese, 1,591,000 pounds in 
1870, as against 17,000,000 in 1S76, which will convey a fair idea of the increase of dairy produc- 
tion. The receipts of cheese in Chicago during 1876, were 23,780,000 pounds, against 12,000,000 
in 1875 ; and the receipts of butter were 35,384,184, against 30,248,247 pounds in 1875. It is esti- 
mated that fully one-half of these receipts were from Wisconsin. The receipts of butter in 
Milwaukee were, in 1870, 3,779,1 14 pounds ; in 1875, 6,625,863; in 1876,8,938,137 pounds; ot 
cheese, 5,721,279 pounds in 1S75, and 7,055,573 in 1876. Cheese is not mentioned in the trade 
and commerce reports of Milwaukee until 1873, when it is spoken of as a new and rapidly 
increasing commodity in the productions of the state. 

Pork .\nd Bkef. 

Improved breeds, both of swine and cattle, have been introduced into the state during a 
few years past. The grade of stock has been rapidly bettered, and stock raisers generally are 
striving with commendable zeal to lival each other in raising the finest of animals for use and 
the market. 

The following table shows the receipts of live hogs and beef cattle at Milwaukee for thir- 
teen years ; 







1876 _-. 



1873 - 










9,220 ' 












Tlie following table shows the movement of hog products and beef from Milwaukee since 
1862 • 

Shipments by Rail 




and Lake. 




Bulk, lbs. 





Totals 1876. . 
















15. 811 
























36 866 





•■ 1875 

" 1874. 



" 1072 



" 1S70 

■' 1S69 -- 

" 1S6S 



■• 1867 

^' 1866 



" iS65-_ 

" 1864... 

" 1S63 

" 1862 



The culture of hops, as an article af commerce, received but little attention prior to i860. 
In 1865, 2,864 bales only were shipped from Milwaukee. In addition, a large amount was used 
by the brewers througnout the state. In 1866, the amount exported was increased, and 5,774 
bales were shipped to eastern markets. The price, from forty-five to fifty-five cents per pound, 
stimulated production, and the article became one of the staple products of the counties of Sauk. 
Columbia, Adams and Juneau, besides being largely cultivated in parts of some other counties. 
In 1867, 26,562 bales were received at Milwaukee, and the prices ranged from fifty to seventy cents 
per pound. The estimated crop of the slate for 1867 was 35,000 bales, and brought over 
$4,200,000. In 1868, not less than 60,000 bales were grown in the state. The crop everywhere 
was a large one, and in Wisconsin so very large that an over-supply was anticipated. But few, 
however, were prepared for the decline in prices, that far exceeded the worst apprehensions of 
those interested. The first sales were made at twenty-five to thirty-five cents per pound, and the 
prices were reluctantly accepted by the growers. The price continued to decline until the article 
was unsalable and unavailable in the market. Probably the average price did not exceed ten 
■cents per pound. Notwithstanding the severe check which hop-growing received in i868, by the 
unprofitable result, growers were not discouraged, and the crop of 1S69 was a large one. So 
much of the crop of 1868 remained in the hands of the growers, that it is impossible to estimate 
that of 1869. The new crop sold for from ten to fifteen cents, and the old for from three to five cents 
per pound. Hop-cultivation received a check from over-production in i868, from which it did not 
soon recover. A large proportion of the yards were plowed under in 1870. The crop of 1869 
was much of it marketed during 1870, at a price of about two and one-half to three and one- 
half cents per pound, while that of 1870 brought ten to twelve and a half cents. During 
the year 187 1, a great advance in the price, caused by the partial failure of the crop 
in some of the eastern states, and the decrease in price causing a decrease in production, 
what was left over of the crop of 1870 more than doubled in value before the new reached the 
market. The latter opened at thirty cents, and steadily rose to fifty and fifty-five for prime 



qualities. The crop of 1872 was of good quality, and the market opened at forty to fifty-five 
cents as the selling price, and fell fifteen to twenty cents before the close of the year. A much 
larger quantity was raised than the year previous. In 1873 and 1874, the crop was fair and 
prices ruled from thirty-three to forty-five cents, with increased production. About 18,000 bales 
were reported as being shipped from the different railway stations of the state. Prices were 
extremely irregular during 1875, and, after the new crop reached market, fell to a point that 
would not pay the cost of production. In 1876, prices ruled low at the opening of the year, and 
advanced from five to ten cents in January to twenty-eight to thirty in November. Over 17,000 
bales were received at Milwaukee, over 10,000 bales being of the crop of the previous year. 
Over 13,000 bales were shipped out of the state. 

Tobacco raising is comparatively a new industry in Wisconsin, but is rapidly growing in 
importance and magnitude. It sells readily for from four to ten cents per pound, and the plant 
is easily raised. It is not regarded as of superior quality. It first appears as a commodity of 
transportation in the railway reports for the year iS7i,when the Prairie du Chien division 
of the St. Paul road moved eastward 1,373,650 pounds. During the four years ending with 

1876, there were shipped from Milwaukee an average of 5,118,530 pounds annually, the r; axi- 
mum being in 1874,6,982,175 pounds; the minimum in 1875,2,743,854 pounds. The crop of 
1876 escaped the early frosts, and netted the producer from five to seven cents per pound. The 
greatar part of it was shipped to Baltimore and Philadelphia. Comparatively little of the leaf 
raised in the state is used here or by western manufacturers. The crop of the present year, 

1877, 's '1 large one, and has been secured in good order. Itis beingcontractedfor at fromfour to 
six cents per pound. 


The cranberry trade is yet in its infancy. But little, comparatively, has been done in devel- 
oping the capabilities of the extensive bodies of marsh and swamp lands interspersed throughout 
the northern part of the state. Increased attention is being paid to the culture of the fruit; yet, 
the demand will probably keep ahead of the supply for many years to come. In 185 1, less than 
1,500 barrels were sent out of the state. In 1872, the year of greatest production, over 37,000 
barrels were exported, and, in 1876, about 17,000 barrels. The price has varied in different 
years, and taken a range from eight to fifteen dollars a barrel. 

Spirituous and Malt Liquors. 

The production of liquors, both spirituous and malt, has kept pace with the growth of 
population and with the other industries of the state. There were in Wisconsin, in 1872, two 
hundred and ninety-two breweries and ten distilleries. In 1876, there were two hundred and 
ninety-three of the former and ten of the latter, and most of them were kept running to their 
full capacity. Milwaukee alone produced, in 1876, 321,611 barrels of lager beer and 43,175 
barrels of high wines. In 1865, it furnished 65,666 barrels of beer, and in 1S70, 108,845 barrels. 
In 1865, it furnished 3,046 barrels of high wines; in 1870, 22,867 barrels; and in 1875, 39,005. 
A large quantity of the beer made was shipped to eastern and southern cities. The beer made 
in 1876 sold at the rate of ten dollars per barrel, the wholesale price of the brewers bringing the 
sum of $3,216,1x0. The fame of Milwaukee lager beer is widely extended. This city has 
furnished since 1870, 1,520,308 barrels which, at the wholesale price, brought $15,203,170. The 
total production of beer by all the two hundred and ninety-three breweries of the state for 1876, 
was 450,508 barrels. 


In 1876, Milwaukee produced 43,175 barrels of high wines, or distilled spirits, and the 
state of Wisconsin 51,959 barrels. In 1870, the former produced 108,845 barrels of beer and 
22,867 barrels of distilled spirits, and in the same year the state of Wisconsin produced 189,664 
barrels of beer and 36,145 barrels of distilled spirits. 


Porcelain clay, or kaolin, is found in numerous places in Wood and Marathon counties. The 
mineral is found in but few places in the United States in quantities sufficient to justify the 
investment of capital necessary to manufacture it. In the counties mentioned, the deposits are 
found in extensive beds, and only capital and enterprise are needed to make their development 
profitable. Clay of superior quality for making brick and of fair quality for pottery, is 
found in numerous localities. The famous " Milwaukee brick," remarkable for their beautiful 
cream color, is made from a fine clay which is abundant near Milwaukee, and is found in e.xten- 
sive beds at Watertown, Whitewater, Edgerton, Stoughton, and several places on the lake shore 
north of Milwaukee. At Whitewater and some other places the clay is used with success for the 
making of pottery ware. Water-lime, or hydraulic cement, occurs in numerous places throughout 
the state. An extensive bed covering between one and two hundred acres, and of an indefinite 
deiith, exists on the banks of the Milwaukee river, and notoverone and a half miles from the city 
limits of Milwaukee. The cement made from the rock of this deposit is first-class in quality, and 
between twenty and thirty thousand barrels were made and sold last year. The capacity of the 
works for reducing the rock to cement has been increased to 500 barrels per day. Stones suita- 
ble for building purposes are widely distributed throughout the state, and nearly every town has 
its available quarry. Many of these quarries furnish stone of fine quality for substantial and 
permanent edifices. The quarry at Prairie du Chien furnished the stone for the capital building 
at Madison, which equals in beauty that of any state in the Union. .\t Milwaukee, Waukesha, 
Madison, La Crosse, and many other places are found quarries of superior building stone. 
Granite is found in extensive beds in Marathon and Wood counties, and dressed specimens 
exhibited at the " Centennial " last year, attracted attention for their fine polish. Marbles of 
various kinds are likewise found in the state. Some of them are beginning to attract attention 
and are likely to prove valuable. The report of Messrs. Foster & Whitney, United States geol- 
ogists, speaks of quarries on the Menomonee and Michigamig rivers as affording beautiful varie- 
ties and susceptible of a high polish. Richland county contains marble, but its quality is gen- 
erally considered inferior. 

Water Powers. 

Wisconsin is fast becoming a manufacturing state. Its forests of jaine, oak, walnut, maple, 
ash, and other valuable woods used for lumber, are well-nigh inexhaustible. Its water-power for 
driving the wheels of machinery is not equaled by that of any state in the northwest. The Lower 
Fox river between Lake Winnebago and Green Bay, a distance of thirty-five miles, furnishes 
some of the best facilities for manufacturing enterprise in the whole country. Lake Winnebago 
as a reservoir gives it a great and special advantage, in freedom from liability to freshets and 
droughts. The stream never varies but a few feet from its highest to its lowest stage, yet gives 
a steady flow. The Green Bay and Mississippi canal company has, during the last twenty-five 
years, constructed numerous dams, canals and locks, constituting verj' valuable improvements, 
.\11 the property of that company has been transferred to the United States government, which 
has entered upon a system to render the Fox and Wisconsin rivers navigable to the Mississippi, 
The fall between the lake and Depere is one hundred and fifty feet, and the water can be utilized 


in propelling machinery at Neenali, Menasha, Appleton, Cedar, Little Chute, Kaukauna, Rapid 
Croche, Little Kaukauna and Depere. The water-power at Appleton in its natural advantages 
is pronounced by Hon. Hiram Barney, of New York, superior to those at Lowell, Paterson 
and Rochester, combined. The water-power of the Fox has been improved to a considerable 
extent, but its full capacity has hardly been touched. Attention has been drawn to it, how- 
ever, and no doubt is entertained that in a few years the hum of machinery to be propelled 
hy it, will be heard the entire length of the thirty-five miles. The facilities presented by its 
nearness to timber, iron, and a rich and productive agricultural region, give it an advantage over 
anv of the eastern manufacturing points. 

The Wisconsin river rises in the extreme northern part of the state, and has its source in a 
great number of small lakes. The upper portion abounds in valuable water privileges, only a 
few of which are improved. There are a large number of saw-mills running upon the powgr of 
tiiis river. Other machinery, to a limited extent, is in operation. 

The " Big Bull " falls, at Wausau, are improved, and a power of twenty-two feet fall is obtained. 
At Little Bull falls, below Wausau, there is a fall of eighteen feet, partially improved. There are 
many other water-powers in Marathon county, some of which are used in propelling flouring- 
inills and saw-mills. At Grand Rapids, there is a descent of thirty feet to the mile, and the 
water can be used many times. Each time, 5,000 horse-power is obtained. At Kilbourn City 
a large amount of power can be obtained for manufacturing purposes. 

Chippewa river has its origin in small streams in the north part of the state. Explorers 
tell us that there are a large number of water powers on all the upper branches, but as the 
country is yet unsettled, none of them have been improved, and very few even located on our maps. 
Brunette falls and Ameger falls, above Chippewa Falls city, must furnish considerable water- 
power, but its extent is not known At Chippewa Falls is an excellent water-power, only partially 
improved. The river descends twr nty-six feet in three-fourths of a mile. At Duncan creek at the 
same place, there is a good fall, improved to run a large flouring mill. At Eagle Rapids, five 
miles above Chippewa Falls, $120,000 has been expended in improving the fall of the Chippewa 
river. The city of Eau Claire is situated at the confluence of the Chijjpewa and Eau Claire 
rivers, and possesses in its immediate vicinity water-powers almost unrivaled. Some of them 
are improved. The citizens of Eau Claire have, for several years, striven to obtain legislative 
authority to dam the Chippewa river, so as to improve the water-power of the Dells, and a lively 
contest, known as the " Dells fight," has been carried on with the capitalists along the river above 
that town. There are immense water-powers in Dunn county, on the Red Cedar, Chippewa 
nd Eau Galle rivers, on which there are many lumbering establishments. In Pepin county also 
there are good powers. The Black river and its branches, the La Crosse, Buff"alo, Trempealeau, 
Reaver, and Tamaso, furnish many valuable powers. The St. Croix river is not excelled in the value 
"f its water privileges by any stream in the state, except the Lower Fox river. At St. Croix Falls, 
the water of the river makes a descent of eighty-five feet in a distance of five miles, and the vol- 
ume of water is sufficient to move the machinery for an immense manufacturing business, and the 
banks present good facilities for building dams, and the river is not subject to freshets. The 
(Cinnekinnick has a large number of falls, some of them partially improved. ^Vithin twenty-five 
miles of its entrance into Lake St. Croix, it has a fall of two hundred feet, and the volume of 
water averages about three thousand cubic feet per minute. Rock river affords valuable water- 
privileges at Watertown (with twenty-four feet fall), and largely improved; at Jefferson, Indian 
Ford and Janesville, all of which are improved. Beloit also has an excellent water-power, and 
it is largely improved. Scattered throughout the state are many other water-powers, not alluded 


to in the foregoing. There are several in Manitowoc county ; in Marquette county, also. In 
Washington county, at West Bend, Berlin, and Cedar Creek, there are good water-powers, partly 
utilized. At Whitewater, in Walworth county, is a good power. In Dane county, there is a 
water-power at Madison, at the outlet of Lake Mendota ; also, a good one at Stoughton, below 
the first, or Lake Kegonsa ; also at Paoli, Bellville, Albany and Brodhead, on the Sugar river. 
In Grant county there are not less than twenty good powers, most of them well-developed. In 
Racine county, three powers of fine capacity at Waterford, Rochester and Burlington, all of 
which are improved. The Oconto, Peshtigo and Menomonee rivers furnish a large number of 
splendid water- powers of large capacity. The Upper Wolf river has scores of water-powers on 
its main stream and numerous branches; but most of the country is still a wilderness, though 
containing resources which, when developed, will make it rich and prosperous. There are 
numerous other streams of less consequence than those named, but of great importance to the 
localities they severally drain, that have had their powers improved, and their waterfalls are 
singing the songs of commerce. On the rivers emptying into Lake Superior, there are numerous 
and valuable water-powers. The Montreal river falls one thousand feet in a distance of thirty 


The mechanical and manufacturing industries of Wisconsin demonstrate that the people do 
not rely wholly upon agricultural pursuits, or lumbering, for subsistence, but aim to diversify 
their labors as much as possible, and to give encouragement to the skill and ingenuity of their 
mechanics and artisans. All our cities, and most of our villages, support establishments that 
furnish wares and implements in common use among the people. We gather from the census 
report for 1870 a few facts that will give us an adequate idea of what was done in a single year, 
remembering that the data furnished is six years old, and that great advancement has been made 
since the statistics were gathered. In 1S70, there were eighty-two establishments engaged in 
making agricultural implements, employing 1,387 hands, and turning out products valued at 
$2,393,400. There were one hundred and eighty-eight furniture establishments, employing 1,844 
men, and making $1,542,300 worth of goods. For making carriages and wagons there were four 
hundred and eighty-five establishments, employing 2.184 nien, and their product was valued at 
$2,596,534; for clothing, two hundred and sixty-three establishments, and value of product 
$2,340,400; sash, doors and blinds, eighty-one shops, and value of product $1,852,370; leather, 
eighty-five tanneries, employing 577 men, and value of products $2,013,000; malt liquors, one 
hundred and seventy-six breweries, 835 men, and their products valued at $1,790,273. 

At many points the business of manufacturing is carried on more or less extensively; 
indeed, there is hardly a village in the state where capital is not invested in some kind 
of mechanical industry or manufacturing enterprise, and making satisfactory returns; but for 
details in this respect, the reader is referred to the department of local history. 

The principal commodities only, which Wisconsin contributes to trade and commerce, have 
been considered. There remains quite a number of minor articles from which the citizens of the 
state derive some revenue, such as flax and maple sugar, which can not be separately considered 
in this paper. 

Concluding Remarks. 

Statistics are usually dry reading, but, to one desiring to change his location and seeking 
information regarding a new country and its capabilities, they become intensely interesting and 
of great value. The farmer wishes to know about the lands, their value and the productiveness 
of the soil ; the mechanic about the workshops, the price of labor, and the demand for such wares 


as he is accustomed to make ; the capitalist, concerning all matters that pertain to resources, 
advantages, and the opportunities for investing his money. Our own people want all the infor- 
mation that can be gained by the collection of all obtainable facts. The sources of such infor- 
mation are now various, and the knowledge they impart fragmentary in its character. 

Provision should be made by law, for the collection and publication of reliable statistics 
relating to our farming, manufacturing, mining, lumbering, commercial and educational interests. 
.Several of the states of the Union have established a "Bureau of Statistics," and no more valua- 
ble reports emanate from any of their state departments than those that exhibit a condensed 
view of the material results accomplished each year. Most of the European states foster these 
agencies with as much solicitude as any department of their government. Indeed, they have 
become a social as well as a material necessity, for social science extends its inquiries to the 
physical laws of man as a social being; to the resources of the country; its productions; the 
growth of society, and to all those facts or conditions which may increase or diminish the strength, 
growth or happiness of a people. Statistics are the foundation and corner-stone of social science, 
which is the highest and noblest of all the sciences. 

A writer has said that, " If God had designed Wisconsin to be chiefly a manufacturing state, 
instead of agricultural, which she claims to be, and is, it is difficult to see more than one partic- 
ular in which He could have endowed her more richly for that purpose." She has all the mate- 
rial for the construction of articles of use and luxury, the means of motive power to propel the 
machinery, to turn and fashion, weave, forge, and grind the natural elements that abound in such 
rich profusion. She has also the men whose enterprise and skill have accomplished most sur., 
prising results, in not only building up a name for themselves, but in placing the state in a proud 
position of independence. 

It is impossible to predict what will be the future growth and development of Wisconsin. 
From its commercial and manufacturing advantages, we may reasonably anticipate that she will 
in a few years lead in the front rank of the states of the Union in all that constitutes real great- 
ness. Her educational system is one of the best. With her richly endowed State University, her 
colleges and high schools, and the people's colleges, the common schools, she has laid a broad 
and deep foundation for a great and noble commonwealth. It was early seen what were the 
capabilities of this their newly explored domain. The northwestern explorer, Jonathan Carver, 
in 1766, one hundred and eleven years ago, after traversing Wisconsin and viewing its lakes of 
crystal purity, its rivers of matchless utility, its forests of exhaustless wealth, its prairies of won- 
derful fertility, its mines of buried treasure, recorded this remarkable prediction of which we see 
the fulfillment: "To what power or authority this new world will become dependent after it has 
arisen from its present uncultivated state, time alone can discover. But as the seat of empire from 
time immemorial has been gradually progressive toward the west, there is no doubt but that at 
some future period mighty kingdoms will emerge from these wildernesses, and stately palaces 
and solemn temples with gilded spires reaching to the skies supplant the Indian huts, whose- 
only decorations are the barbarous trophies of'their vantiuished enemies." 

" Westward the course of empire takes its way ; 

The four first acts already passed, 
A fifth shall close the drama with the day ; 

Time's noblest offspring is the last." , 



In the early part of the seventeenth century, all the territory north of the Ohio river, 
including the present state of Wisconsin, was an undiscovered region. As far as now known, it 
Was never visited by white men until the year 1634, when Jean Nicolet came to the Green bay 
country as an ambassador from the French to the Winnebagoes. The Jesuit fathers in 1660 
visited the south shore of Lake Superior; and, soon after, missions were established at various 
points in the northwest. 

The French government appreciating the importance of i)ossessing dominion over this sec- 
tion, M. Talon, intendant of Canada, took steps to carry out this purpose, and availed himself 
of the good feelings entertained toward the French by a number of the Indian tribes, to establish 
the authority of the French crown over this remote quarter. A small party of men led by 
Daumont de St. Lusson, with Nicolas Perrot as interpreter, set out from Quebec on this mission, 
in 1670, and St. Lusson sent to the tribes occupying a circuit of a hundred leagues, inviting the 
nations, among them the Wisconsin tribes inhabiting the Green bay country, by their chiefs and 
ambassadors, to meet liim at the Sault Sainte Marie the following spring. 

In the month of May, 167 i, fourteen tribes, by their representatives, including the Miamis, 
Sacs, Winnebagoes, Menomonees, and Pottawattamies, arrived at the place designated. On the 
morning of the fourteenth of June, " St. Lusson led his followers to the top of the hill, all fully 
equipped and under arms. Here, too, in the vestments of their priestly office were four Jesuits : 
Claude Dablon, superior of the mission on the lakes, Gabriel Druillettes, Claude Allouez, and 
Andr^. All around, the great throng of Indians stood, or crouched, or reclined at length with 
eyes and ears intent. A large cross of wood had been made ready. Dablon, in solemn form, 
pronounced his blessing on it ; and then it was reared and planted in the ground, while the 
Frenchmen, uncovered, sang the Vexilla Re^^is. Then a post of cedar was planted beside it, 
with a metal plate attached, engraven with the royal arms ; while St. Lusson's followers sang the 
exaudiat^ and one of the priests uttered a prayer for the king. St. Lusson now advanced, and, 
holding his sword in one hand, and raising with the other a sod of earth, proclaimed in a loud 
voice " that he took possession of all the country occupied by the tribes, and placed them under 
the king's protection. 

This act, however, was not regarded as sufficiently definite, and on the eighth of May, 1689, 
Perrot, who was then commanding for the king at the post of Nadouesioux, near Lake Pepin on 
the west side of the Mississippi, commissioned by the Marquis de Denonvilie to manage the 
interests of commerce west of Green bay took possession, in the name of the king, with 
appropriate ceremonies, of the countries west of Lake Michigan as far as the river St. Peter. 
The papers Were signed by Perrot and others. 

By these solemn acts, the present limits of Wisconsin with much contiguous territory, came 
under the dominion of the French government, the possession of which continued until October, 
1761 — a period of ninety years from the gathering of the chiefs at the Sault Ste. Marie in 1671. 

From the commencement of French occupancy up to the time when the British took posses- 
sion, the district of country embraced within the present limits of this state had but few white 
inhabitants besides the roaming Indian traders; and of these few, the locations were separated by 
a distance of more than two hundred miles in a direct line, and nearly double that distance by 


the usual water courses. There was no settlement of agriculturists; there were no missionary 
establishments; no fortified posts at other points, except at Depere and Green bay on Fox -iver, 
and perhaps at Prairie du Chien, near the junction of the Wisconsin and the Mississippi. 

The French government made no grant of lands; gave no attention to settlers or agrica.- 
turists, and the occupation of the country was strictly military. There were, indeed, a few grants 
of lands made by the French governors and commanders, previous to 1750, to favored indi- 
viduals, six of which were afterward confirmed by the king of France. There were also others 
which did not require confirmation, being made by Cardillac, commanding at Detroit, under 
special authority of the king; of this latter kind, one for a small piece of thirty acres bears with 
it, says a writer, ■" so many conditions, reservations, prohibitions of sale, and a whole cavalcade 
of feudal duties to be performed by the grantee, that in itself, it would be a host in opposition to 
the agricultural settlement of any country." 

The grants just referred to, relate to that part of the French possessions outside the limits 
of the present state of Wisconsin. Within its limits there was a grant of an extensive territory 
including the fort at the head of Green bay, with the exclusive right to trade, and other valuable 
privileges, from the Marquis de Vaudreuil, in October, 1759, to M. Rigaud. It was sold by the 
latter to William Gould and Madame Vaudreuil, to whom it was confirmed by the king of 
France in January, 1760, at a very critical period, when Quebec had been taken by the British, 
and Montreal was only wanting to complete the conquest of Canada. This grant was evidently 
intended as a perquisite to entrap some unwary persons to give a valuable consideration for it, 
as it would be highly impolitic for the governrtient to make such a grant, if they continued mas- 
ters of the country, since it would surely alienate the affections of the Indians. The whole 
country had already been virtually conquered by Great Britain, and the grant of course was not 
confirmed by the English government. 

Of the war between the French and English governments in America, known as the French 
and Indian war, it is not necessary to speak, except in general terms. The English made a 
determined effort to obtain the possessions claimed by the French. The capture of Quebec in 
1759, and the subsequent capitulation of Montreal in 1760, extinguished the domination of 
France in the basin of the St. Lawrence ; and by the terms of the treaty of Paris, concluded 
February 10, 1763, all the possessions in, and all the claims of the French nation to, the vast 
country watered by the Ohio and the Mississippi were ceded to Great Britain. 

.•\mong the first acts of the new masters of the country was the protection of the eminent 
domain of the government, and the restriction of all attempts on the part of individuals to acquire 
Indian titles to lands. By the King of England's proclamation of 1763, no more grants of land 
within certain prescribed limits could be issued, and all private persons were interdicted the 
liberty of purchasing lands from the Indians, or of making settlements within those prescribed 
limits. The indulgence of such a privilege as that of making private purchases of the natives, 
conduced to the most serious difficulties, and made way for the practice of the most reprehensible 
frauds. The policy pursued by the English government has been adopted and acted upon by the 
government of the United States in the extinguishment of the Indian title to lands in every part 
of the country. 

In face of the proclamation of 1763, and within three years after its promulgation, under 
a pretended purchase from, or voluntary grant of the natives, a tract of country nearly one hundred 
miles square, including large portions of what is now northern Wisconsin and Minnesota, was 
' laimed by Jonathan Carver, and a ratification of his title solicited from the king and* council. 
I'his was not conceded; and the representatives of Carver, after the change of government had 


brought the lands under the jurisdiction of the United States, for a series of years presented the 
same claims before congress, and asked for their confirmation. Such a demand under all the 
circumstances,"" could not justify an expectation of success; and, of course, has often been refused. 
But notwithstanding the abundant means which the public have had of informing themselves of 
the true nature and condition of Carver's claim, bargains and sales of portions of this tract have 
been made among visionary speculators for more than half a century past. It is now only a 
short period since the maps of the United States ceased to be defaced by a delineation of 
ihe "Carver Grant." 

The mere transfer of the dominion over the country from the French to the English govern- 
ment, and the consequent occupation of the English posts by the new masters, did not in any 
great degree affect the social condition of the inhabitants. By the terms of capitulation, the 
French subjects were permitted to remain in the country, in the full enjoyment of their civil and 
religious privileges. 

The English, however, did not hold peaceable possession of the territory acquired. The war 
inaugurated by Pontiac and his Indian allies on the military posts occupied by the English soon 
followed, and in the month of May, 1763, nine posts were captured with much loss of life. In 
the spring of 1764, twenty-two tribes who were more or less identified in the outbreak, concluded 
a treaty of peace with General Bradstreet at Niagara. 

The expedition of Colonel George Rogers Clark to the Illinois country, and the conquest 
of the British posts in 1778 and 1779, had the effect to open the way for the emigration of the 
Anglo-American population to the Mississippi valley; and at the close of the revolutionary 
war, Great Britain renounced all claim to the whole territory lying east of the Mississippi river, 
The dominion of the English in the Illinois and Wabash countries, ceased with the loss of the 
military posts which commanded the Northwestern territory of the United States. As a result of 
the enterprise and success of Clark, Virginia pbtained possession of the Illinois country; his 
expedition having been undertaken and carried forward under the auspices of that state. 

Several of the eastern states under their colonial charters, laid claim to portions of the land 
comprised in the territory northwest of the Ohio river. The claim of Massachusetts was derived 
from a grant from King James of November 3, 1620 ; and included from lat. 42° 2' to about lat. 
45», extending to the south sea; Connecticut claimed from lat. 410 north to 420 2*. The claims of 
Virginia were from grants from King James, bearing date, respectively, April 10, 1606, May 23, 
1609, and March 12, 1611, and an additional claim for the territory conquered by Clark in the 
Illinois country; but they extended no farther north than the southern end of Lake Michigan. 

It is a popular impression that the territory of thfe present state of Wisconsin was compre- 
hended in the lands northwest of the river Ohio, over which Virginia exercised jurisdiction, and, 
consequently, was included in her deed of cession of lands to the United States. This opinion so 
generally entertained by writers on American history, is a statement which does not appear to 
have any solid foundation in fact. Virginia never made any conquests or settlements in Wiscon- 
sin, and at no time prior to the proffer of her claims to the general government had she ever 
exercised jurisdiction over it. In fact, there were no settlements in Wisconsin except at Green 
Bay and Prairie du Chien before that time, and these were made by French settlers who were in 
no wise interfered with while the revolution continued. In Illinois it was otherwise; and the 
possession of its territory by Virginia was an undisputed fact. During the revolution the title of 
the sovereignty in Wisconsin was actually in Great Britain, and so remained until the definite 
treaty of peace in 1783; at which date England yielding her right constructively to the United 
States, retaining possession, however, until 1796; at which time the western posts were transferred 
to the United States. 


All the claiming states finally ceded their interests to the general government, giving the 
latter a perfect title, subject only to the rights of the Indians. The deed of cession from Virginia 
was dated March i, 1784. Tlie other states ceded their claims, some before this date, others 
subsequent thereto. 

Virginia made a number of stipulations in her deed of cession; among others, that the 
French and Canadian inhabitants and the neighboring villages who had professed themselves 
citizens of Virginia, should have their possessions and title confirmed to them, and be protected in 
the enjoyment of their rights and liberties; thr.t 150,000 acres of land near the rapids of the Ohio, 
should be reserved for that portion of her state troops which had reduced the country; and about 
3,500,000 acres between the rivers Scioto and Little Miami be reserved for bounties to her troops 
on the continental establishment. 

In consequence of certain objectionable stipulations made by Virginia as to the division of 
the territory into states, the deed of cession was referred back to that state with a recommenda- 
tion from congress that these stipulations should be altered. On the 30th of December, 1788, 
Virginia assented to the wish of congress, and formally ratified and confirmed the fifth article of 
compact which related to that subject, and tacitly gave her consent to the whole ordinance of 1787. 
The provisions of this ordinance have since been applied to all the territories of the United 
States lying north of 'he 36<? 40'. After the adoption of the constitution of the United States the 
the new congress, among its earliest acts, passed one, recognizing the binding force of the ordi- 
nance of 1787. 

Of this ordinance it has been said ; " It was based on the principles of civil liberty, maintained 
in the magna charta of England, re-enacted in the bill of rights, and incorporated in our differ- 
ent state constitutions. It was the fundamental law of the constitution, so to speak, of the great 
northwest, upon which were based, and with which harmonized all our territorial enactments, as 
well as our subsequent state legislation, and, moreover, it is to that wise, statesman-like document 
that we are indebted for much of our prosperity and greatness." 

After the close of the revolutionary war, enterprising individuals traversed the whole country 
which had been ceded to the government, and companies were formed to explore and settle the 
fertile and beautiful lands beyond the Ohio; but the determination of the British cabinet not to 
evacuate the western posts, was well known, and had its effect on the peojjle who were disposed 
to make settlements. 

Tlie western tribes were also dissatisfied and threatened war, and efforts were made by the 
government to settle the difficulties. A grand council was held at the mouth of Detroit river 
in December, 1787, which did not result favorably, and two treaties were subsequently held, 
which were not respected by the savages who were parties to them. Soon an Indian war ensued, 
/hich resulted at first disastrously to the American troops under Generals Harmar and St. Clair, 
but finally with success to the American arms under General Wayne. The treaty of Greenville 
followed. It was concluded August 3, 1795. At this treaty there were present eleven hundred 
and thirty chiefs and warriors. It was signed by eighty-four chiefs and General Anthony Wayne, 
sole commissioner of the United States. One of the provisions of the treaty was that in consid- 
eration ofthe peace then established, and the cessions and relinquishments of lands made by the 
tribes of Indiana, and to manifest the liberality ofthe United States as the great means of render- 
ing this peace strong and perpetual, the United Slates relinquished their claims to all other 
Indian lands northward of the river Ohio, eastward of the Mississippi, and westward and south- 
ward of the great lakes and the waters united by them, except certain reservations and portions 
before purchased ofthe Indians, none of which were within the jjresent limits of this state. The 
Indian title to the whole of what is now Wisconsin, subject only to certain restrictions, became 


absolute in the various tribes inhabiting it. By this treaty it was stipulated that, of the lands relin- 
quished by the United States, the Indian tribes who have a right to those lands, were quietly to 
enjoy them ; hunting, planting, and dwelling thereon so long as they pleased ; but, when those 
tribes or any of them should be disposed to sell them, or any part of them, they were to be sold 
only to the United States, and until such sale, the United States would protect all of the tribes 
in the quiet enjoyment of their lands against all citizens of the United States, and all other white 
persons who might intrude on the same. At the same time all the tribes acknowledged them- 
selves to be under the protection of the United States, and no other person or power what- 

The treaty also prohibited any citizen of the United States, or any other white man, settling 
upon the lands relinquished by the general government ; and such person was to be considered 
as out of the protection of the United States; and the Indian tribe on whose land the settlement 
might be made, could drive off the settler, or punish him in such manner as it might see fit. 

It will be seen that the Indians were acknowledged to have an unquestionable title to the 
lands they occupied until that right should be extinguished by a voluntary cession to the general 
government; and the constitution of the United States, by declaring treaties already made, as 
well as those to be made, to be the supreme law of the land, adopted and sanctioned previous 
treaties with the Indian nations, and consequently admitted their rank among those powers who 
are capable of making treaties. 

The several treaties which had been made between commissioners on the part of the United 
States and various nations of Indians, previous to the treaty of Greenville, were generally 
restricted to declarations of amity and friendship, the establishment and confirming of bounda- 
ries, and the protection of settlements on Indian lands ; those that followed were generally for a 
cession of lands and provisions made for their payment. It is proposed to notice the several 
treaties that took place after that held at Greenville, showing in what way the territory of the 
present state, came into possession of the government. As will be seen hereafter, it required trea- 
ties with numerous tribes of Indians to obtain a clear, undisputed title, as well as many years 
before it was fully accomplished. 

1. A treaty was held at St. Louis, November 3, 1804, between the Sacs and Foxes and the 
United States. William Henry Harrison was acting commissioner on the part of the govern- 
ment. By the provisions of the treaty, the chiefs and head men of the united tribes ceded to 
the United States a large tract on both sides of the Mississippi, extending on the east from the 
mouth of the Illinois to the head of that river, and thence to the Wisconsin; and including on 
the west considerable portions of Iowa and Missouri, from the mouth of the Gasconade north- 
ward. In what is now the state of Wisconsin, this grant embraced the whole of the present 
counties of Grant and La Fayette and a large portion of Iowa and Green counties. The lead 
region was included in this purchase. In consideration of this cession, the general government 
agreed to protect the tribes in the quiet enjoyment of their land, against its own citizens and 
all others who should intrude on them. The tribes permitted a fort to be built on the upper 
side of the AVisconsin river, near its mouth, and granted a tract of land two miles square, adjoin- 
ing the same. The government agreed to give them an annuity of one thousand dollars per 
annum. The validity of this treaty was denied by one band of the Sac Indians, and this cession 
of land became, twenty-eight years after, the alleged cause of the Black Hawk war. 

2. Another treaty was held at Portage des Sioux, now a village in St. Charles county, Mis- 
souri, on the Mississippi river, September 13, 1815, with certain chiefs of that portion of the 
Sac nation then residing in Missouri, who, they said, were compelled since the commencement of 


the late war, to separate themselves from the rest of their nation. They gave their assent to the 
treaty made at St. Louis in 1804, and promised to remain separate from the Sacs of Rock river, 
and to give them no aid or assistance, until peace should be concluded between the United 
States and the Foxes of Rock river. 

3. On the 14th of September, a treaty was made with the chiefs of the Fo.x tribe at the 
same place. They agreed that all prisoners in their hands should be delivered up to the govern- 
ment. They assented to, recognized, re-established and confirmed the treaty of 1S04, to the full 
extent of their interest in the same. 

4. A treaty was held at St. Louis, May 13, 181 6, with the Sacs of Rock river, who affirmed 
the treaty of 1804, and agreed to deliver up all the property stolen or plundered, and in failure 
to do so, to forfeit all title to their annuities. To this treaty. Black Hawk's name appears with 
others. That chief afterward affirmed that though he himself had " touched the quill " to 
this treaty, he knew not what he was signing, and that he was therein deceived by the agent and 
others, who did not correctly explain the nature of the grant; and in reference to the treaty of 
St. Louis in 1804, and at Portage des Sioux in 18 15, he said that he did not consider the same 
valid or binding on him or his tribe, inasmuch as by the terms of those treaties, territory was 
described which the Indians never intended to sell, and the treaty of 1804, particularly, was 
made by parties who had neither authority in the nation, nor power to dispose of its lands. 
Whether this was a true statement of the case, or otherwise, it is quite certain that the grant of 
lands referred to was often confirmed by his nation, and was deemed conclusive and binding by 
the government. The latter acted in good faith to the tribes, as well as to the settlers, in the 
disposition of the lands. 

5. A treaty of peace and friendship was made at St. Louis, June 3, 1S16, between the chiefs 
and warriors of that part of the Winnebagoes residing on the Wisconsin river. In this treaty the 
tribe state that they have separated themselves from the rest of their nation ; that they, for 
themselves and those they represent, confirm to the United States all and every cession of land 
heretofore made by their nation, and every contract and agreement, as far as their interest 

6. On the 30th of March, 1817, the Menomonee tribe concluded a treaty of peace ana 
friendship at St. Louis with the United States, and confirmed all and every cession of land 
before made by them within the limits of the United States. 

7. On the 19th of August, 1825, at Prairie du Chien, a treaty was made with the Sioux, 
Chippewas, Sacs and Foxes, Winnebagoes, Ottawas and Pottawattamies, by which the boundary 
between the two first nations was agreed upon; also between the Chippewas, Winnebagoes and 
other tribes. 

8. Another treaty was held August 5, 1826, at Fond du Lac of Lake Superior, a small 
settlement on the St. Louis river, in Itaska county, Minn., with the same tribes, by which the 
previous treaty was confirmed in respect to boundaries, and those of the Chippewas were defined, 
as a portion of the same was not completed at the former treaty. 

9. A treaty was made and concluded August 1, 1827, at Butte des Morts, between the United 
States and the Chippewa, Menomonee and Winnebago tribes, in which the boundaries of their 
tribes were defined ; no cession of lands was made. 

10. .\ treaty was made at Green Bay, August 25, 1828, with the Winnebagoes, Pottawat- 
tamies and other tribes. This treaty was made to remove the difficulties which had arisen in 
consequence of the occupation by white men of that portion of the mining country in *he south- 
western part of Wisconsin which had not been ceded to the United States. A provisional 


boundary was provided, and privileges accorded the government to freely occupy their territory 
until a treaty should be made for the cession of the same. This treaty was simply to define the 
rights of the Indians, and to give the United States the right of occupation. 

11. Two treaties were made at Prairie du Chien, on the 29th of July, 1829, and August i, 
1829: at the first date, with the Chippewas, Ottawas and Pottawattamies, by which these nations 
ceded all their lands which they claimed in the northwestern ]3art of Illinois ; and at the latter 
date with the Winnebagoes, by which that nation ceded and relinquished all their right, title and 
claim to all their lands south of the AV^isconsin river, thus confirming the purchase of the lead- 
mine region. Certain grants were made to individuals, which grants were not to be leased or 
sold by the grantees. 

By this important treaty, about eight millions of acres of land were added to the public 
domain. The three tracts ceded, and forming one whole, extended from the upper end of Rock 
river to the mouth of the Wisconsin, from latitude 41° 30' to latitude 43° 15', on the Mississippi. 
Following the meanderings of the river, it was about two hundred and forty miles from west to 
east, extending along the Wisconsin and Fox rivers, affording a passage across the country from 
the Mississippi to Lake Michigan. The south part of the purchase extended from Rock Island 
to Lake Michigan. 

12. Another important treaty was made at Green Bay, February 8, 183:, between the Meno- 
monee Indians and the United States. That nation possessed an immense territory. Its eastern 
division was bounded by the Milwaukee river, the shore of Lake Michigan. Green bay. Fox river, 
and Lake Winnebago ; its western division, by the Wisconsin and Chippewa rivers on the west, 
Fox river on the south, Green bay on the east, and the high lands which flow the streams into 
Lake Superior on the north. By this treaty all the eastern division, estimated at two and a half 
millions of acres, was ceded to the government. By certain other provisions, the tribe was to 
occupy a large tract lying north of Fox river and east of Wolf river. Their territory farther west 
was reserved for their hunting-grounds until such time as the general government should desire 
to purchase it. Another portion, amounting to four millions of acres, lying between Green bay 
on the east and Wolf river on the west, was also ceded to the United States, besides a strij) of 
country, three miles in width, from near the portage of the Wisconsin and Fox rivers north, on 
each side of the Wisconsin river, and forty-eight miles long — still leaving the tribe in peaceable 
possession of a country about one hundred and twenty miles long, and about eighty broad. By 
supplementary articles to the treaty, provision was made for the occupancy of certain lands by 
the New York Indians — two townships on the east side of Lake Winnebago. 

13. At the conclusion of the Black Hawk war, in 1832, for the purpose of clearing up the 
Indian title of the Winnebago nation in the country, a treaty was made and concluded at Fort 
Armstrong, September 15, 1832. All the territory claimed by this nation lying south and east of 
the Wisconsin and Fox river of Green bay, was ceded to the United States, and no band or party 
of Winnebagoes was allowed to reside, plant, fish or hunt on these grounds, after June i, 1833, 
or on any part of the country therein ceded. 

14. On the 27th of October, 1832, articles of agreement were made and concluded at Green 
Bay between the United States and the Menomonee Indians, by the terms of which that nation 
ceded to the New York Indians certain lands 01: Fox river. 

15. An important treaty was made at Chicago, September 26, 1833, between the United 
States and the Chippewas, Ottawas and Pottawattamies. Those nations ceded to the government 
all their lands along the western shore of Lake Michigan, and between that lake and the land 
ceded to the United States by the Winnel)ago nation at the treaty at Fort Armstrong, September 

THE Prni.IC DOMAIN. 217 

15, 1832, bounded on the north by the country lately ceded by the Menomonees, and on the 
south by the country ceded at the treaty at Prairie du Chien, July 19, 1829 — containing about 
five millions of acres. 

16. On the 3d of September, 1S36, a tieaty was made at Cedar Point with the Menomonees, 
by which lands lying west of Green bay, and a strip on the upper Wisconsin, were ceded to the 
United States — the quantity of land ceded being estimated at four millions of acres in the Green 
bay portion; on the Wisconsin river, a strip three miles wide on each side of the river, running 
forty-eight miles north in a direct Ime, equivalent to 184,320 acres. 

17. On the 29th of July, 1837, a treaty was made with the Chippewas of the Mississiopi, at 
Fort Snelling, and the United States, the nation ceding to the government all their lands in 
Wisconsin lying south of the divide between the waters of Lake Superior and those of the 

1 8. Certain chiefs and braves of the Sioux nation of the Mississippi, while visiting Washing- 
ton, September 29, 1837, ceded to the United States all their lands east of the Mississippi, and all 
their islands in said river. 

19. The Winnebago nation, by the chiefs and delegates, held a treaty with the government 
at Washington, Novembei i, 1837. That nation ceded all their lands east of the Mississippi, 
and obligated themselves to remove, within eight months after the ratification of the treaty, to 
certain lands west of the river Mississippi which were conveyed to them by the treaty of Sep- 
tember 21, 1832. 

20. The Oneida or New York Indians, residing near Green Bay, by their chief and repre- 
sentative, on the 3d of February, 1838, at Washington City, ceded to the United States their title 
and interest in the land set apart by the treaty made with the Menomonees, May 8, 1831, and the 
treaty made with the same tribe, October 7, 1832, reserving about 62,000 acres. 

21. Another treaty was made at Stockbridge on the 3d of September, 1839, by which the 
Stockbridge and Munsee tribes (New York Indians) ceded and relinquished to the United States 
the east half of the tract of 46,080 acres which was laid off for their use on the east side of Lake 
Winnebago by treaty of October 7, 1832 

22. On the 4th of October, 1842, a treaty was made at La Pointe, on Lake Superior, with the 
Chippewas. All their lands in the northern and northwestern parts of Wisconsin were ceded to 
the United States. 

23. The Menomonee nation, on the iSth of October, 184S, at Pow-aw-hay-kon-nay, ceded 
and relinquished to the United States all their lands in the state, wherever situated — the gov- 
ernment to furnish the nation as a home, to be held as Indian lands are held, all the country ceded 
to the United States by the Chippewa nation August 2, 1847, the consideration being the sum of 
$350,000, to be paid according to the stipulations of the treaty. A supplementary treaty was 
made on the 24th of November, 1848, with the Stockbridges — the tribe to sell and relinquish to 
the United States the township of land on the east side of Lake Winnebago, secured to said tribe 
by treaty of February 8, 1831. 

24. A treaty was made with the Menomonee nation, at the falls of Wolf river. May 12, 1854, 
being a supplementary treaty to one made October iS, 1848. All the lands ceded to that nation 
under the treaty last named was ceded to the United States — the Menomonees to receive from 
the United States a tract of country lying on Wolf river, being townships 28,29 and 30, of ranges 

'3. 14. 15. i6- 

25. A treaty was made with the Chippewas of Lake Superior, at La Pointe, on the 30th of 
September, 1854. That nation ceded to the United States all lands before owned by them in 
common with the Chippewas of the Mississippi — lying in the vicinity of Lake Superior in Wis- 


consin and Minnesota. 

26. On the 5th of February, 1856, a treaty was held with the Stockbridge and Munsee tribes, 
at Stockbridge. All the remaining right and title to lands in the town of Stockbridge, possessed 
by them, was ceded to the United States ; and the said tribes were to receive in exchange a tract 
of land near the southern boundary of the Menomonee reservation, and by treaty made at 
Keshena, February 11, 1856, the Menomonees ceded two townships to locate the said tribes. 

With this last treaty, the Indian title to all the lands of the present state of Wisconsin was 
ceded to the United States government, except a ffew small reservations to certain tribes, and a 
perfect, indefeasible title obtained to all the territory within its borders. 

In the region of country which is now the state of Wisconsin, the settlements in early times 
were, as before stated, near Green Bay and at Prairie du Chien. Soon after the organization of 
the Northwest territory, the subject of claims to private property therein received much attention. 
By an act of congress approved March 3, 1805, lands lying in the districts of Vincennes, Kas- 
kaskia and Detroit, which were claimed by virtue of French or British grants, legally and fully 
executed, or by virtue of grants issued under the authority of any former act of congress by 
either of the governors of the Northwest or Indiana territory, which had already been surveyed, 
were, if necessary, to be re-surveyed ; and persons claiming lands under these grants were to have 
until November i, 1805, to give notice of the same. Commissioners were to be appointed to 
examine, and report at the next session of congress. An act was also passed, approved April 25, 
1806, to authorize the granting of patents for lands, according to government surveys that had 
been made, and to grant donation rights to certain claimants of land in the district of Detroit, 
and for other purposes Another act was approved May 1 1, 1820, reviving the powers of the 
commissioners for ascertaining and deciding on claims in the district of Detroit, and for settling the 
claims to land at Green Bay and Prairie du Chien, in the territory of Michigan ; the commis- 
sioners to have power to examine and decide on claims filed with the register of the land office, 
and not before acted on, in accordance with the laws respecting the same. The commissioners 
discharged the duties imposed on them, and in their report to congress in reference to the claims 
at Green Bay, they said that the antiquity of this settlement being, in their view, sufficiently 
established, and that they, being also satisfied that the Indian title must be considered to have 
been extinguished, decide favorably on the claims presented. About seventy-five titles were con- 
firmed, and patents for the same were sent to the proper parties by the government. In relation 
to the Prairie du Chien titles, they reported " that they had met few difficulties in their investi- 
gations ; that, notwithstanding the high antiquity wliich may be claimed for the settlement of that 
place, no one perfect title founded on French or British grant, legally authenticated, had been 
successfully made out; and that but few deeds of any sort have been exhibited." This they 
attribute to the carelessness of the Canadians in respect to whatever concerned their land titles, and 
accords with whatever is known in this regard, of the French population throughout the country. 
They therefore came to the conclusion that whatever claim the people of the place possessed, 
and might have for a confirmation of their land titles, they must be founded upon proof of con 
tinued possession since the year 1796 The commissioners further say, that " since the ancestors 
of these settlers were cut off, by the treaty which gave the Canadas to the English, from all inter- 
course with their parent country, the people both of Prairie du Chien and Green Bay have been 
left, until within a few years, quite isolated, almost without any government but their own; and, 
although the present population of these settlements are natives of the countries which they 
inhabit, and, consequently, are by birth citizens of the northwest, yet, until a few years, they have 
had as little political connection with its government as their ancestors had with the British. 
Ignorant of their civil rights, careless of their land titles, docility, habitual hospitality, cheerful 


submission to the requisitions of any government which may be set over them, are their universal 

In reference to grants by the French and English governments, the commissioners say, they 
" have not had access to any public archives by which to ascertain with positive certainly, whether 
either the French or English ever effected a formal e.xtinguishment of the Indian title at the 
mouth of the Wisconsin, which also may be said of the land now covered by the city of Detroit, 
that the French government was not accustomed to hold formal treaties for such purposes with 
the Indians, and when the lands have been actually procured from them, either by virtue of the 
assumed right of conquest, or by purchase, evidence of such acquisition is rather to be sought in 
the traditionary history of the country, or in the casual or scanty relations of travelers, than 
among collections of state papers. Tradition does recognize the fact of the extinguishment of 
the Indian title at Prairie du Chien by the old French government, before its surrender to the 
English; and by the same species of testimony, more positive because more recent, it is estab- 
lished also, that, in the year 1781, Patrick Sinclair, lieutenant governor of the province of Upper 
Canada, while the English government had jurisdiction over this country, made a formal purchase 
from the Indians of the lands comprehending the settlement of Prairie du Chien." 

The territories and states formed from the section known as the Northwest territory, 
were : 

I The Northwest territory proper (i 787-1800) having jurisdiction over all the lands referred 
to in the ordinance of 1787. In 1802, Ohio was organized as a state with its present boun- 

".. Indiana terrritory was formed July 4, 1800, with the seat of government at Vincennes 
That territory was made to include all of the northwest, e.xcept what afterward became the state 
of Ohio. 

3. Michigan territory was formed June 30, 1805. It was bounded on the south by a line 
drawn east from the south bend of Lake Michigan, on the west by the center of Lake Michigan. 
It did not include what is now Wisconsin. The upper peninsula was annexed in r836. The 
state of Michigan was formed January 26, 1837, with its present boundaries. 

4. Illinois territory was formed March 2, 1810. It included all of the Indiana territory west 
of the Wabash river and Vincennes, and a line running due north to the territorial line. All of 
Wisconsin was included therein, except what lay east of the line drawn north from Vincennes. 

5. Indiana was admitted as a state April 19, 1816, including all the territory of Indiana 
territory, except a narrow strip east of the line of Vincennes, and west of Michigan territory, her 
western boundary. 

6. Illinois was admitted as a state .\pril ir, 1S18. It included all of Illinois territory south 
of latitude 42° 30'. .\11 of Wisconsin was added to Michigan territory. In the month of Octo- 
ber of that year, the counties of Michilimackinac, Rrown and Crawford were formed, comprising 
besides other territory, the whole of the present state of Wisconsin. 

7. Iowa district was attached to Michigan for judicial purposes, June 30, 1834, out of which 
Des Moines and Dubuque counties were formed. 

8. Wisconsin territory was formed April 20, 1836. The state was formed May 29, 1848. 
The territory of Wisconsin being a part of the Northwest territory claimed, and congress by 

direct action confirmed to her, all the rights and privileges secured by the ordinance of 1787, 
one of which was that congress should have authority to form one or two states in that part of 
the territory lying north of an east and west line, drawn through the southerly bend or extreme 
of Lake Michigan. Notwithstanding this plain provision of the ordinance, which is declared to 


he articles of compact between the original states and the people and states in the said territory, 
and forever to remain unalterable unless by consent ; yet congress, in establishing the boundaries 
of the state of Illinois, extended that state about sixty miles north of the line established by the 
ordinance. This action was claimed to be unjust and contrary to the spirit and letter of the 
compact with the original states. The legislative assembly of Wisconsin passed resolutions 
which were approved January 13, 1840, that it was inexpedient for the people of the territory to 
form a constitution and state government until the southern boundary to which they are so justly 
entitled by the ordinance of 1787 shall be fully recognized by the parties of the original com- 
pact. Owing to various complications over which the territory had no control, her people never 
succeeded in obtaining from congress what they considered their just rights. 

It was also contended by many, that the portion of country set off to Michigan on Lake 
Superior given as a compensation in part for the strip of land awarded to Ohio from her south- 
ern border, should also have constituted a portion of Wisconsin, especially as Michigan never 
made the least claim to it by her delegate in congress, who was decidedly opposed to the exten- 
sion of Michigan beyond the limits of the lower peninsula. 

The first survey of the public lands northwest of the Ohio river, was made pursuant to an 
act of congress approved May 20, 1785 The geographer of the confederation was diected to 
commence the survey of the government lands on the north side of the river Ohio^the first line 
running north and south, to begin on said river at a point that should be found to be due north 
from the western termination of a line which had been run as the southern boundary of the stats 
of Pennsylvania; the first line running east and west, to begin at the same point, and to extend 
through the whole territory. The survey comprised seven ranges, composing ten counties of 
the present state of Ohio. Other surveys followed when the Indian title was extinguished. 
Thomas Hutchins, who .held the office of geographer, is believed to be the inventor of the 
mode of laying out land which was then introduced by him, and is still in general use by the 

Soon after the government had acquired title to the Indian lands south of the Wisconsin 
river, the public authorities commenced a systematic survey of the lands, for the purpose of 
bringing the same into market at the earliest possible period. 

The public lands in Wisconsin are, as elsewhere in the west, surveyed in uniform rec- 
tangular tracts, each six miles square, by lines running north and south, intersecting others 
running east and west. These townships are numbered from two lines called the princijial 
meridian and the base line. The principal meridian by which the Wisconsin surveys are gov- 
erned is that known as the fourth, and extends from the Illinois boundary line to Lake Superior, 
at the mouth of Montreal river, about two hundred and eighty-two miles. It divides Grant 
from LaFayette county, and passes through the eastern parts of Vernon, Monroe, Jackson, Clark, 
Chippewa, and Ashland counties. The base line separates Wisconsin from Illinois in north 
latitude forty-two degrees, thirty minutes. There are nearly seventeen hundred townships in 
the state. Each township is subdivided into thirty-six sections by lines running parallel to the 
sides of the township, one mile apart. A section is, therefore, one mile square, and contains six 
hundred and forty acres. In fractional townships, each section is numbered the same as the 
corresponding section in whole townships. Each section is subdivided into half-mile squares, 
called quarter-sections, each containing one hundred and sixty acres, and the subdivision is 
carried still further into half-quarter or quarter-quarter sections. It is found necessary to estab- 
lish at stated intervals standard parallels, commonly called correction lines, to obviate the effect 
of the curvature of the earth's surface. The convergence in a single township is small, though 
quite perceptible, the actual excess in length of its south over its north line being in the state 



about three rods. The townships north of the base line, therefore, become narrower toward the 
north, and if continued for too great a distance, this narrowing would cause serious inconvenience. 
In the state of Wisconsin there are four of these correction lines. The first is sixty miles 
north of the base line, and accordingly runs between townships ten and eleven. The second is 
between townships twenty and twenty-one, and so on. They are usually si.\ty miles apart. On 
these parallels, which form new base lines, fresh measurements are made from the principal 
meridian, and the corners of new townships are fixed six miles apart as on the original base line. 
This method of procedure not only takes up the error due to convergency of meridians, but 
arrests that caused by want of precision in the surveys already made. 

The northern or western sections of townshi]3s, which contain more or less than six hun- 
dred and forty acres, are called fractional sections, for the reason that the surplusage or 
deficiency arising from errors in surveying, and from other causes, is by law added to or 
deducted from the western or northern ranges of sections according as the error may be in run- 
ning the lines from east to west, or from north to south. 

As soon as the surveys were completed in southern Wisconsin and the Green Bay section, 
and a knowledge of the superior qualities of the land for agricultural purposes were known to 
the people, the emigration became large. In fact much land was taken possession of by settlers 
in advance of being surveyed and brought into market. As soon as the land offices at Green 
Bay, Mineral Point, and Milwaukee were located, public announcement was made by the govern- 
ment, of the time of the sale, when the lands were put uji to the highest bidder, and such as were 
unsold were afterward subject to private entry. The first sales were held at Green Bay and 
Mineral Point in the year 1835. The sale at Milwaukee was in 1836. From the reports of the 
general land office, it appears that from 1835 to 1845 inclusive, there were sold at the three land 
offices from jniblic sale, 2,958,592^*5^ acres, amounting to $3,768,106.51. 

Fort Howard military reservation was set apart by order of the l^president March 2, 1829, 
and comprised all the lands lying upon Fox river and Green bay, in township 24 north, range 20 
east, 4th principal meridian, being about four thousand acres. The. lands were abandoned for 
military purposes, by the war department, December 4, 1850. By an act of congress approved 
March 3, 1S63, the commissioner of the general land office was authorized and directed to cause 
the reservation, including the site of the fort, containing three and four-hundredths acres, situated 
in the county of Brown, between Fox river and Beaver Dam run, and which is not included in 
the confirmations to T. C. Dousman and Daniel Whitney, nor in the grant to the state of Wis- 
consm, under resolutions of congress approved April 25, 1862, granting lands to W'isconsin to 
aid in the construction of railroads, to be surveyed and subdivided into lots not less than one- 
fourth of an acre, and not more than forty acres, deducting such portions of the same as the 
public interest and convenience may require ; and when so surveyed and platted, to be sold sep- 
arately at auction. On the loth of November, 1864, under directions of the commissioner, the 
lands were offered for sale at auction at the fort. About one-half of the lands were sold, and 
purchased by actual settlers, and but few for s])eculation. The fort and the lands contiguous 
were sold for six thousand four hundred dollars. The other lands sold brought about the sum 
of nineteen thousand dollars. 

That portion of the reservation unsold was to be subject to private entry at the appraised 
value, and that portion lying between Duck creek and Beaver Dam creek, was subject to entry 
as other public lands were offered. 

On the 20th of May, 1868, a joint resolution of congress was aj)proved, by which the com- 
missioner of the general land office was authori^ied and directed to cause a patent to be issued 
to the Chicago & Northwestern railroad company in pursuance of a resolution passed by con- 


gress, granting the same to the state of Wisconsin, approved April 25,1862, and by act of the 
legislature approved June 16, 1862, granting the same to that company for eighty acres of land, 
as was .surveyed and approved by said commissioner June 11, 1864 The lands thus donated 
are now used by the railroad company for their depot grounds 

The Fort Crawford military reservation was purchased from J H. Lockwood and James D. 
Doty by the government in the year 1829, and covered the front and main portions of farm lots 
numbered thirty-three and thirty-four, of the private land clamis at Prairie du Chien, and com- 
prised about one hundred and sixty acres. Fort Crawford was built on this tract in 1829, 1830 
and 1 83 1. There was also a reservation of section eighteen, township seven, north of range 
four west, known as the Cattle Yard. This land was at the mouth of the Kickapoo river, and 
is now known as the village of Wauzeka. In addition to these lands which were located in Wis- 
consin, there was a reservation of lands lying on the west side of the Mississippi river, in Iowa. 
The lands in Wisconsin were relinquished by the secretary of war, January lo, 1851, and were 
originally set apart by the president of the United States, February 17, 1843. 

In the month of .\pril, 1857, the secretary of war authorized Hon H. M. Rice, of Minne- 
sota, to sell that part of the reservation not improved, in tracts not exceeding forty acres each; 
and, in the month of June of that year, he sold at auction five hundred and seven acres of the 
reserve opposite Fort Crawford, none of which was claimed by actual settlers ; and in the month 
of December, 1857, he sold the remainder to claimants of lands, also on the west side, and the 
section in Wisconsin known as the Cattle Yard, amounting to 177^^0 acres. A portion of this 
reservation was subdivided into town lots', 80 by 140 feet, with streets 66 feet and alleys 20 feet 
wide November 17, 1864, the acting commissioner of the general land office, by order 
of the war department, offered for sale at public auction at La Crosse the reservation at Fort 
Crawford, which had been surveyed and subdivided into town lots, eighty by one hundred and 
forty feet, with streets sixty-five feet and alleys twenty feet wide, conforming to the plat of the 
village of Prairie du Chien. The lands unsold were subsequently opened to private entry and 
disposed of 

The lands of the Fort Winnebago reservation were set apart by order of the president, 
February 9, 1835, and consisted of the following tenitory: sections two, three, and that part of 
four lying east of Fox river, and fractional section nine, all in township twelve, north of range 
nine east , also fractional section thirty-three, in township thirteen, north of range nine east, 
lying west of Fox river, and the fraction of section four, township twelve north, of range nine 
east, lying west of claim numbered twenty-one of A. Grignon, and adjacent to Fort Winnebago, 
reserved by order of the president, July 29, 1851. the whole amounting to about four thousand 
acres. September the first, 1853, these lands were by order of the president offered for sale 
at public auction at the fort, by F. H. Masten, assistant quartermaster United States army, 
having previously been surveyed into forty acre lots, and were purchased by J. B. Martin, G. C. 
Tallman, W. H. Wells, Wm. Wier, N. H. Wood, M. R. Keegan, and others. 

The first land offices in Wisconsin were established under an act of congress approved 
June 26, 1834, creating additional land districts in the states of Illinois and Missouri, and in the 
territory north of the state of Illinois. The first section provides " that all that tract lying north 
of the state of Illinois, west of Lake Michigan, south and southeast of the Wisconsin and Fox 
rivers, included in the present territory of Michigan, shall be divided by a north and south line, 
drawn from the northern boundary of Illinois along the range of township line west of Fort 
Winnebago to the Wisconsin river, and to be called — the one on the west side, the Wisconsin 
land district, and that on the east side the Green Bay land district of the territory of Michigan, 
which two districts shall embrace the country north of said rivers when the Indian title shall be 


extinguished, and the Green Bay district may be divided so as to form two districts, when 
the president shall deem it proper;" and by section three of said act, the president was author- 
ized to appoint a register and receiver for such office, as soon as a sufficient number of townships 
are surveyed. 

An act of congress, approved June 15, 1836, divided the Green Bay land district, as estab- 
lished in 1834, "by a line commencing on the western boundary of said district, and running 
thence east between townships ten and eleven north, to the line between ranges seventeen and 
eighteen east, thence north between said ranges of townships to the line between townships 
twelve and thirteen north, thence east between said townships twelve and thirteen to Lake 
Michigan ; and all the country bounded north by the division line here described, south by the 
base line, east by Lake Michigan, and west by the division line between ranges eight and nine 
east," to be constituted a separate district and known as the " Milwaukee land district." It 
included the present counties of Racine, Kenosha, Rock, Jefferson, Waukesha, Walworth and 
Milwaukee, and parts of Green, Dane, Washington, Ozaukee, Dodge and Columbia. 

An act was approved March 3, 1847, creating an additional land district in the territory. 
All that portion of the public lands lying north and west of the following boundaries, formed a 
district to be known as the Chippewa land district: commencing at the Mississippi river on the 
line between townships twenty-two and twenty-three north, running thence east along said line 
to the fourth principal meridian, thence north along said meridian line to the line dividing town- 
ships twenty-nine and thirty, thence east along such township line to the Wisconsin river, thence up 
the main channel of said river to the boundary line between the state of Michigan and the territory 
of Wisconsin. The counties now included in this district are Pepin, Clark, Eau Claire, Dunn, 
Pierce, St. Croi.x, Polk, Barron, Burnett, Douglas, Bayfield, Ashland, Taylor, Chippewa, and parts 
of Buffalo, Trempealeau and Jackson. 

An act of congress, approved March 2, 1849, changed the location of the land office in the 
Chippewa district from the falls of St. Croix to Stillwater, in the county of St. Croix, in the 
proposed territory of Minnesota; and, by section two of the act, an additional land office and 
district was created, comprising all the lands in Wisconsin not included in the districts of land 
subject to sale at Green Bay, Milwaukee, or Mineral Point, which was to be known as the Western 
land district, and the president was authorized to designate the site where the office should be 
located. Willow River, now Hudson, was selected. The district was usually known as the St. 
Croix and Chippewa district, and included St. Croix, La Pointe, and parts of Chippewa and 
Marathon counties. By an act of congress, approved July 30, 1852, so much of the public lands 
in Wisconsin as lay within a boundary line commencing at the southwest corner of township 
fifteen, north of range two east of the fourth principal meridian, thence running due east to the 
southeast corner of township fifteen, north of range eleven, east of the fourth principal meridian, 
thence north along such range line to the north line of the state of Wisconsin, thence westwardly 
along said north line to the line between ranges one and two east of fourth principal meridian, 
thence south to the place of beginning, were formed into a new district, and known as the 
Stevens Point land district, and a land office located at that place. 

The boundaries enclosed the present counties of Juneau, Adams, Marquette, Green Lake, 
Waushara, Waupaca, Portage, Wood, Marathon, Lincoln, and Shawano. By the same law, the 
La Crosse land district was formed of the following territory : " Commencing at a point where 
the line between townships ten and eleven north touches the Mississippi river, thence due east to 
the fourth principal meridian, thence north to the line between townships fourteen and fifteen 
north, thence east to the southeast corner of township fifteen north, of range one east of the 


fourth principal meridian, thence north on the range line to the south line of township number 
thirty-one norih, thence west on the line between townships number thirty and thirty-one to the 
Chippewa river, thence down said river to its junction with the Mississippi river, thence down 
said river to the place of beginning." The present counties of Vernon, La Crosse, Monroe, Buf- 
falo, Trempealeau, Eau Claire, Clark, and parts of Juneau and Chippewa were included in 
its limits. 

By act of congress, approved February 24, 1855, an additional district was formed of all that 
portion cf the Willow river land dTstrict lying north of the line dividing townships forty and 
forty-one, to be called the Fond du Lac district — the office to be located by the president as he 
might from time to time direct. The present counties of Douglas, Bayfield, Ashland, and part 
of Burnett were included within its boundaries. 

By an act of congress, approved March 3, 1857, so much of the districts of land subject to 
sale at La Crosse and Hudson, in the state of Wisconsin, contained in the following boundaries, 
were constituted a new district, to be known as the Chippewa land district : North of the line 
dividing townships twenty-four and twenty-five north ; south of the line dividing townships forty 
and forty-one north ; west of the line dividing ranges one and two east ; and east of the line 
dividing ranges eleven and twelve west. The location of the office was to be designated by the 
president as the public interest might require. The present counties of Chippewa, Taylor, Eau 
Claire and Clark were in this district. 

There are at the present time six land offices in the state. They are located at Menasha, 
Falls of St. Croix, Wausau, La Crosse, Bayfield and Eau Claire. By the provisions of law, when 
the number of acres of land in any one district is reduced to one hundred thousand acres, sub- 
ject to private entry, the secretary of the interior is required to discontinue the office, and the 
lands remaining unsold are transferred to the nearest land office, to be there subject to sale. The 
power of locating these offices rests with the president (unless otherwise directed by law), who is 
also authorized to change and re-establish the boundaries of land districts whenever, in his 
opinion, the public service will be subserved thereby. 

The pre-emption law of 1830 was intended for the benefit of actual settlers against compe- 
tition in open market with non-resident purchasers. It gave every person who cultivated any 
part of a quarter section the previous year, and occupied the tract at the date mentioned, the 
privilege of securing it by payment of the minimum price at any time before the day fixed for 
the commencement of the public sale. To avail himself of this provision he was to file proof 
of cultivation and occupancy. As men frequently located claims in advance of the survey, it 
occasionally happened that two or more would find themselves upon the same quarter section^ 
in which case the pre-emption law permitted two joint occupants to divide the quarter section 
equally between them, whereupon each party received a certificate from the land office, author- 
izing him to locate an additional eighty acres, elsewhere in the same land district, not interfering 
with other settlers having the right of preference. This was called a floating I'ight. This pro- 
vision of the law was ingeniously perverted from its plain purpose in various ways. 

As fast as these evasions came to the notice of the department, all certificates given to 
occupants of the same quarter section in excess of the two first, or to more than one member of 
the same family, to employees, to any person who had not paid for eighty acres originally 
occupied, as well as those which were not located at the time of such payment, and the additional 
tract paid for before the public sale, were held to be worthless or fraudulent ; but a large number 
of these certificates had been issued, and passed into the hands of speculators and designing 
men, and were a source of almost endless vexation and annoyance to settlers.. The law of 1830 


expired by limitation in one year from its passage, but was revived by the law of 1834 for two 
years. In the interim no settler could obtain his land by pre-emption. The law of 1834 extended 
only to those who had made cultivation in 1833, consequently the settlers of later date were 
excluded from its benefits. Meanwhile the fraudulent floats were freely used to dispossess actual 
settlers as late as 1835. 

The pre-emption law of congress, approved September 4, 1841, provided that every person 
who should make a settlement in person on public land, and erect a dwelling, should be author- 
ized to enter a quarter section (one hundred and sixty acres), at the minimum price (one dollar 
and twenty-five cents per acre), and thus secure the same against competition ; and if any person 
should settle upon and improve land subject to private entry, he might within thirty days give 
notice to the register of the land office of his intention to claim the land settled upon, and might 
within one year upon making proof of his right, enter the land at the minimum price. 

.•\t the public land sales at Mineral Point, held in 1835, all those tracts on which lead was 
found, or on which it was supposed to exist, were reserved to the United States, and were leased 
under certain regulations by the government for a rent of ten per centum of all the lead raised. 
The quantity of land thus reserved was estimated at one million acres. Considerable difficulty 
was found in collecting these rents, and subsequently it was abandoned, as the amount 
expended in collecting exceeded the value of the lead collected. In the period of four years 
the government suffered a loss of over nineteen thousand dollars. . 

The act of congress, approved July 11, 1846, authorized the sale of the reserved mineral 
lands in Illinois, Wisconsin and Iowa, and provided that, after six months' public notice, the lands 
should not be subject to the rights of pre-emption until after the same had been offered at public 
sale, when they should be subject to private entry. The law also provided, that, upon satisfac- 
tory proof being made to the register and receiver of the proper land office, any tract or tracts 
of land containing a mine or mines of lead ore actually discovered and being worked, would be 
sold in such legal subdivisions as would include lead mines, and no bid should be received 
therefor at less than the sum of two dollars and fifty cents per acre, and if such tract or tracts 
should not be sold at such public sale, at such price, nor should be entered at private sale within 
twelve months thereafter, the same should be subject to sale as other lands. This act was 
changed by an act approved March 3, 1847, providing that any one being in possession by 
actual occupancy of a mine discovered prior to the passage of this act, who should pay the same 
rents as those who held leases from the secretary of war, should be entitled to purchase the lands 
prior to the day of sale at five dollars per acre. Mineral lands were to be offered for sale in forty 
acre pieces, and no bids were to be received less than five dollars per acre, and if not sold they 
were then to be subject to private entry at the same price. In 1847 or 1848 the reserved mineral 
lands were sold at public sale at Mineral Point at two dollars and fifty cents per acre, and they 
were all disposed of at that price. 

Soon after the formation of Wisconsin territory, an act was passed by its legislature^ 
approved January 5, 1838, incorporating the Milwaukee and Rock river canal company, and by 
an act of congress approved June 18 of the same year, a grant of land was made to aid in the 
construction of the canal. The grant consisted of the odd-numbered sections on a belt of ten 
miles in width from Lake Michigan to Rock river, amounting to 139,190 acres. Of those lands 
43,447 acres were sold at public sale in July, 1839, at the minimum price of two dollars and fifty 
cents per acre. Work was commenced on the canal at Milwaukee, and the Milwaukee river for 
a short distance from its outlet was improved by the construction of a dam across the river, 
which was made available for manufacturing and other purposes. A canal was also built about 
a mile in length and forty feet wide, leading from it down on the west bank of the river. Much 


dissatisfaction subsequently arose ; the purchasers at this sale, and others occupying these canal 
and reserved lands felt the injustice of being compelled to pay double price for their lands, and 
efforts were made to repeal all laws authorizing further sales, and to ask congress to repeal the 
act making the grant. The legislation on the subject of this grant is voluminous. In 1862 the 
legislature of the state passed an act to ascertain and settle the liabilities, if any, of Wisconsin 
and the company, and a board of commissioners was appointed for that purpose. At the session 
of the legislature in 1863, the committee made a report with a lengthy opinion of the attorney-gen- 
eral of the state. The views of that officer were, that the company had no valid claims for damages 
against the state. In this opinion the commissioners conv'urred. On the 23d of March, 1875, 
an act was approved by the governor, giving authority to the attorney-general to discharge and 
release of record any mortgage before e.\ecuted to the late territory of Wisconsin, given to secure 
the purchase money or any part thereof of any lands granted by congress to aid in the construc- 
tion of this canal. The quantity of lands unsold was subsequently made a part of the 500,000 
acre tract granted by congress for school purposes. It is believed the whole matter is now closed 
against further legislative enactments. 

The next grant of lands made by congress lor internal improvements in Wisconsin, was one 
approved August 8, 1846, entitled "an act to grant a certain quantity of land to aid in the 
improvement of the Fo.x and Wisconsin rivers, and to connect the same by canal." By this act 
there was granted to Wisconsin on her becoming a state, for improving the navigation of the 
above-named streams, and constructing the canal to unite the same, a quantity of land equal to 
one-half of three sections in width on each side of Fox river, and the lakes through which it 
passes from its mouth to the point where the portage canal should enter the same, and each side 
of the canal from one stream to the other, reserving the alternate sections to the United States 
with certain provisions in relation thereto. On the 3d of August, 1854, an act of congress was 
approved, authorizing the governor of Wisconsin to select the balance of lands to which the state 
was entitled to under the provisions of the act of 1846, out of any unsold government lands sub- 
ject to private entry in the state, the quantity to be ascertained upon the principles which gov- 
erned the final adjustment of the grant to the state of Indiana, for the Wabash and Erie canal, 
approved May 9, 1848. In the years 1854 and 1855, acts of congress were passed, defining and 
enlarging the grant. Under the grants of 1S46, 1854 and 1855, the number of acres donated for 
this purpose and certified to the state, was 674,100. 

After the admission of Wisconsin into the Union, by an act of its legislature, approved 
August 8, 1848, a board of public works was created, through which the work of improving the 
said rivers, by the application thereto of the proceeds of the sale of the lands granted by con- 
gress, was undertaken by the state. 

It soon became apparent that the moneys realized from the sale of lands were insufficient to 
meet the obligations of the state issued by its board of public works as they became due ; and 
in 1853 the work was turned over to the Fox and Wisconsin Improvement company, a corpora- 
tion created under an act of the legislature of Wisconsin approved July 6, 1853. In 1856, by an 
act of the legislature of Wisconsin, approved October 3, 1856, the lands granted by congress 
then unsold were granted by the state, through the said company, to trustees, with power to 
sell, and to hold the proceeds in trust for the payment of state indebtedness, the completion 
of the work, thereafter for the payment of bonds issued by the said company, and the balance, if 
any, for the company itself. 

In February, 1866, the trustees, in execution of the powers contained in the deed of trust 
made to them, and pursuant to a judgment of the circuit court of Fond du Lac county, sold at 
public sale at Appleton, Wisconsin, the works of improvement and the balance of lands granted 

THE PT'BLIC 5)()M.\I>'. 227 

by congress then unsold, and applied the proceeds to the purposes expressed in the deed of trust. 
The proceeds were sufficient to pay in full the expenses of the trust, the then outstanding 
state indebtedness, and to provide a fund sufficient to complete the work according to the plan 
specified in the act approved October 3, 1856. 

Under an act of the legislature of Wisconsin approved April 13, 1861, and the acts amend- 
atory thereof, the purchasers at said sale, on the 15th day of August, 1866, filed their certificate 
in the office of the secretary of state, and thereby became incorporated as the Green Bay and 
Mississippi canal company, holding, as such company, the said works of improvement. 

At a subsequent date, under instructions from the engineer department of the United States, 
the surveys of the Fox and Wisconsin rivers were placed in the charge of General G. K. War- 
ren, and by act of congress approved July 7, 1S70, the secretary of war was authorized to 
appoint a board of arbitrators to ascertain how much the government should pay to the suc- 
cessors of the Improvement company, the Green Bay and Mississippi canal company, for tlie 
transfer of all its property and rights; and by a subsequent act, approved June 10, 1872, an 
appropriation was made therefor. 

The legislation on matters connected with the Fox and Wisconsm river improvement would 
make a chapter of itself. The work is now in charge of the government, and will be prosecuted 
to completion in a satis;factory manner. 

On the 29th of May, 1848, an act was approved by the president "to enable the people of 
Wisconsin territory to form a constitution and state government, and for the admission of such 
state into the Union," by which certain propositions were to be submitted to the convention 
which were to be acted upon, and subsequently submitted to the people for their approval. The 
first constitutional convention was held in October, 1846, and, having framed a constitution, it 
was submitted to a vote of the people at the election in 1847, and it was rejected. The second 
convention met December 15, 1S47, and, having formed a constitution, it was adopted by the 
people at the election in 1848. The following are the propositions proposed by congress : 

1. That section sixteen numbered in every township of the public lands of said state, and 
where such section has been sold or otherwise disposed of, other lands equivalent thereto, and 
as contiguous as may be, shall be granted to the said state for the use of schools. 

2. That seventy-two sections, or two entire townships, of land set apart and reserved for 
the use and support of a university by act of congress approved June 12, 1838, are hereby granted 
and conveyed to the state, to be appropriated solely to the use and support of such university in 
such manner as the legislature may prescribe. 

3. That ten entire sections of land to be selected and located under the direction of the 
legislature, in legal subdivisions of not less than one quarter of a section from any of the unap- 
propriated lands belonging to the United States within the state are granted to the state for 
completing the public buildings, or for the erection of others at the seat of government, under 
the direction of the legislature. 

4. That all salt-springs within the state, not exceeding twelve in number, shall be granted to 
the state, to be selected by the legislature, and when selected, to be used or disposed of on such 
terms, conditions, and regulations as the legislature shall direct. 

The title to all lands and other property which accrued to the territory of Wisconsin by 
grant, gift, purchase, forfeiture, escheat, or otherwise, were, by the provisions of the constitution 
of the state, vested in the state ; and the people of the state, in their right of sovereignty, were 
declared to possess the ultimate property in and to all lands within its jurisdiction ; and all 
lands, the title of which shall fail from a defect of heirs, shall revert or escheat to the people. 

The act of congress for the admission of the state into the Union gave formal assent to the 


grant relative to the Fox and Wisconsin river improvement, and the lands reserved to the United 
States by said grant, and also the grant to the territory of Wisconsin, for the purpose of aiding 
in opening a canal to connect the waters of Lake Michigan with those of Rock river, were to be 
offered for sale at the same minimum price, and subject to the same rights of pre-emption as 
other public lands of the United States. 

By the provisions of the state constitution, the secretary of state, the state treasurer and 
attorney-general, were constituted a board of commissioners for the sale of the school and 
university lands, and for the investment of the funds arising therefrom. In the year 1850 the 
commissioners put into market, for the first time, the school lands which had been donated to the 
state. The total quantity of lands offered was 148,021, 44-100 acres, which sold for the sum of 

By an act of congress, approved September 4, 1841, there were granted to the state 500,000 
acres of land, which were, by act of the territorial legislature of 1849, appropriated to the school 
fund, and the unsold lands of the Milwaukee and Rock river canal company, amounting to about 
140,000 acres, were to be included as a part of the above grant. These lands, and the sixteenth 
section of each township, make up the whole of the school lands of the state. The whole 
number of acres sold up to the year 1877 is 1,243,984 acres, and there remain unsold, subject, 
to entry, 216,016 acres. 

The state university land grant was made in 1838, and seventy-two sections set apart and 
reserved. The lands were selected in 1845 and 1846. On the 15th of December, 1854, an act 
of congress was approved, relinquishing to the state the lands reserved for the salt-springs, and 
seventy-two sections were granted in lieu thereof, in aid of the university of the state The 
number of acres amounts to 92,160, all of which have been sold except 4,407 acres, which are 
subject to entry. Under the re-organization and enlargement of the university, under provisions, 
of chapter 114, of general laws of 1866, section thirteen provides, among other things, that the 
income of a fund to be derived from the sales of the two hundred and forty thousand acies, 
granted by congress by act approved July 2, 1862, entitled : " An act donating lands to the 
several states and territories which may provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and 
mechanic arts," be devoted to the state university, and the funds arising therefrom to be known 
as the "agricultural college fund." All of the grant of lands have been sold except 51,635 acres. 
The quantity of lands donated by act of congress August 6, 1846, for the purpose of completing or 
erecting public buildings at the seat of government, known as "Capitol Lands," amounted to 
ten entire sections, or six thousand four hundred acres. A grant of lands was made to the state 
by act of congress, approved September 28, 1S50, of all the swamp and overflowed lands within 
its limits. The total number of acres of this grant, as certified to the state from the government, 
to the year 1877, is 1,869,677. 

A grant of land was made by congress, approved March 3, 1863, for the construction of ai 
military road from Fort Wilkins, Michigan, to Fort Howard, Wisconsin, of every alternate 
section of public lands, designated by even numbers for three sections in width on each side of 
said road, and subject to the disposal of the legislature. In 1865 sales of land were made to 
the number of 85,961.89 acres, which realized the sum of $114,856.54. 

An act of congress was approved June 25, 1864, granting lands to the state to build a military 
road from Wausau, Wisconsin, to Ontonagon, on Lake Superior, of every alternate section of 
land designated as odd sections, for three sections in width on each side of the road. The grant 
was accepted by the state by law, approved April 10, 1865. 

An act was also passed by congress, approved April 10, 1866, granting to the state of Wis^ 
consin a donation of public lands to aid in the construction of a breakwater and harbor and ship 

TIIK IMlil.IC JxiMAiy. 229 

canal at the head of Sturgeon bay, Wis., to connect the waters of Green bay with Lake Michigan-. 
The grant was for 200,000 acres of Land. The grant was accepted by the legislature of 1868. 
In i874,thesamebody by resolution transferred to the Sturgeon bay and Lake Michigan ship canal 
and harbor company 32,342 acres, and the remaining portion was authorized to be sold' for agri- 
cultural purposes by said company. 

The first railroad grant in Wisconsin was by act of congress, approved June 3, 1856, by the 
first section of which there was granted to the state, for the purpose of aiding in thecons.truction 
of a railroad from Madison or Columbus, by the way of Portage City, to the St. Croix river or 
lake, between townships twenty-five and thirty-one, and from thence to the west end of Lake: 
Superior and to Bayfield ; and from Fond du Lac, on Lake Winnebago, northerly to the state line,, 
every alternate section of land designated by odd numbers, for six sections in width on each side: 
of said roads, respectively; the land to be applied exclusively in the construction of said roads,, 
and to no other purpose whatever, and subject to the disposal of the legislature, and the same 
shall remain public highways for the use of the government, free from toll and other charges 
upon the transportation of property or troops of the United States, with other conditions- as to 
the disposal of said lands. 

The grant was accepted by the legislature by an act approved October 8, 1856, and on the 
nth of the same month an act was approved granting a portion of the lands to the La Crosse & 
Mississippi railroad company, who were to carry out all the requirements of the original grant. 
A supplementary act was approved the same session, October 13, incorporating the Wisconsin & 
Superior railroad, which company was required to commence the construction of their road on. 
or before January i, 1857, and to complete the same to Oshkosh before August i, 1858. Qf this- 
land grant John W. Cary says: "That portion of the grant given to aid in the construction oC 
a railroad northerly to the state line was conferred on the Wisconsin & Superior railroad company. 
This company was organized in the interest of the Chicago, St. Paul & Fond du Lac railroad 
company, and that part of the grant was transferred to it. The road was, in 1859, extended to- 
Oshkosh, and thence to Menasha, and finally to Green Bay. In the panic of 1857, the company 
failed to meet its obligations, but was afterward enabled to go on, and continued in possession 
until June 2, 1S59, when its road was sold on the foreclosures of the mortgages given thereon ; 
and on the sixth of the same month the present Chicago & Northwestern railroad company was- 
organized under the statute, by purchasers at said sale, and took possession." 

.\ large portion of the original grant was given for the construction of a road from Madison 
or Columbus to the St. Croix river, as before stated. The La Crosse company, during the years 
1857 and 1858, completed its main line to La Crosse; the Watertown line, from Watertown to 
Columbus, and partially graded the line from Madison to Portage City. Neither it nor its suc- 
cessors ever received any part of the lands of the land grant. 

In 1856 and 1S57, the La Crosse & Milwaukee railroad graded most of the line from Madi- 
son to Portage. After the failure of the company, this line was abandoned, and so remained', 
until 1870, when a new company was organized, under the name of the Madison & Portage City- 
railroad company. In 1S73, an act was passed chartering the Tomah & Lake St. Croix railroad. 
company, and repealing and annulling that portion of the land grant which bestowed the lands- 
from Tomah to Lake St. Croix upon the La Crosse company, and bestowing the same upon the- 
company chartered by this act. Tl'.is road is known as the West Wisconsin railroad. 

.\n act of congress was approved May 5, 1864, granting lands to aid in the constructiom oi 
certain roads in the state. This was a re-enactment of the law of 1856, and divided the gran: 
in three sections, one of which was for a road from a point on the St. Croix river or lake, between 


townships twenty-five and thirty-one, to the west end of Lake Superior, and from some point on 
the line of said road, to be selected by the state, to Bayfield — every alternate section designated 
by odd numbers, for ten sections in width on each side of said road, with an indemnity extending 
twenty miles on each side, was granted, under certain regulations ; another, for aiding in building 
a road from Tomah to the St. Croix river, between townships twenty-five and thirty-one — every 
iilternate section by odd numbers, for ten sections in width on each side of the road ; another 
for aiding and constructing a railroad from Portage City, Berlin, Doty's Island, or Fond du Lac, 
as the legislature may determine, in a northwestern direction, to Bayfield, on Lake Superior, and 
a grant of every alternate section designated by odd numbers, for ten sections in width on each 
side of said road, was donated. 

The legislature of 1865 failed to agree upon a disposition of the grant. The succeeding 
legislature conferred the grant partly upon the " Winnebago & Lake Superior Railroad Company," 
and partly upon the " Portage & Superior Railroad Company," the former April 6, 1866, and the 
latter April 9, 1S66. The two companies were consolidated, under the name of the "Portage, 
Winnebago & Superior Railroad," by act of the legislature, March 6, 1869, and by act of legis- 
lature approved February 4, 187 1, the name was changed to the "Wisconsin Central Railroad." 



An article on state health, necessarily embracing the etiology, or causes of disease, involves 
the discussion of the geographical position of the state; its area, physical features; its elevations, 
depressions; water supply; drainage; its mean level above the sea; its geology; climatology; 
the nationality of its people ; their occupations, habits, food, education ; and, indeed, of all the 
physical, moral and mental influences which affect the public health. 

Geographical Position. 

The geographical position of Wisconsin, considered in relation to health, conveys an imme- 
diate and favorable impression, which is at once confirmed by a reference to the statistical atlas 
of the United States. On its north it is bounded by Lake Superior, Minnesota, and the northern 
peninsula of Michigan; on the south by Illinois; on the east by Lake Michigan, and on the 
west by the Mississippi. It lies between 42° 30' and 46° 55' N. latitude, and between 87° and 
92° 50' W. long.; is 285 miles long from north to south, and 255 in breadth from east to west, 
giving it an area of some 53,924 square miles, or 34,511,360 acres. Its natural surface divisions, 
or proportions, are 16 per cent, of prairie, 50 of timber, 19 of openings, 15 of marsh, mineral 
undefined. North of 45° the surface is nearly covered with vast forests of pine. The proportion 
of the state cultivated is nearly one-sixth. 

Physical Features. 

Among these, its lacustrine character is most conspicuous, so much so that it may not inaptly 
be called the state of a thousand lakes, its smaller ones being almost universal and innumerable. 



It has an almost artificially perfect arrangement of its larger rivers, both for supply and drainage, 
is rolling in its surface, having several dividing ridges or water sheds, and varies from 600 to 1,600 
feet above the level of the sea. Blue Mounds being 1,729 feet above sea level. Its pine and 
thickly wooded lands are being rapidly denuded, and to some extent converted to agricultural 
purposes ; its marshes in the north are being reclaimed for cranberry cultivation, and in the more 
thickly settled parts of the state for hay purposes. The surface of the state is beautifully diver- 
sified with stream, waterfall and rapids; richly wooded bluffs several hundred feet in height, 
assuming the most romantic and pleasing forms, and composed of sandstone, magnesian 
limestone, granite, trap, etc. The health and summer resorts of Wisconsin are illustrative of its 
beauty, and its numerous mineral springs have long since formed an important feature of its 
character for salubrity. 

Geology. , 

The geology of Wisconsin does not require from us but a very general notice, as it is only 
from its relation to disease that we have to consider it. This relation is in a measure apparent 
in the fact that everywhere the topographical features are governed by the strata below them. 
The relationship will be seen still further in the chemical or sanitary influence of the geological 
structures. Through the greater part of the south half of the state limestone is found, the clift" 
prevailing in the mineral region, and the blue in the other parts; while in the north part of the 
state the primitive rocks, granite, slate, and sandstone prevail. South of the Wisconsin river 
sandstone in layers of limestone, forming the most picturesque bluffs, abounds. While west of 
Lake Michigan extends up to these rocks the limestone formation, being rich in timber or prairie 
land. Sandstone is found underneath the blue limestone. The general dip of the stratified 
rocks of the state is toward the south, about S feet to the mile. 

Medical geology treats of geology so far only as it affects health. Thus, some diluvial soils 
and sands are known to be productive of malarial fevers ; others, of a clayey character, retaining 
water, are productive of cold damp, and give rise to pulmonary and inflammatory diseases ; 
while others still, being very porous, are promotive of a dry and equable atmosphere. In 
the Potsdam rocks arise our purest waters and best supply, while our magnesian limestone rocks 
(a good quality of this kind of rock being composed of nearly equal parts of carbonate of lime 
and carbonate of magnesia) affect the water to the e.xtent of producing simple diarrhoea in those 
unaccustomed to drinking it, as is observed in southern visitors, and was especially noticeable 
in the rebel prisoners at Camp Randall, though singularly enough do not seem to produce 
stone and gravel, as is alleged of the same kind of water in the north of England. Why this is 
so — if so — is a question «f some interest. Goitre and cretinism are both attributed to the use 
of the same magnesian limestone water. Goitre is by no means an uncommon affection here, 
but not common enough, perhaps, to warrant us in thinking its special cause is in the water. 
Boiling the water is a preventive of all injurious effects. There is still another objection — partic- 
ularly applicable to cities — to this kind of water, the carbonates of lime and magnesia which 
it contains, not simply making it hard, but giving it the power to promote the decomposition of 
organic matters, and thus where the soil is sandy or porous, endangering the purity of our well- 
water. Geology in general affects all our soils and their products; all our drainage; even our 
architecture, the material with which we build. Our building stone for half of the state is a 
magnesian limestone, a rather soft or poor quality of which will absorb one-third of its bulk of 
water, or two and a half gallons to the cubic foot, while most kinds of sandstone are nearly as 
porous as loose sand, and in some of them the penetrability for air and water is the same. (A 
single brick of poor quality will absorb a pint of water). Such materials used in the construction 


'Of our dwellings, without precautionary measures, give rise to rheumatism, other grave diseases, 
and loss of strength. Besides, this character of stone absorbs readily all kinds of liquid and 
gaseous impurities, and though hardening in dry air, decays soon when exposed to underground 
moisture. The material of which our roads are made, as well as the kind of fuel we use in our 
liomes, have the same unquestionable relationship to geology and disease. 


The natural drainage of the state, bearing in mind that the mean elevation of its hydro- 
graphical axis is about i,ooo feet above the sea level, is as excellent as it is obvious. (A line 
running from Lake Michigan across the state to the Mississippi, shows an elevation of about 500 
feet). North its drainage is by a few rapid but insignificant streams into Lake Superior, while 
east it increases greatly and enters Lake Michigan by way of Green bay. The principal part of 
the supply and drainage, however, is from the extreme north to the southwest through the center 
of the state, by five large rivers, which empty themselves into the Mississippi at almost equal 
distances from each other. 


The climatology of Wisconsin will be exhibited in the observations taken at different times, 
for longer or shorter periods, and at different points of the state. But it must be borne in mind 
that climate depends quite as much and very frequently more upon the physical surroundings, 
upon the presence of large bodies of water, like our lakes, upon large forests, like our pineries, 
■like our heavy hard-woods, and of land elevations and depressions, upon isothermal lines, etc., as 
it does upon latitude. Our historic period is of a character too brief for us to assume to speak 
of our climate, or of all the changing causes which influence it — in a positive manner, our 
horticultural writers, to make the difficulty still greater, affirming that it hz.'i several climates within 
itself; still, sufficient data have been gathered from sufficiently reliable sources to enable us to 
.form a tolerably accurate idea of the subject. 

The great modifiers of our climate are our lakes. These, bounding as they do, the one, 
Lake Superior (600 feet above the level of the sea. 420 miles long and 160 broad), on the north 
side of the state, and the other. Lake Michigan (578 feet above the sea level, 320 miles long and 
84 broad), on the east side of the state, serve to govern the range of the thermometer and the 
mean temperature of the seasons, as much as they are governed in New England by the ocean. 
Our climate is consequently very much like that of the New England sea-board. They both 
•exhibit the same extremes and great extremes, have the same broadly marked continental features 
.at some seasons, and decided tropical features at others. It is of special interest in this con- 
jiection to know that the climate between the eastern coast and the lakes increases in rigor as 
one advances west until the lakes are reached, and again becomes still more rigorous as one 
advances into the interior west of the lakes, thus affording proof, if proof were wanting, of the 
jTiodifying and agreeable influences of large bodies of water 

During the winter the mean temperature of the east on the New England coast is 8.38 
higher than the west (beyond the lakes) ; during the spring 3.53 lower ; during the summer 6.99 
lower; .and during the autumn 1.54 higher. In the mean temperature for the year there is but a 
fractional difference. That the winters are less rigorous and the summers more temperate on 
the Great Lakes is demonstrated to be owing not to elevation, but, as on the ocean, to the equal- 
jzing agency of an expanse of w-ater. 

On the lakes the annual ratio of fair days is 117, and on the New England coast 215; the 


V'loudy days are as 127 to 73; the rainy as 63 to 46 and the snowy as 45 to 29 In the former 
the prevailing weather is cloudy, and in the latter it is fair. The immense forests on the upper 
lake shores of course exercise a considerable influence in the modification of our temperature, as 
Well as in the adding to our rain-fall and cloudy days. A climate of this character, with its 
attendant rains, gives us that with which we are so abundantly supplied, great variety of food, 
l)Oth for man and beast, the choicest kinds of fruits and vegetables m the greatest profusion, and 
of the best quality, streams alive with fish, woods and prairies with game, the noblest trees, the 
most exquisite flowers, and the best breeds of domestic animals the world can boast of. 

The semi-tropical character of our summer, and its resemblance to that of New England, is 
shown by the mean temperature —70" — for three months at Salem, Massachusetts, at Albany, 
Mew York, at southern Wisconsin, Fort Snelling and Fort Benton on the Upper Missouri, being 
the same; while at Baltimore, Cincinnati and St. Louis, it is 75", and around the gulf of Mexico 
It is So"^. Another feature of our climate is worthy the notice of invalids and of those who make 
the thermometer their guide for comfo:t. It is a well-ascertained fact that during the colder 
seasons the lake country is not only relatively, but positively, warmer than places far south of it. 
The thermometer, during the severe cold of January, 1856, did not fall so low at the coldest, by 
10° to 15° at Lake Superior as at Chicago at the same time. This remark holds true of the 
changes of all periods of duration, even if continued over a month. The mean temperature at 
Fort Howard, Green Bay, Wisconsin, 600 feet above the level of the Atlantic, latitude 44" 40', 
longitude 87^, observations for nine years, is 44.93 ; and at Fort Crawford, Prairie du Chien, 
Wisconsin, 580 feet above the level of the .\tlantic, latitude 43° 3', longitude 90" 53', observa- 
tions for four years, is 45.65, giving a just idea of our mean temperature for the state. Under 
the head of distribution of heat in winter, it is found that the maximum winter range at Fort 
Winnebago, AVisconsin, for sixteen years, is 9.4. 

Hyetai. or R.\iN Char.\cter. 

Wisconsin is situated within what is termed the area of constant precipitation, neither affected 
by a rainy season, nor by a partial dry season. The annual quantity of rain on an average for 
three years at Fort Crawford, was 29.54 inches, and at Fort Howard the mean annual on an 
■average of four years, was 38.83 inches. The annual quantity of rain, on an average of three 
years was 31.88 inches at Fort Winnebago, situate (opposite the portage between the Fox and 
Wisconsin rivers) 80 miles west of Lake Michigan and 112 miles southwest of Green Bay. The 
rain-fall is less in the lake district than in the valley of the Mississippi in the same latitudes. 
One of the peculiarities of our winters is the almost periodical rain-fall of a few days in the 
middle of the winter (usually in the middle of January), which extends to the Atlantic coast, 
while north and northwest of us the dry cold continues without a break, winter being uniform and 
severe, characterized by aridity and steady low temperature. Another peculiarity of our climate 
Is, the number of snowy and rainy days is increased disproportionately to the actual quantity — 
the large bodies of water on the boundaries of the state, contrary to the popular opinion, reduc- 
ing the annual quantity of rain in their immediate vicinity instead of adding to it, the heavier 
precipitation being carried further away. One of the most pleasing features of our climate is its 
frequent succession of showers in summer, tempering as it does our semi-tropical heat, increasing 
the fertility of the soil, and carpeting our prairies with a green as grateful to the eye as that of 

The hygrometric condition of Wisconsin may be judged of with jiroximate accuracy by that 
given of Poultney, Iowa : 




of Air. 

of Evaporat'n 

per cent. 


of Air. 

of Evaporat'n 

per cent. 














21. ._ 

















14 - 


The average depth of snow for three years, at Beloit, Wisconsin, was twenty-five inches, 
while at Oxford county, Maine, the average for twelve years was ninety inches. The isohyetal 
lines of the mean precipitation of rain and melted snow, for the year 1872, show that of Wiscon^ 
sin to be thirtv-two. 


The mean tempLrature of spring is represented by the isotherm of 45° F. which enters Wis- 
consin from the west about forty miles south of Hudson, passing in a nearly southeast direction, 
and crosses the south line of the state near the west line of Walworth county. It then passes nearly 
around the head of Lake Michigan, then northeast until it reaches the latitude of Milwaukee, 
whence it passes in a somewhat irregular course east through Ontario, New York, and Massa- 
chusetts, entering the ocean in the vicinity of Boston. The summer mean isotherm of 70° F. 
enters Wisconsin from the west but little farther north than the spring isotherm, and passes 
through the state nearly parallel with the course of that line, crossing the southern boundary 
near the east line of Walworth county ; passing through Chicago it goes in a direction a little 
south of east, and enters the Atlantic at New Haven. The mean isotherm of 47'' F. for autumn, 
enters the state about twenty miles north of Prairie du Chien, passing in a direction a little north 
of east through Portage, and enters Lake Michigan near Manitowoc. The isotherm of 20" F. 
representing the mean temperature of winter, enters the state near Prairie du Chien, passes east 
and north and enters Lake Michigan at Sturgeon bay. The annual mean temperature is repre- 
sented by the isotherm of 45° F. which enters the state near Prairie du Chien, passes across the 
state in a direction a little south of east, and enters Lake Michigan a little south of Milwaukee. 

What influence these isotherms have upon our belts f)f disease there are no data to show. 
But from their influence upon vegetable life, one can not but infer a similar good influence on 
the animal economy. This is a question for the future. 


Yearly mean of barometer at 32^ F. as observed 
1,088 feet above the sea : 

l86g _. 28.932 inches. 

1870 28.867 " 

1871 28.986 " 

1872 28. 898 

at the University nf Wisconsin, altitude 

1S73 28.892 inches. 

1874 28.867 " 

1875 _ 28.750 " 

1876 ...28.920 

Atmospheric pressure, as indicated by the barometer, is an important element in the causation 
of disease, far more so than is generally thought. The barometer indicates not only the coming 
of the storm, but that state of the atmosphere which gives rise to health at one time, and to 
disease at another. When the barometer is high, both the body and mind have a feeling of 
elasticity, of vigor and activity, and when the barometer ranges low, the feelings of both are just 
the reverse ; and both of these states, commonly attributed to temperature, are mostly the result 
of change in the barometric pressure. Many inflammations, as of the lungs, etc., commonly 


attributed to chanL;;e in the temperature, have their origin in vicissitudes. 


Generally speaking, the atmospheric movement is from the west. It is of little purpose 
what the surface wind may be, as this does not affect the fact of the corisiaftcy of the westerly 
'winds in the middle latitudes. The showers and cumulus clouds of the summer always have this 
movement. The belt of westerly winds is the belt of constant and equally distributed rains, the 
feature of our winds upon which so much of our health and comfort depends. 

Climatological Changks from Settlini.; thk Si-.^vte. 

There are many theories afloat concerning the effects of reclaiming the soil and the destruc- 
tion of its forests. To us, a new people and a new state, the question is one of great moment, 
the more so that it is still in our power not only to watch the effects of such changes, but still 
more so to control them in a measure for our good. As to the effects upon animal and vegetable 
life, it would appear that so far as relates to the clearing away of forests, the whole change of 
conditions is limited to the surface, and dependent for the most part on the retention and slow- 
evaporation in the forest, in contrast with the rapid drainage and evaporation in the open space. 
The springs, diminishing in number and volume in our more settled parts of the state, do not 
indicate a lessening rain-fall. It is a well ascertained fact that in other places so denuded, which 
have been allowed to cover themselves again with forests, the springs reappear, and the streams 
are as full as before such denudation. With us, happily, while the destruction of forests is going 
on in various parts of the state, their second groivth is also going on, both in the pineries, where 
new varieties of hard-wood take the place of the pine, and in the more cultivated parts of the 
state, cultivation forbidding, as it does, the practice so much in vogue some years ago, of running 
fires through the undergrowth. Thus, though the renewal of forests may not be keeping pace 
with their destruction, it would seem clear that as time advances, the springs and streams in the 
more cultivated sections of the state will fill and flow again, increasing in proportion as the second 
growth increases and expands. 

The change, however, from denudation, though strictly limited to liie surface, affects the 
surface in other ways than simply in the retention and evaporation of rain. When the winter 
winds are blowing, the want of the sheltering protection of belts of trees is bitterly felt, both by 
man and beast. And so, too, in the almost tropical heats of the summer ; both languish and suffer 
from the want of shade. Nor is the effect of denudation less sensibly felt by vegetable life. The 
growing of our more delicate fruits, like the peach, the plum, the pear, the better varieties of the 
cherry and gooseberry, with the beautiful half-hardy flowering shrubs, all of which flourished so 
well in a number of our older counties some twenty years ago, are as a rule no longer to be found 
in those localities, having died out, as is believed, from exposure to the cold winds, to the south 
west winds in particular, and for want ot the protecting influence of the woods. In fruits, how 
ever, we have this compensation, that, while the more tender varieties have been disapijearing, 
the hardier and equally good varieties, especially of apples, have been increasing, while the 
L;rape (than which nothing speaks better for climatology), of which we grow some 150 varieties, 
the strawberry, the raspberry, blackberry and currant, etc., hold their ground. Nor are the cattle 
suffering as much as formerly, or as much as is jjerhaps popularly believed, from this want of 
forests or tree shelter. With the better breeds which our farmers have been able of late years to 
purchase, with better blood and better food, and better care, our stock instead of dwindling in 
condition, or in number, from the effect of cold, has progressed in (piality and quantity, and 
competes with the best in the Chicago and the New York markets. 


There can, however, be no doubt that the planting of groves and belts of trees in exposed 
localities, would be serviceable in many ways ; in tempering the air and imparting to it an 
agreeable moisture in the summer ; in modifying the severity of the cold in winter ; in moderating 
the extreme changes to which our climate is subject; and thus in a measure preventing those 
■discomforts and diseases which occur from sudden changes of temperature. Besides, these 
plantings, when made between our homes or villages and malarial marshes soutlnvesi of us, serve 
'(by the aid of our prevailing southwest winds) to break up, to send over and above and beyond 
IIS the malarial substratum of air to which we are otherwise injuriously exposed. 

The effects of reclaiming the soil, or "breaking " as it is called in the west, have, years ago, 
when the state first began to be settled, been disastrous to health and to life. The moist sod 
being turned over in hot weather, and left to undergo through the summer a putrifying fomen- 
tative process, gave rise to the worst kind of malarial, typhoid (bilious) and dysenteric disease. 
Not, however, that the virulence or mortality altogether depended upon the soil emanations. 
These were imdoubtedly aggravated by the absolute poverty of the early settlers, who were 
wanting in everything, in jjropcr homes, proper food and proper medical attendance, medicines 
and nursing. These fevers have swept the state years ago, jiarticularly in the autumns of 1844 
and 1845, but are now only observed from time to time in limited localities, following in the 
autumn the summer's "breaking." But it is pleasing to be able to add that through the advancing 
prosperity of the state, the greater abundance of the necessaries and comforts of life, and the 
facilities for obtaining medical care, the diseases incident to " settling " are much less common 
and much less fatal than formerly. 

Rel.\ti()Ns of Climatology 10 S.^niiarv Status. 

One of the principal reasons for gathering climatological observations, is to obtain sanitary 
information, which serves to show us where man may live with the greatest safety to his health. 
Every country, we might perhaps correctly say every state, has, if not its peculiar diseases, at 
least its peculiar type of diseases. And by nothing is either this type or variety of disease so 
much influenced as by climate. Hence the great importance of the study of climatology to 
health and disease, nay, even to the kind of medicine and to the regulating of the dose to be 
given. It is, however, best to caution the reader that these meteorological observations are not 
•always made at points where they would most accurately show the salubrity of a geographical 
district, by reason of the fact that the positions were chosen not for this special purpose, but 
for purely military purposes. We allude to the forts of Wisconsin, from which our statistics for 
the most part come. Another caution it is also well to bear in mind in looking over the class of 
diseases reported at these stations in connection with their observations. The diseases are those 
of the military of the period, a class from which no very favorable health reports could be 
expected, considering their habits, exposure, and the influences incidental to frontier life. 

The geography of disease and climate is of special interest to the public, and a knowledge 
especially necessary to the state authorities, as it is only by such a knowledge that state legis- 
lation can possibly restrain or root out the endemic diseases of the state. In connection with 
the gathering of vital statistics must go the collection of meteorological and topographical 
statistics, as without these two latter the former is comparatively useless for sanitary purposes. 
More particularly does this apply to the malarial diseases of the state. 

Acclimation is very rarely discussed or even alluded to by our people in relation to Wisconsin, 
for the reason that, come from whatever part of Europe men may, or from the eastern states, 
acclimation is acquired for the most part unconsciously, rarely attended by any malarial affection, 
Unless by exposure in such low, moist localities, where even the natives of the state could not 

iTKAT/nr ov AVTsroxsix. 23' 

live with impunity. It seems to be well enough established that where malaria exists, whether 
in London, New York, or Wisconsin ; where the causes of malarial disease are permanent, the 
cfTects are permanent, and that there is no positive acclimation to malaria. Hence it should 
follow that since life and malaria are irreconcilable, we should root out the enemy, as we readily 
can by drainage and cultivation, or, where drainage is impossible, by the planting of those shrubs 
or trees which are found to thrive best, and thereby prove the best evaporators in such localities. 
Our climate, approximating as it does the 4Sth degree (being equi-distant from the equator and 
pole), would a priori \^e a common ground of compromise and safety, and from this geographical 
position is not liable to objections existing either north or south of us. 

Influence ok Nationalitiis. 

Our population is of such a confessedly heterogeneous character that naturally enough it 
suggests the question : Has this intermingling of different nationalities sensibly affected our 
health conditions .' Certainly not, so far as intermarriages between the nations of the Caucasian 
race are concerned. This opinion is given first upon the fact that our classes of diseases have 
neither changed nor increased in their intensity by reason of such admixture, so far as can be 
learned by the statistics or the history of disease in the northwest. Imported cases of disease are 
of course excepted. Second, because all that we can gather from statistics and history concern- 
ing such intermingling of blood goes to prove that it is beneficial in every respect, physically, 
mentally and morally. 

England, of all nations, is said to be the best illustration of the good attending an 
intermingling of the blood of different nations, for the reason that the English character is 
supposed to be, comparatively speaking, good, and that of all countries she has been perhaps 
more frequently invaded, and to a greater or less part settled by foreign peoples than any other. 

From a residence of nearly a quarter of a century in the center of Wisconsin, and from an 
adequate knowledge of its people, whose nationalities are so various and whose intermarriages 
are so common, it is at least presumable that we should have heard of or noted any peculiar or 
injurious results, had any such occurred. None such, however, have been observed. Some fears 
have been expressed concerning the influence of Celtic blood upon the American temperament, 
already too nervous, as is alleged. It is scarcely necessary to say that these fears are unsupported 
by figures or facts. Reasoning from analogy, it would seem safe to affirm that the general inter- 
mingling by intermarriage now going on in our population, confined to the Caucasian nationali- 
ties, will tend to preserve the good old Anglo-Saxon character, rather than to create any new char- 
acter for our people. If this view needed support or confirmation, it is to be found in some very 
interesting truths in relation to it. Mr. Edwin Seguin, in his work on Idiocy, lays special stress 
on the influences of races in regard to idiocy and other infirmities, like deafness. He says that 
the crossing of races, which contributed to the elimination of some vices of the blood (as may be 
the case in the United States, where there are proportionally less deaf and dumb than in Europe), 
produces a favorable effect on the health of the population, and cites as an example, Belgium, which 
has fewer deaf and dumb than any country in Europe, owing to the influence of the crossing of 
races in past ages from the crowds of northern tribes passing, mingling and partly settling there 
on the way to England. 

We are aware that it has been predicted that our future will give us a new (j/f, distinct from 
all other peoples, and that with this type must come not only new diseases but modifications or 
aggravations of the present diseases, in particular, consumption and insanity. But so long 
as we are in a formative state as a nation, and that this state seems likely to continue so long as 
■the country has lands to be occupied and there are people in Europe to occupy them, such spec- 
ulations can be but of little value. 


Occupations, Food, Education, etc., as affecting Public Health. 

The two chief factors of the social and sanitary well-being of a people are a proper educa- 
tion of the man and a proper cultivation of the soil. Our two principal occupations in Wisconsin 
are education and agriculture, the learners in the schools being in excess of the laborers on the 
soil. A happier combination could scarcely be desired, to form an intelligent and a healthy 
people. How this will affect our habits in the future it is easy to conceive, but for the present it 
may be said (of so many different nationalities are we composed), that we have no habits which 
serve to distinguish us from the people of other northwestern states. A well-fed and a well-taught 
people, no matter how mi.xed its origin, must sooner or later become homogeneous and a maker 
of customs. In the mean time we can only speak of our habits as those of a people in general 
having an abundance of food, though it is to be wished the workers ate more beef and mutton, 
and less salt-pork, and that whisky was less plentiful in the land. The clothing is sufficient, 
fuel is cheap, and the dwellings comfortable. Upon the whole, the habits of the people are 
conducive to health. It is thought unnecessary to refer to the influence upon health in general 
of other occupations, for the reason that manufacturers, traders and transporters are for the most 
part localized, and perhaps not sufficiently numerous to exercise any marked influence on the 
state health. 

History of Disease. 

In searching for historical data of disease in Wisconsin, w-e are able to go back to tne year 
1766, commencing with the aborigines. The Indians, says Carver, in his chapter on their diseases, 
in general are healthy and subject to few diseases. Consumption from fatigue and exposure he 
notices, but adds that the disorder to which they are most subject is pleurisy. They are like- 
wise afflicted with dropsy and paralytic complaints. It is to be presumed that while Carver is 
speaking generally, he means his remarks to apply, perhaps, more particularly to those Indians 
with whom he lived so long, the Sioux of this state. That they were subject to fevers is gathered 
from the use of their remedies for fever, the " fever bush " being an ancient Indian remedy, and 
equally valued by the inhabitants of the interior parts of the colonies. Besides this, they had 
their remedies for complaints of the bowels, and for all inflammatory complaints. These notices 
sufficiently indicate the class of diseases which have certainly followed in the wake of the Indi- 
ans, and are still occurring to his white brother, making it plain enough that lung diseases, bowel 
complaints, and fevers are in fact native to the state. The fact must not be ignored that the 
Indian is subject to the same diseases as the human race in general. 

After Carver, we may quote Major Long's expedition in 1824. The principal disease of the 
Sacs appears to be a mortification of the intestinal canal, more common among men than women, 
the disease proving fatal in four days if not relieved. It is unaccompanied with pain, and is neither 
hernia, dysentery, nor hemorrhoids. Intermittents were prevalent, and the small-pox visited 
them at different periods. As the Chippewas have a common Algonquin origin with the Sacs, 
and as their home and customs were the same, it may be expected that their diseases were simi- 
lar. The principal disease to which the Chippewas are liable is consumption of the lungs, 
generally affecting them between the ages of 30 and 40; they linger along for a year or two, but 
always fall victims to it. Many of them die of a bowel complaint which prevails every year. 
This disease does not partake, however, of the nature of dysentery. They are frequently affected 
with sore eyes. Blindness is not common. Many of them become deaf at an early age. 

Referring to the report of the commissioner of Indian affairs for 1854, we find that the 
decrease in the number of the Menomonees is accounted for by the ravages of small-pox, in 1838, 


t)f the cholera, in 1847 (which latter was superinduced by misery and starvation), and by the 
fever, which from time to time, commonly in the winter, has been raging among them, being 
clearly the consequence of want of provisions and other necessaries. The report for 1850 says, 
there has been considerable sickness among the Winnebagoes for several months past; dysentery 
has been the prevalent disease, confined mostly to children. For 1857 : the Winnebagoes have 
suffered considerably from chronic diseases, scrofula and consumption. For 1859: the chief 
malady among the Winnebagoes is phthisis pulmonalis and its analogous diseases, having its 
source in hereditary origin. Some of the malignant diseases are occasionally met with among 
them, and intermittent and remittent fevers. In 1863: of the Menomonees, there is a large 
mortality list of the tribes under my charge. Measles and some of the more common eruptive 
diseases are the causes. But the most common and most fatal disease which affects the Indians 
at this agency is pneumonia, generally of an acute character. There is but little tubercular 
disease to be found in any of these tribes, Menomonees, Stockbridges, Oneidas, etc. In the 
report for 1865, one can not but notice with some regret the absence of all allusion, except to 
small-pox, to the diseases of the Indians. Regret, because reliable information of such diseases 
serves a variety of valuable purposes, for comparison, confirmation, etc., of those of the white 
population. For these reasons, if for none other, it is to be hoped that the attention of the 
proper authorities will be called to this feature of such reports. 

The first reliable report on the diseases of the people (as distinguished from the Indians) of 
Wisconsin to which we have had access, is Lawson's Army Report of Registered Diseases, for 10 
years, commencing 1829, and ending 1S38 (ten years before the admission of Wisconsin into the 
Union as a state). 


Intermittent fever _-. 30 This abstract exhibits the second quar- 

Remittent do -_ 11 ' ters only, the mean strength being 

Synochal do - 4 : 1,702. 

Typhus do i 

Diseases of respiratory organs loi All other diseases 114, excepting vene- 

Diseasesof digestive organs 184 1 real diseases, abcesses, wounds, ul- 

Diseases of brain and nervous system 9 cers, injuries, and ebriety cases. 

Dropsies - i 

Rheumatic affections 61 

Under the class of diseases of the respiratory organs, are comprised 384 catarrh, 6 pneu- 
monia, 60 pleuritis, and 28 phthisis pulmonalis; under the class of digestive organs, 376 diar- 
rhoea and dysentery, 184 colic and cholera, and 10 hepatitis; under the class of diseases of 
the brain and nervous system, 15 epilepsy, etc. The deaths from all causes, according to the 
post returns, are 25, being i J,^ per cent, per annum. The annual rate of intermittent cases is 6, 
and that of remittent is 3, per 100 of mean strengtli. 

Table of Ratio ok Sickness at Fort Howard. 


MEAN STRENGTH. ''™''^'' 

RATE PER 1,000 OF 



10 first quarters. - 

1.764 715 
1,702 726 
1,526 1,073 

1.^0*1 6^6 



Q third " ., 


10 fourth " 


Annual rate . 






Every man has consequently, on an average, been reported sick about once in every six- 
months, showing this region to be extraordinarily salubrious. The annual ratio of mortality, 
according to the medical reports, is ^ per cent.; and of the adjutant-general's returns, if\ 
per cent. 


Intermittent fever - 21 

Remittent fever 10 

Synoclial fever i 

Typhus fever — 

Diseases of the respiratory organs. 141 

Diseases of digestive organs 90 

Diseases of brain and nervous system,. 2 

Rheumatic aftections 26 

This abstract exhibits the fourth quarters 
only, the mean strength being 1,571. 

All other diseases, 80, with the exceptions as 

Under the class of diseases of the respiratory organs are comprised 448 catarrh, 11 pneu- 
monia, 29 pleuritis and 10 phthisis pulmonalis ; under the head of digestive organs, 193 diarrhoea 
and dysentery, 149 colic and cholera, and 17 hepatitis; under the class of brain and nervous 
system, i epilepsy. The total number of deaths, according to the post returns, is 20. Of these,. 
3 are from phthisis pulmonalis, i pleuritis, 2 chronic hepatitis, i gastric enteritis, i splenitis, etc. 






RATE PER 1,000 OF 



lo /irst quarters. ._ - 







10 second " 

10 third " 

10 fourth " 




Every man im an average is consequently reported sick once in eight months and a half. 


Intermittent fever 262 

Remittent fever 61 

Synochal fever .. — - 

Typhus fever — 

Diseases of respiratory organs 177 

Diseases of digestive organs 722 

Diseases of brain and nervous system 16 

Rheumatic affections 58 

This abstract exhibits the third quarters 
only, the mean strength being 1,885. 

.•\11 other diseases, 309, with the same list of 
exceptions as above. 

Under the class of diseases of the respiratory organs are included 1,048 of catarrh, 28 pneu- 
monia, 75 pleuritis and 13 phthisis pulmonalis; under the head of digestive organs, 933 diarrhoea 
and dysentery, and 195 colic and cholera; under the head of brain and nervous diseases, 7 
epilepsy, etc. The total of deaths, according to the post returns, is 94, the annual ratio being 
2^ per cent. The causes of death are : 6 phthisis pulmonalis, 6 epidemic cholera, i common 
cholera, 4 remittent fever, 3 dysentery, etc. In the third quarter of 1830 there were 154 cases of" 
fever, while the same cjuarter of 1836, with a greater strengtli, affords but one case, the difference 
seeming to depend upon the temperature. 



The relative agency of the seasons in the jiroduction of disease in general is shown in the 
annexed taWe : 








9 first quarters 

1, 660 




1,267 724 
1,948 1,033 
1.270 676 

lo third " . 

lO fourth " _, 




Consequently every man on an average has been reported sick once in nearly every four 
months. But high as this ratio of sickness is, at this fort, and, indeed, at the others, it is low 
considering the topographical surroundings of the posts. But besides these injurious topograph-, 
ical and other influences already alluded to, there were still other elements of mischief among 
the men at these stations, such as " bad bread and bad whisky," and salt meat, a dietary table 
giving rise, if not to " land-scurvy," as was the case at the posts lower down in the Mississippi 
valley (more fatal than either small-po.x or cholera), at least to its concomitant diseases. 

The reason for using these early data of the United States Army medical reports in pref- 
erence to later ones is, that even though the later ones may be somewhat more correct in certain 
particulars, the former serve to establish, as it were, a connecting link (though a long one) between 
the historical sketch of the diseases of the Indian and those of the white settler ; and again — 
these posts being no longer occupied — no further data are obtainable. 

To continue this historical account of the diseases of AV' isconsin, we must now nave recourse 
to the state institutions. 

The Institution for the Education of the Blind. 

1 he first charitable institution established by the state was formally opened in 1850, at 
Janesville. The census of 1875 showed that there were 493 blind persons in the state, those 
of school age — that is — under 20 years of age, probably amounting to 125. The number of 
pupils in the institution that year, 82 ; the average for the past ten years being 68. If the healtli 
report of the institution is any indication of the salubrity of its location, then, indeed, is Janes- 
ville in this respect an enviable city. Its report for 1876 gives one death from consumption, and 
a number of cases of whooping-cough, all recovered. In 1875, ten cases of mild scarlet fever, 
recovered. One severe and two mild cases of typhoid fever, recovered. For 1873, no sick list. 
For 1872, the mumps went through the school. For 1871, health of the school reasonably good ; 
few cases of severe illness have occurred. 

The Institute for the Deaf and Dumb. 

This was organized in June, 1852, at Delavan. The whole number of deaf and dumb per- 
sons in the state, as shown by the census of 1875, was 720. The report for 1866 gives the 
number of pupils as 156. 

Little sickness, a few cases of sore throat, and slight bowel affections comprise nearly all the 
ailments; and the physician's report adds: "The sanitary reports of the institution from its 
earliest history to the present date has been a guarantee of the healthiness of the location. 
Having gone carefully over the most reliable tabulated statements of deaf-mutism, its parent.. 


age, its home, its causes, and its origin, we would most earnestly call the attention of the public 
to the fact that the chief cause comes under the head of congenital, 75 of the 150 pupils in this 
institution having this origin. Such a fearful proportion as this must of necessity have its origin 
in a cause or causes proportionately fearful. Nor, fortunately, is the causation a mystery, since 
most careful examination leaves not a shadow of doubt that consanguineous marriages are the 
sources of this great evil. Without occupying further space by illustrative tables and arguments, 
wc would simply direct the attention of our legislators and thoughtful men to tlie law of this dis- 
ease — which is, that the nuniber of deaf and dumb, imbeciles, and idiots is in direct keeping with the 
degree of consanguinity. With such a law and exhibit before us, would not a legislative inquiry 
into the subject, with the view of adopting preventive means, be a wise step? The evil is fear- 
ful ; the cause is plain; so, too, is the remedy." 

Indu5tri.\l School for Boys. 

This institution is situated on the banks of the Fox river, at Waukesha, and was organized 
in i860. The whole number of the inmates since it was opened in July, i860, to October 10, 
1876, was 1,291. The whole number of inmates for 1876 was 415. Of these, since the period 
of opening up to date, October, 1876, 25 have died : 8, of typhoid fever; 1, of typhoid erysipelas ; 
I, of gastric fever; 3, of brain fever; i, nervous fever; 2, congestion of the lungs; 2, congestive 
chills; 5, of consumption; i of dropsy; and i of inflammatory rheumatism. 

The State Prison. 

This was located at Waupun in July, 1857. On September 30, 1876, there were 266 inmates. 
But one death from natural causes occurred during the year. The health of the prisoners has 
been unusually good, the prevalent affections attendant upon the seasons, of a mild and 
manageable character. 

State Hospital for the Insane. 

This institution, located near Madison, was opened for patients in July, i860. The total 
number of admissions since it was opened has been 1,227 males, 1,122 females, total 2,349. Over 
one half of these have been imprroed ; nearly one third recovered ; while less than one quarter 
have been discharged unimproved. Total number of deaths, 288. At the commencement of the 
year, October i, 1875, there were in the hospital 376 patients. In the report for the year ending 
September 30, 1876, we find the past year has been one of unusual health in the hospital. No 
serious epidemic has prevailed, although 20 deaths have been reported, 7 fatally ill before admis- 
sion, 4 worn-out cases, etc. Insanity, coming as it does, under this head of an article on State 
Health, is of the highest interest from a state point of view, not only because so much may be 
done to remedy it, but that still more can and ought to be done by the state to prevent it. Our 
insane amount to i in 700 of the whole population, the total number in hospitals, poor-houses and 
prisons being iri round numbers 1,400. It is a striking fact, calling for our earnest consideration, 
that the Germans, Irish and Scandinavians import a.nA transmit more insanity — three — 
than the American-born population produce. The causes assigned for this disparity, are, as 
affecting importation, that those in whom there is an hereditary tendency to disease constitute the 
migratory class, for the reason that those who are sound and in the full possession of their powers 
are most apt to contend successfully in the struggle to live and maintain their position at home ; 
while those who are most unsound and unequal to life's contests are unable to migrate. In other 
words, the strongest will not leave, the weakest can not leave. By this, the character of the 
migratory is defined. As affects transmission, poverty is a most fruitful parent of insanity, so too is 
poor land. Says Dr. Boughton, superintendent of the Wisconsin State Hospital for the Insane: 


Wisconsin is characterized by a large poor class, especially in the northern part of the state, 
where peo[)le without means have settled on new and )JOorly paying farms, where their life is 
made up of hard work, exposure to a severe climate, bad and insufficient diet, cheerless homes, 
etc., etc. These causes are prolific in the production of insanity. It is easy, therefore, to trace 
the causes that give us so large a per cent, of insane in many of the counties of the state. Nor is 
it of less interest to know, as Dr. B. adds : We draw our patients from those families where 
phthisis pulmonalis, rheumatism and insanity prevail. Insanity and rheumatism are interchange- 
able in hereditary cases, so too are insanity and phithisis. What may be accomplished by intel- 
ligent efforts to stem the increase of insanity in our state ? Much. Early treatment is one means, 
this is of course curative in its character. .\nd its necessity and advantage are well illustrated 
in table No. lo of the annual report of Dr. Boughton, for 1876, where it is seen that 45.33 of 
males, and 44.59 of the females who had been sent to the State Hospital having been insane but 
three months before admission, were cured, the proportion of cures becoming less in proportion 
to the longer duration of insanity before admission. As a preventive means, the dissemination 
of the kind of knowledge that shows indisputably that insanity is largely hereditary, and conse- 
quently that intermarriage with families so tainted should on the one hand be avoided by the 
citizen, and on the other hand, perhaps, prevented by the state, (congress at the same time 
restraining or preventing as far as possible persons so tainted from settling in this country.) 
By the state, inasmuch as the great burthen of caring for the insane falls upon the state. Still 
other preventive means are found in the improved cultivation of our lands and in our improved 
education ; in fact, in whatever lessens the trials of the poor and lifts them out of ignorance and 
pauperism. It is only by culture, says Hufeland, that man acquires perfection, morally, mentally 
and physically. His whole organization is so ordered that he may either become nothing or 
anything, hyperciilture and the n'ant oi cultivation being alike destructive. 

The Northern Hospital for the Insane. 

This hospital was opened at Oshkosh, May, 1873. The total number under treatment 
September 30, 1876 was — males 246, females 257, total 503. No ailment of an epidemic charac- 
ter has affected the health of the household, which has been generally good. The report of Dr. 
Kempster is full of suggestive matter for the legislator and sociologist. 

City of Milwaukee. 

Still adhering to the plan, in writing the sanitary history of the state, of gathering up all 
the health statistics which properly belong to us, we now take up those of Milwaukee, tlie only 
city in Wisconsin, so far as we know, that has kept up a system of statistics of its diseases. 
The city is built on each side of the mouth of Milwaukee river, on the west shore of Lake Michi- 
gan in lat. 43° 3' 45" N., long. 87° 57' W., and is considered remarkable for its healthy climate. 
The board of health has furnished us with its report for 1870 and downward. The character of 
its mortality from June 19, 1869, to March 31, 1870, is thus summarized: In children under five 
years of age, 758 out of 1,249 deaths, consumption, 93; convulsions, 128; cholera infantum, 
59; diarrhoea, 128; scarlet fever, 132; typhoid fever, 52; inflammation of the lungs, 41 ; still- 
bom, 79. This disproportionate number of still-born children is attributed in part to a laxity of 
morals. The deaths from consumption in Milwaukee are •]% out of every 100, one third less out 
of a like number of deaths than in San Francisco, in which city, in 4,000 deaths, 441 died of con- 
sumption, being 11 out of every 100 deaths for the year ending July, 1869. The deaths for 1870 
numbered 1,655, '^"^ population being at the last census report, 71,636. 


Table of Principal Causes. 

Consumption _ _ 143 

Inflammation of lungs __ 56 

Convulsions 259 

Diarrhoea 131 

Diptheria 74 

Scarlet fever 52 

The Milwaukee population being about 
72,000, the death rate per annum for 
every 1,000 inhabitants would be 21, 
after proper deductions of deaths from 
other causes than from disease, showing 

Typhoid fever _ _. 49 very favorably as compared with other 

Oldage - 28 cities. 

Still-born 123 | 

Glasgow has 39 to every 1,000; Liverpool, 36; London, 25 ; New Orleans, 54; New York, 
32 ; San Francisco, 24; Milwaukee, 21. Among seventeen of the principal cities of the Union, 
Milwaukee ranks the ninth in rate of mortality. An impression has prevailed that Milwaukee is 
subject to a large and disproportionate amount of lung and allied diseases. Statistics disprove 
this, its deaths from consumption being only 6 percent., while those of Chicago are 7.75 ; of 
St. Louis, 9.68; of Cincinnati, 11.95; '''"^ of Boston, 19.31. But few cases of malarial disease 
occur in Milwaukee, and fewer cases of intestinal fever than in the interior of the state. The 
mortality among children is explained by its occurring chiefly among the poor foreign-born 
population, where all that can incite and aggravate disease is always to be found. 

This, (the historical part of the health article), will doubtless call forth from the profession 
much additional and desirable matter, but excepting what will further appear under the head of 
Madison it is proper to say that we have exhausted the sources of information on the subject 
within our reach. 

Health Resorts. 

Next in order would seem to come some notice of the summer and health resorts of Wiscon- 
sin, which, significant of the salubrity of the state, are not only becoming more numerous, but 
also more frequented from year to year. 

Madison, the capital of the state, with a population of 11,000, is built on an isthmus between 
two considerable lakes, from 70 to 125 feet above their level; 80 miles west of Milwaukee, in 
latitude 43° 5' north, and longitude 89° 20' west, in the northern temperate region. * The lake 
basins, and also the neck of land between them, have a linear arrangement, trending northeast and 
southwest. The same linear topography characterises the whole adjacent country and the boun- 
dary lines of its various geological formations, this striking feature being due to the former move- 
ment of glacier ice over the face of the country. At two points, one mile apart, the Capitol and 
University hills, respectively 348 and 370 feet above the level of Lake Michigan, rise prominently 
above the rest of the isthmus. Both of these hills are heaps of drift material from 100 to 126 feet 
thickness, according to the record of the artesian well. The neck of land on which Madison stands 
is of the same material. The same boring discloses to us the underlying rock structure, pene- 
trating 614 feet of friable quartzose sandstone belonging to the Potsdam series, io}4 feet of red 
shale belonging to the same series, and 2091^ feet of crystalline rocks belonging to the Archaean. 
In the country immediately around Madison, the altitude is generally considerably greater, and 
the higher grounds are occupied by various strata, nearly horizontal, of sandstone and limestone. 
The Potsdam sandstone rises about 30 feet above the level of Lake Mendota, on its northern 
shore, where at McBride's Point it may be seen overlaid by the next and hitherto unrecognized 
layer, one of more or less impure, dark-colored, magnesian limestone, to which the name of Men- 
dota is assigned, and which furnishes a good building stone. The descent of these strata is about 


9 feet to the mile in a due southerly direction. Overlying the Mendota beds are again sandstone 
layers, the uppermost portions of which are occasionally charged with lo to 20 per cent, of calca- 
reous and dolomitic matter, and then furnish a cream-colored building stone of considerable- 
value. Most of this stratum which has been designated as the j^/(7(//^(?« sandstone, is, however, 
quite non-calcareous, being either a ferruginous brown stone, or a quite pure, white, nearly loose 
sand. In the latter phase it is of value for the manufacture of glass. In a number of quarries, 
cuttings and exposed places around the city, the Madison beds are seen to be overlaid by a gray- 
ish, magnesian limestone, the lower magnesian, varying very considerably in its character, but 
largely composed of a flinty-textured, heavy-bedded, quite pure dolomite, which is burnt into a. 
good quality of lime. Its thickness exceeds 80 feet. Madison, with the conveniences and com- 
forts of a capital city, from its easy access by railroads, from not only in itself being beautiful,, 
but from its beautiful surroundings, from its good society, charming climate, and artesian 
mineral water, is naturally a great summer resort. 

Though there are no vital statistics of the city to refer to, a residence of nearly a quarter of 
a century has made us sufficiently acquainted with its sanitary history, which is more or less the 
sanitary history of this part of the state, and in a measure of the state itself. In 1844 and 1845, 
it was visited by an epidemic malarial fever of a bilious type, and not unfrequently fatal, which 
passed very generally through the state, and was attributed to the turning up of the soil. It was. 
most virulent in the autumns. Again in 1854 it was visited by a light choleraic epidemic, which 
also swept the state, assuming very generally a particularly mild type. Again in 1057 it suffered 
lightly from the epidemic dysentery, which passed through the state. In 1865, it suffered from 
a visitation of diptheria, the disease prevailing generally over the state at that time. It has also 
had two visitations of the epidemic grip {g>'ippe), or influenza. The last invasion, some five 
years since, commencing in a manner perhaps worthy of noting, by first affecting the horses very 
generally, and again, by beginning on the east side of the city, while the other epidemics for the 
past twenty-five years (unless the choleraic visitation was an exception) came in on the south- 
west side of the city, as has been the case, so far as we have been able to observe with the light 
epidemics to which children are subject. But little typhoid fever is found here, and the aguish 
fevers when they occur are light and easy of control. There is but little diarrhoea or dysen- 
tery. Pneumonia and its allied affections are more common, so is rheumatism, and so neuralgia. 
Inflammatory croup, however, is very rare, sporadic diptheria seeming to be taking its place. 
All tlie ordinary eruptive fevers of children are and always have been of a jjeculiarly mild 


Prairie du Chien, situated immediately at the junction of the Wisconsin with the Mississippi, 
•s built about 70 feet above low water, and 642 feet above the level of the sea. The cliffs on 
both sides of the river present on their summits the lower strata of the blue Silurian limestone 
of Cincinnati, beneath which are found sandstone and magnesian limestone down to the water's 
edge. We give this notice of Prairie du Chien for the purpose of bringing to the knowledge of 
the public that it possesses one of the most superb artesian wells in the state, which is attracting 
many persons by its remedial mineral properties. 

Green Bay sanitarily may be considered as sufficiently indicated under the head of Fort 
Howard. It is, however, proper to add that from its geographical position and beautiful situa- 
tion at the head of the bay, its easy access both by railroad and steamboat, its pl'easant days and 
cool summer nights, it has naturally become quite a popular summer resort, particularly for 
southern people. 

Racine, some 25 miles south by east by rail from Milwaukee and 62 by rail from Chicago, is 
built upon the banks and some 40 feet above the level of the lake. Its soil is a sandy loam and 


gravel, consequently it has a dry, healthy surface, and is much frequented in the summer for its 
coolness and salubrity. 

Waukesha, i8 miles went of Milwaukee by railroad, is a healthy, pleasant place of resort at 
all times on account of its mineral water, so well known and so highly appreciated throughout 
the country. 

Oconomowoc, 32 miles by railroad west by north of Milwaukee, is a healthy and de- 
lightfully located resort for the summer. Its many lakes and drives form its chief attractions, 
and though its accommodations were considered ample, during the past summer they were found 
totally inadequate to meet the demands of its numerous visitors. 

The Dalles, at Kilbourn City, by rail 16 miles from Portage, is unsurpassed in the northwest 
for the novelty, romantic character, and striking beauty of its rock and river scenery. It is 
high and dry; has pure water and fine air, and every-day boat and drive views enough to fill 
up a month pleasantly. 

Lake Geneva, 70 miles by rail from Chicago, is built on the north side of the lake, is justly 
celebrated for its beauty, and its reputation as a summer resort is growing. 

Green Lake, six miles west of Ripon, and 8g northwest from Milwaukee, is some 15 miles 
long and three broad, surrounded by beautiful groves and prairies; and is claimed to be one of 
the healthiest little places on the continent. 

Devil's Lake is 36 miles by rail north of Madison. Of all the romantic little spots in Wis- 
consin, and they are innumerable, there is none more romantic or worthy of a summer visitor's 
admiration than this. It is, though shut in from the rude world by bluffs 500 feet high, a very 
favorite resort, and should be especially so for those who seek quiet, and rest, and health. 

Sparta, 246 miles by rail from Chicago, is pleasantly and healthily situated, and its artesian 
mineral water strongly impregnated with carbonate of iron, having, it is said, over 14 grains in 
solution to the imperial gallon, an unusually large proportion, attracts its annual summer 

Sheboygan, 62 miles by rail north of Milwaukee, from its handsome position on a bluff over- 
looking the lake, and from the beauty of its surroundings as well as from the character of its 
mineral waters, is an attractive summer resort. 

Elkhart Lake, 57 miles by rail north of Milwaukee, is rapidly acquiring a good narfie from 
those seeking health or pleasure. 

Change in Diseases. 

In order to ascertain whether the classes of diseases in the state at the date of Carver's 
travels are the same which prevail to-day, we have compared his description of them with those 
tabulated in the army medical reports of Forts Howard, Crawford and Winnebago, and again 
with those given in the LI. S. Census for 1870, and with the medical statistics of the city of 
Milwaukee. The three distinct and prominent classes prevailing from Carver's to the present 
time, are, in the order of prevalence, diseases of the respiratory organs, consumption, pneumonia, 
bronchitis, etc.; diseases of the digestive organs, enteritis, dysentery, diarrhoea, etc.; and the 
malarial fevers. At Fort Howard alone do the diseases of the digestive organs seem to have 
outnumbered those of the respiratory organs. So far as it is possible to gather from the reports 
of the commissioners of Indian affairs, these features of the relative prevalence of the three 
classes of disease are -not disturbed. 

There are, however, some disturbing or qualifying agencies operating and affecting the 
amount or distribution of these classes in different areas or belts. For instance, there are two 


irregular areas in the state; the one extending from the Mississippi east and north, and the other 
starting almost as low down as Madison, and running up as far as Green Bay, which are more 
subject to malarial diseases than are the other parts of the state. While it is found that those 
parts of the state least subject to diseases of the digestive organs are, a belt along the western 
shore of Lake Michigan, and a belt running from near Prairie du Chien north into the pineries. 
Again, it is found that the part of the state most subjec' to enteric, cerebro-spinal and typhus 
fevers, is quite a narrow belt running north from the southern border line into the center of the 
state, or about two-thirds of the distance toward the pineries. All along the western shore of 
Lake Michigan, and stretching across the country by way of Fond du Lac to the Mississippi, is 
a belt much less subject to these disorders. It is equally beyond question that the western shore 
of Lake Michigan, and the southern shore of Lake Superior, as well as the western half of the 
southern boundary line of the pineries, are less affected with consumption than the interior parts 
of the state. 

The tendency of these diseases is certainly to amelioration. The sanitary history of \\'iscon- 
sin does not differ from that of any other state east of us, in this striking particular; the farther 
you trace back the history of disease, the worse its type is found to be. It follows, then, that 
the improvement in public health must progress with the general improvement of the state, as 
has been the case with the eastern states, and that the consequent amelioration of our malarial 
diseases especially will tend to mitigate infectious diseases. The ameliorating influences, how- 
ever, that sanitary science has brought to bear upon disease, of which England is so happy an 
illustration, has scarcely as yet begun to be known to us. But the time has come at last when 
this science is moving l)oth the hearts and minds of thinking and humane men in the state, and 
its voice has been heard in our legislative halls, evoking a law by which we are, as a people, to be 
governed, as by any other enactment. The organization of a state board of health is a new era 
in our humanity. In this board is invested all legal power over the state health. To it is com- 
mitted all the sanitary responsibility of the state, and the greatest good to the people at large 
must follow the efforts it is making. 

There are many other points of sanitary interest to which it is desirable to call the attention 
of those interested in Wisconsin. It is a popular truth that a dry climate, all other things being 
equal, is a healthy climate. Our hygrometrical records show Wisconsin to have one of the driest 
climates in the LTnited States. Choleraic diseases rarely prevail unless in a comparatively 
stagnant state of the atmosphere, where they are most fatal, ^^'here high winds prevail such 
diseases are rare. The winds in Wisconsin, while proverbially high and frequent (carrying away 
and dissipating malarial emanations), are not destructive to life or property, as is the case, by 
their violence, in some of the adjoining states. .\ moist, warm atmosphere is always provocative 
of disease. Such a state of atmosphere is rare with us, and still more rarely continuous beyond 
a day or two. Moist air is the medium of malarial poisoning, holding as it does in solution 
gases and poisonous exhalations. Its character is readily illustrated by the peculiar smell of 
some marsh lands on autumnal evenings. Such a state of moisture is seen only in our lowest 
shut-in marshes (where there is but little or no air-current), and then only for a very limited 
period, in very hot weather. 

But too much importance is attached by the public to a simply dry atmosphere for respira- 
tory diseases. The same mistake is made with regard to the good effects in such disorders of 
simply high elevations. Dry air ii^ itself or a high elevation in itself, or both combined, are 
not necessarily favorable to health, or curative of disease. In the light and rare atmosphere of 
Pike's Pi.'ak, an elevation of 6,000 feet, the pulse is accelerated, the amount of sleep is dimin- 
ished, and the human machine is put under a high-pressure rate of living, conducive only to its 



injury. The average rate of the pulse in healthy visitors is from 115 to 120 per minute (the 
normal rate, in moderate elevations, being about 75). And where there is any organic affection 
of the heart, or tendency to bleeding from the lungs, it is just this very dry atmosphere and high 
elevation that make these irincdies {?) destructive. Hence it is that Wisconsin, for the generality 
■of lung diseases, especially when accompanied with hemorrhage, or with heart disease, is prefer- 
able to Colorado. It may be objected, that the diseases of the respiratory organs are in excess 
of other diseases in Wisconsin. This feature, however, is not confined to the cold belt of our 
temperate latitudes — our proportion of respiratory diseases, be it noted, comparing most favor- 
ably with that of other states, as may be seen in the following table : 

Clim.\tologic.a.l Distribution of Pulmo.varv Diseases. 



Per cent, 
of entire 

Deaths by all 
diseases of Res- 
piratory Organs. 

Massacliusetts, 1S50, U. S. Census 

Ohio, 1849-50, U. S. Census 

Michigan, 1S50, U. S. Census 

Illinois, 1849-50. U. S. Census 

Wisconsin, 1S49-50, U. S. Census 















Per cent, 
of entire 




"Now, while the mortuary statistics of the United States census for 1850 are acknowledged 
to be imperfect, they are, nevertheless, undoubtedly correct as to the causes of mortality. But 
besides this statistical evidence of the climatological causes of disease, there are certain relative 
general, if not special, truths which serve to guide us in our estimate. Respiratory diseases of 
all kinds increase in proportion as the temperature decreases, the humidity of the air being the 
same. Another equally certain element in the production of this class of diseases is variableness 
of climate. Still, this feature of our climate is only an element in causation, and affects us, as 
•we shall see in the table below, very little as compared with other states. Indeed, it is still 
disputed whether there is not more consumption in tropical climates than in temperate climates. 
This much is admitted, however, that consumption is rare in the arctic regions. Dr. Terry says 
the annual ratio of pulmonary diseases is lower in the northern than in the southern regions of 
the United States, and Dr. Drake, an equally eminent authority, recommends those suffering 
from or threatened with pulmonary affections, to retreat to the colder districts of the country, 
citing among others localities near Lake Superior — a recommendation which our e.xperience of 
nearly half a century endorses. 

Proportion of Pneumonia to Consumption in the Different States. 








Ohio ._ 





North Carolina 

Kentucky __ 







When we compare the general death-rate of Wisconsin with that of the other states of the 
Union, we find that it compares most favorably with that of Vermont, the healthiest of the New 
England states. The United States census of 1850, i860 and 1870, gives Wisconsin 94 deaths 
to 10,000 of the population, while it gives Vermont loi to every 10,000 of her inhabitants. The 



census of 1870 shows that the death-rate from consumption in Minnesota, Iowa, California and Wis- 
consin are alike. These four states show the lowest death-rate among the states from consumption, 
the mortality being 13 to 14 per cent, of the whole death-rate. 

Climatologically considered, then, there is not a more healthy state in the Union than the 
state of Wisconsin. But for health purposes something more is requisite than climate. Climate 
and soil must be equally good. Men should shun the soil, no matter how rich it be, if the climate 
is inimical to health, and rather choose the climate that is salubrious, even if the soil is not so 
rich. In Wisconsin, generally speaking, the soil and climate are equally conducive to health, 
•and alike good for agricultural purposes. 





Towns, cities and 




















Big Flats 








New Chester 









Stronc's Prairie .... 




















538 493 1 




Towns. Cxties and 





























Depere village 


roit Howard city 


Green Bay city 

Green Bay 






New Denmark 






West Depere village., 

Total 18,376 






16,899 53 I 45 





























TowNP, Cities and 

















Wood Lake. . . 
















Buffalo City 














Alma villnge 

Fountain City village 









Brothertown . 


Chilton , 

Charleston n.. 


New Holstein 
















































Pine Valley 


Sherman ... 




Washburn . 


















































Towns, Cities AND 




























CMiipDewa Falls city 












Columbus city 



Koii Winnebago 

I'oinit.iiii I'rairie 










Portage city 



Spring Vale 

West Point 


Westw. Vil. of Randolph 



































































































Prairie du Chieu town 

Prairie ilu Chien city— 



Ttiird ward 


Fourth ward -.. 














Superior , 








Towns. Citiks and 








Bailey's Harbor. 

















Sturgeon Bay village 






















Red Cellar 













13 427 



Beaver Dam town 

Heaver Dam city 




Cly man 



Fo X Lak e tow n 

Fox Lake village 



HoricoTi village 


thineau village 


Le Koy 



May vllte village 

Oak Grove 



KanUuIph village, £. ward 

Shields "... 





Wateriown citv. 5 * G wMs 
Waupnu village, 1st ward. . 



















1 1 



























































1 ....| 




33 1 








Towns. Cities and 


















Black Earth 

















Blue Mounds 




Cottage (Jrove 

Cross Plains 



1 151 


















































































Konddu Lac city— 




Fonrtil ward 




Eiglith ward 





1)a>v Tield 





Ripen city— 








Waupuu village. N. ward.. 











Towns. Cities and 



— * 












Eau Claiiecity 

8.4 40 






























New Glarus 



393 .... 
496 1... 





10.900 i 14 1 11 




. 487 












Blue River. 











Glen Haven 

Hickdiv Crove 






























Patcli Grove 



















Towns. Cities ani> 










Berlin eity 







■ 1" 






Man eiiester 































































Garden Valley, 






Nortlifield .. . 
















































































Lake Mills 










Waterloo village 


Watertown citv, 1st. 2il. 3J, 
4tli. and 7tU wards 












Towns. Cities ani> 






































IVIitustoti village 

New Lisbon vill.ipe 

SeVfu MileCri-ek 

















Pleasant Prairie 












Ahnapee viliaKe 




Kewaunee town .& Tillage. 






1 14 jn^ 



























Farnilngton . .. 




lA Crosse city- 
First ward 

.Second ward 

Third wanl .. 



Fifth ward 

Onalaska town 

Onalaska village 










To\7NS. Cities and 






Elk Grove 





New Digging.s 




WliUe Oak Springs- 
Willow Springs 





Total 11.388 





" 1 



































Jenny . 

523 372 




Crystal Lake. 




Mecan , 


Newton , 





West field.... 















































Wausau city 









































Towns, Cittes and 










Manitowoc city 

Manitowoc town... 



Manitowoc RapiUs. 

Maple Grove 




Two Rivers village 
Two Rivers town... 
Two Creeks 















































Milwaukee eity— 














Second ward 

Fifth ward 


.Sixth ward 

Seventh ward 

Eighth waixl 

Ninth ward 

Eleventh ward 

Twelfth ward 



Thirteenth ward 




Oak Creek 


Milwaukee town 












Glendale ... 
GreenfleUl . 
La Fayette. 
La Grange.. 


Little Falls. 


New Lyme. 
Oak Dale... 












256 .... 











































































Town?. CiTiKS Axi> 





























Maple Valley 































1 353 



Maple Creek 


New London, 3U ward 

















Port Washington, 




















Diamond Bluff 


El Paso , 


Hartland , 


Martell , 

Maiden Rock.. 

Oak Grove 

Prescott city 

River Falls 

Rock Elm 


Spring Lake 





























■J 4 















































Towns, citiks and 





mack Brook., 









St Croix Falls 






3.S4S 3,045 

12 9 










Water ville 





Ileloit city 








L:i Prairie 








Spring Valley 







































. 533 




























78 65 6,736 











liuena Vista 

Eau Pleine 













Stevens Point town 

Stevens Point city—. 
First ward ,. . 


1 331 



































2 o-a 



Towns, Citiiis and 













Mt. Pleasant 


Racine city 




















6,590 162 













Bueiia Vista 












































































Bear Creek 



Excelsior . . 


Franklin ... 
























SAUK COUNTY.— Cont'd. 


Towns. Cities asd 





— " 





Hoiiey Creek.. 


La Vulle 


Prairie (in Sac 


Spring Creek. 















































































•14 '-a 



Belle I'laine 

























•Stockbridge Indians. 















1 085 





























SUeboyiian city- 
First w;ird 

2 342 

Tliird ward 

1 1.419 



Sheboypan Falls village ... 











TowH?, Cities akd 



















Trf nipealeau. 



1 368 











































542 I 


7f I 3 1 




Clinton , 



Franklin , 


Gi'cenwiiod ... 





Kickapoo , 



Sterliuff , 

Union , 


Wt'bstpr , 




















































































Delavaii village 




1 6S0 




Linn . 

















































West Bend town 

West liend village.. 
















Total 12.282 












Genesee . ... 










t 540 


















































T.lrtle Wolf 






















Towns, Cities and 










































Black Wolf 
































Oshkfjsh city 







Wolf River, 










Centralia city 


Grand Rapids city 

Grand Kapids 


Port Edwards 







































































































































































■■■'9! 565 














"24; 781 


■ 'is! 205 



13 995 





15 035 


8 020 


13 427 







15 374 



34 133 






13 907 

14 405 

23 945 























































10 111 




25. .5.58 
16 545 

5 816 








15 101 











14 856 


26 932 





















14 993 



31 534 


36 259 

29 425 

19 646 

11 523 



45 033 







In a note to the territory of Indiana returns appears the following; 
^ippi. had 65, and Green Bay 50 inhabitants. 

•On the 1st of August, 1800, Trairie du Chien, on the Missis- 




CENSUS OF 1870. 









Chippewa — 









Eau Claire... 
Fond du Lac. 



Green Lake.. 






Kewaunee ... 
Lacrosse — 
La Fayette... 
Manitowoc. . 
Marathon .... 
Marquetto . .. 
Monroe.. .... 












Shawano .... 

St. Croi-x 



WashinKton . 
Waukesha ... 



Winnchaeo ..